Tafsir Maududi- Surah 45. Al-Jathiya, Ayaat 16 To 20



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وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ١٦وَآتَيْنَاهُمْ بَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ ۖ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُوا إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِي بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ١٧ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ١٨إِنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُغْنُوا عَنْكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا ۚ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَاللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ١٩هَٰذَا بَصَائِرُ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ٢٠


[16-20] Before this We had bestowed on the children of Israel the Book and the Judgment20 and the Prophethood. We blessed them with good21 things of life; We exalted them above all the people of the world, and gave them clear instructions with regard to religion. Then they differed among themselves (not because of ignorance but) after the Knowledge had come to them, only because they wanted to wrong one another.22 Your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning the matters in which they have been differing. After this We have set you,O Prophet, upon a clear highway (of the Shari `ah) concerning religion.23 So follow it, and do not follow the lusts of those who have no knowledge. They cannot avail you at all against Allah.24 The wrongdoers are companions of one another and the Companion of the righteous is Allah. These are the lights of discernment for all mankind and guidance and mercy for those who affirm the faith.25

20Hukm (judgment) implies three things:

(1) Knowledge and understanding of the Book and Religion;

(2) wisdom to act according to the intention of the Book; and

(3) capability to give right decisions in disputes.

21It does not mean that they were given preference over all the people of the world for ever, rather it means: Allah had chosen the children of Israel from among all the contemporary nations of the world for the service that they should hold fast to the Divine Book and should rise as the standard-bearers of God-worship in the world.

22For explanation, see AI-Baqarah: 213, AI-'Imran: 19 and E.N.'s 22, 23 of Ash-Shura.

23It means: "The mission that had been entrusted to the children of Israel before you has now been entrusted to you. They, in spite of receiving knowledge, created such differences in religion out of selfish motives and stirred up such divisions among themselves that they became disqualified to call the people to God's way. Now you have been set upon the clear highway of Religion so that you may perform the service which the children of Israel have failed to perform and become disqualified to perform it. " (For further explanation, see Ash-Shura: 13-15 and E.N.'s 20 to 26).

24That is, "If you make any changes in Allah's Religion only to please them, they will not be able to save you from Allah's accountability and punishment. "

25That is, "This Book and this Shari`ah present such a light for all the people of the world, which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, but only such people receive any guidance from it who believe in its truth; for them only it is a mercy."

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