Amr ibn Dinar said: I heard Ibn Umar say: We did not see any harm in sharecropping till I heard Rafi' ibn Khadij say: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has forbidden it. So I mentioned it to Tawus. He said: Ibn Abbas told me that the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) had not forbidden it, but said: It is better for one of you to lend to his brother than to take a prescribed sum from him.
Ikrimah said: Ibn Abbas was informed that so-and-so, a certain wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him), had died. He fell down prostrating himself. He was questioned: Why do you prostrate yourself this moment? He said: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When you see a portent (an accident), prostrate yourselves. And which portent (accident) can be greater than the death of a wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Such water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies for consumption, its saliva is also pure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundhir said, "The scholars are agreed that such water is permissible to drink or use for ablution."
Such water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in which the Messenger of Allah was asked about making ablution with drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts of prey." This hadith was related by ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are put together they become strong." It has also been related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah went out at night while he was on a journey. He passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said 'Umar, "Did a beast of prey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O owner of the pond, do not inform him. It is not necessary, for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach and for us is what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported that once 'Umar was among a group that included 'Amr ibn al-'Aas and, when they came upon a pond, 'Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered your pond?" 'Umar said, "Do not inform us, since the people drink after the wild beasts and the wild beasts after the people." This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar and from Busr ibn Said and from al-Araj-all of whom related it from Abu Hurayra - that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever manages to do a raka of subh before the sun has risen has done subh in time, and whoever manages to do a raka of asr before the sun has set has done asr in time."
Allah's Apostle was the most generous of all the people, and he used to reach the peak in generosity in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel met him. Gabriel used to meet him every night of Ramadan to teach him the Qur'an. Allah's Apostle was the most generous person, even more generous than the strong uncontrollable wind (in readiness and haste to do charitable deeds).
This has been confirmed in mutawatir (continuous) reports from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, concerning his actions and statements. Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet lagged behind us in one of our travels. He caught up with us after we had delayed the afternoon prayer. We started to make ablution and were wiping over our feet, when the Prophet said, 'Woe to the heels, save them from the Hell-fire,' repeating it two or three times." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Needless to say, the preceding obligations are the ones that Allah has mentioned in (al-Ma'idah 6).
Allah mentioned the obligations in a specific order. He also differentiated the legs from the hands--though both of them have to be washed--from the head, which only needs to be wiped. The polytheists of Arabia would not differentiate items unless there was some benefit in doing so. The way Allah structured the ablution made it easier for them to comprehend it. Al-Ma'idah 6 explains what is obligatory and it falls under the generality of the Prophet's statement, "Begin with what Allah began with." The Prophet used to follow that sequence as one of ablution's principles. There is no such report that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, ever departed from that sequence. Ablution is part of worship, and in matters of worship there is no room for anything except doing what has been commanded.
Malik related to us from Abdullah ibn Yazid the mawla of al-Aswad ibn Sufyan, from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Muhammad ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Thawban from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the heat is fierce delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is a part of the blast of Jahannam."
He added, "The Fire complained to its Lord, so He allowed it two breaths in each year, a breath in winter and a breath in summer."
The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."
Said the Prophet, "Make ablution for every prayer." According to Malik, this is only preferred and not obligatory (unless she nullifies her ablution, of course).
She is to wash her vagina before she makes ablution, and she should wear something which soaks up the blood. It is preferred for her to do what she can to keep the blood in check.
She should not make ablution before the prayer's time begins.
She may have intercourse with her husband even while the blood is flowing, according to most scholars, because there is no evidence to the contrary. Said Ibn 'Abbas, "If she can pray, her husband can have intercourse with her." Al-Bukhari says that if she is pure enough for prayer, she certainly must be pure enough for intercourse. Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi related that 'Akramah bint Hamnah had a prolonged flow of blood and that her husband had intercourse with her. An-Nawawi holds its chain to be hassan.
She is to be considered a pure person, and she may pray, fast, remain in the mosque, recite the Qur'an, touch a copy of the Qur'an, and so on.
That he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of (the Prophet) Moses. Ibn 'Abbas said that he was Khadir. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him, saying "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses, asked the way to meet. Have you heard the Prophet mentioning something about him? He said, "Yes. I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "While Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him. "Do you know anyone who is more learned than you? Moses replied: "No." So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: 'Yes, Our slave Khadir (is more learned than you.)' Moses asked (Allah) how to meet him (Khadir). So Allah made the fish as a sign for him and he was told that when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said to him: Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. On that Moses said: 'That is what we have been seeking? (18.64) So they went back retracing their footsteps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further to them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah. (18.54 up to 18.82)
The prayer is a type of worship consisting of specific statements and actions. It is begun by pronouncing the greatness of Allah, and is concluded with salutations of peace. As prayer is the essence of Islam, we will discuss it here in detail.
To state it simply, prayer must exist, for without it Islam can not stand. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is the prayer, and the top of its hump is jihad in the way of Allah." It was the first act of worship that was made obligatory by Allah. Its obligation was revealed directly to the Prophet, during his ascension to heaven. Said Anas, "The prayers were made obligatory on the Prophet, upon whom be peace, the night of his ascension to heaven. At first, they were fifty in number, but were reduced several times until they were five. Then it was proclaimed, 'O Muhammad, the order is not changed. These five are (equivalent) to the fifty.''
