Timeline

20th Century (1900-1992) C.E.
1901 

Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.


1901 

French forces occupy Morocco.


1904 

Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.


1904 

The Presian constitution is promoted.


1905 

The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's main sphere of influence in Egypt.


1907 

The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.


1912 

The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.


1914 

Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.


1914 

World War I.


1916 

Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.


1918 

Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.


1918 

World War I ends on November 11.


1918 

Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.


1921 

Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.


1921 

Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.


1921 

Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".


1922 

Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.


1924 

The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.


1924 

King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.


1925 

Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.


1926 

Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.


1927 

Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.


1928 

Turkey is declared a secular state.


1928 

Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.


1932 

Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.


1934 

War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.


1934 

Peace treaty of Ta'if.


1934 

Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.


1935 

Iran becomes the official name of Persia.


1936 

Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.


1939 

World War II.


1941 

British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.


1943 

Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.


1945 

End of World War II.


1946 

Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.


1947 

Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.


1948 

Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.


1949 

Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.


1951 

Libya becomes independent.


1952 

King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.


1953 

General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.


1953 

Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.


1953 

The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.


1956 

Morocco becomes independent.


1956 

Tunisia becomes independent.


1957 

The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.


1957 

Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.


1962 

Algeria becomes independent.


1962 

Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.


1965 

Malcom X is assassinated.


1968 

The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.


1969 

King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.


1973 

King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.


1975 

Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America.


1975 

Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.


1978 

Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.


1979 

The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to an end.


1979 

On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith: "A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim." They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.


1980 

Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.


1989 

Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.


1990 

Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United States-led forces.


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