Tafsir Ibn Kathir- Surah 24. An-Nur, Ayaat 53 To 54



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۞ وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِنْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَيَخْرُجُنَّ ۖ قُلْ لَا تُقْسِمُوا ۖ طَاعَةٌ مَعْرُوفَةٌ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ٥٣قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَا حُمِّلْتُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا ۚ وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ٥٤


وَأَقْسَمُواْ بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ لَئِنْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَيَخْرُجُنَّ قُل لاَّ تُقْسِمُواْ طَاعَةٌ مَّعْرُوفَةٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُواْ وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلَـغُ الْمُبِينُ

53. They swear by Allah their strongest oaths that if only you would order them, they would leave. Say: "Swear you not; obedience is known. Verily, Allah knows well what you do.'' 54. Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way.'') Allah says about the hypocrites who had promised the Messenger and sworn that if he were to command them to go out for battle, they would go:

﴿قُل لاَّ تُقْسِمُواْ﴾

(Say: "Swear you not...'') meaning, do not swear this oath.

﴿طَاعَةٌ مَّعْرُوفَةٌ﴾

(obedience is known.) It was said that the meaning is, your obedience is known, i.e., it is known that your obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action. Every time you swear an oath you lie. This is like the Ayah:

﴿يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْاْ عَنْهُمْ﴾

(They swear to you that you may be pleased with them...) ﴿9:96﴾ And Allah says:

﴿اتَّخَذْواْ أَيْمَـنَهُمْ جُنَّةً﴾

(They have made their oaths a screen (for their evil actions).) ﴿58:16﴾ It is part of their nature to tell lies, even in the issues they choose, as Allah says:

﴿أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَـفَقُواْ يَقُولُونَ لإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلاَ نُطِيعُ فيكُمْ أَحَداً أَبَداً وَإِن قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ - لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُواْ لاَ يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِن قُوتِلُواْ لاَ يَنصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِن نَّصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الاٌّدْبَـرَ ثُمَّ لاَ يُنصَرُونَ ﴾

(Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the people of the Scripture who disbelieve: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey any one against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.'' But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars. Surely, if they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And if they do help them, they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) ﴿59:11-12﴾ Then Allah says:

﴿قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ﴾

(Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger...) meaning, follow the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger .

﴿فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ﴾

(but if you turn away,) if you ignore what he has brought to you,

﴿فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ﴾

(he is only responsible for the duty placed on him), conveying the Message and fulfilling the trust.

﴿وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ﴾

(and you for that placed on you.) accepting that, and venerating it and doing as it commanded.

﴿وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُواْ﴾

(If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance.) because he calls to the straight path,

﴿صِرَطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِى لَهُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

(The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. ..) ﴿42:53﴾

﴿وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلَـغُ الْمُبِينُ﴾

(The Messenger's duty is only to convey in a clear way.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ﴾

(your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.) ﴿13:40﴾

﴿فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ - لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُسَيْطِرٍ ﴾

(So remind them -- you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.) ﴿88:21-22﴾

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