Tafsir Ibn Kathir- Surah 30. Ar-Rum, Ayaat 17 To 19



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فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ١٧وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ١٨يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَيُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ١٩


فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ - وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَعَشِيّاً وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ - يُخْرِجُ الْحَىَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَىِّ وَيُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَكَذَلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ

17. So glorify Allah, when you enter the evening, and when you enter the morning. 18. And His is all the praise in the heavens and the earth; and in `Ashiyya and when Tuzhirun. 19. He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living. And He revives the earth after its death. And thus shall you be brought out.

The Command to pray Five Times Daily

Here Allah glorifies Himself and commands His servants to glorify and praise Him at these times which come one after the other and are indicative of His might and power in the heavens. This is when the night comes with its darkness, then in the morning the day comes with its light. This glorification is followed by befitting praise, as Allah says:

﴿وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ﴾

(And His is all the praise in the heavens and the earth;) meaning, He is the One who is to be praised for what He has created in the heavens and on earth. Then Allah says:

﴿وَعَشِيّاً وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ﴾

(and in `Ashiyya and when Tuzhirun.) -- the `Ashiyy is the time when the darkness is most intense, and Izhar is the brightest point of the day. Glory be to the One Who created both of them, the Cleaver of the daybreak and the One Who makes night a time of rest. Allah says:

﴿وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَـهَا ﴾

(By the day as it shows up its brightness. By the night as it conceals it.) (91:3-4)

﴿وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى - وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى ﴾

(By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness. ) (92:1-2)

﴿وَالضُّحَى - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى ﴾

(By the forenoon (after sunrise). By the night when it darkens.) (93:1-2) And there are many similar Ayat.

﴿يُخْرِجُ الْحَىَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَىِّ﴾

(He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living.) This is what we see of His power to create things and their opposites. These Ayat which come one after the other are all of the same; in each of them Allah mentions the creation of things and their opposites, to indicate to His creation the perfection of His power. Thus He creates the plant from the seed and the seed from the plant; He creates the egg from the chicken and the chicken from the egg; He creates man from sperm and sperm from man; He creates the believer from the disbelievers and the disbeliever from the believers.

﴿وَيُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا﴾

(And He revives the earth after its death.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الاٌّرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَـهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبّاً فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ ﴾

(And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.) until:

﴿وَفَجَّرْنَا فِيهَا مِنَ الْعُيُونِ﴾

(and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein. ) (36:33-34)

﴿وَتَرَى الاٌّرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَآءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ﴾

(And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water on it, it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind.) until:

﴿وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَن فِى الْقُبُورِ﴾

(and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.) (22:5-7)

﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرىً بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَحْمَتِهِ حَتَّى إِذَآ أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالاً﴾

(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy. Till when they have carried a heavy-laden cloud) until:

﴿لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ﴾

(so that you may remember or take heed.) (7:57) Allah says here:

﴿وَكَذَلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ﴾

(And thus shall you be brought out.)

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