As to the authenticity of the report, it is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmidhi, who said it is sahih.
Salah is the first act that the person will be held accountable for. 'Abdullah ibn Qart related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said "The first act that the slave will be accountable for on the Day of Judgement will be prayer. If it is good, then the rest of his acts will be good. And if it is evil, then the rest of his acts will be evil." (Related by at-Tabarani.) It is the last thing that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, recommended to his nation before he died, saying, "Prayer, prayer and what your right hand possesses." It will be the last thing taken away from the religion. When it perishes, Islam will perish. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If Islam were stripped away, piece by piece, people would hold tight to the next one. The first thing taken would be ruling and governance, and the last thing would be prayer." (Related by Ibn Hibban from the hadith of Abu Umamah.) In many verses of the Qur'an, Allah follows up prayer with the remembrance of Allah. "Lo! Worship preserves (one) from lewdness and iniquity, but verily, remembrance of Allah is more important." (al-'Ankabut 45); "He is successful who grows and remembers the name of his Lord, so pray (al-A'la 14-15); "So serve Me and establish worship for My remembrance" (Taha 74). Sometimes He mentions prayer along with zakah: "Establish prayer and pay zakah" (al-Baqarah 110). And at times, with patience: "Seek help in patience and prayer" (al-Baqarah 45), and with hajj: "So pray unto your Lord and sacrifice" (al-Kauthar 2); "Say: Lo! my worship and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the Worlds. He has no partner. This am I commanded, and I am the first of those who surrender (unto Him)" (al-An'am 162-163). At other times, Allah begins the acts of piety with prayers and ends with them, as in the verses about the ma'arij (ascension to heaven): "Successful indeed are the believers who are humble in their prayers," and the verses, "And who pay heed to their prayers. These are the heirs who will inherit Paradise. There will they abide" (al-Mu'minun 1-29-11).
The importance of salah is so great that one is ordered to observe it while travelling or not, while one is safe or in fear: "Be guardians of your prayers, and of the mid-most prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah. And if you go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. When you are safe, remember Allah, as He has taught you that which (heretofore) you knew not" (al-Baqarah 238-239).
Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)."
"And when you are among them and arrange their prayers for them, let only a party of them stand with you (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then, when they have performed their prostrations, let them fall to the rear and let another party come to pray with you, and let them take their precautions and arms. They who disbelieve long for you to neglect your arms and your baggage, that they may attack. It is no sin for you to lay aside your arms, if rain impedes you or if you are sick. But take your precautions. Lo! Allah prepares for the disbelievers shameful punishment. When you have performed your prayer, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. And when you are in safety, observe your prayer properly. Prayer at fixed hours has been enjoined on the believers" (an-Nisa' 102-103).
Once I came riding a she-ass and had (just) attained the age of puberty. Allah's Apostle was offering the prayer at Mina. There was no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the row while they were offering their prayers. There I let the she-ass loose to graze and entered the row, and nobody objected to it.
that he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of the Prophet Moses. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him saying, "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses asked the way to meet. Have you heard Allah's Apostle mentioning something about him?" Ubai bin Ka'b said: "Yes, I heard the Prophet mentioning something about him (saying) while Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him: 'Do you know anyone who is more learned than you?' Moses replied: 'No.' So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: 'Yes, Our slave Khadir is more learned than you.' Moses asked Allah how to meet him (Al-Khadir). So Allah made the fish a sign for him and he was told when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said: 'Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it.' On that Moses said, 'That is what we have been seeking.' So they went back retracing their footsteps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further about them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah." (18.54 up to 18.82)
This prayer begins in the afternoon when the shadow of an object is of the same length as the object itself, and continues until the sun sets. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the afternoon prayer before the sun sets and then prays the remainder of the prayer after the sun has set has not missed the afternoon prayer."
The best and most preferred time to pray the afternoon prayer ends when the sun becomes yellowish on the horizon. This is implied by the preceding hadith of Jabir and 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar. To delay the prayer until the sun becomes yellowish, although it is permissiable, is greatly disliked, unless there is some need to do so. Anas reported that he heard the Prophet, upon whom be peace, say, "The following is the prayer of the hypocrite: he waits until the sun is between the horns of Satan, then he gets up and prays four quick rak'ah, and he does not remember Allah therein save a little bit." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah.)
Says an-Nawawi in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, "Our companions (the Shafiyyah) hold that the afternoon prayer time can be divided into five categories: the most virtuous time, the preferred time, the allowable time in which there is no disliked aspect, the allowable time that contains some aspect of dislike, and the time that is due to some excuse or necessity. The most virtuous time is at the beginning of the permissible time. The preferred time is until the shadow of an object is twice the length of the object itself. The permissible time without any aspect of dislike is from the time the sun becomes yellowish. The permissible time with some aspect of dislike is from the time the sun becomes yellowish until the setting of the sun. The time of excuse or necessity begins, in fact, at the time of the noon prayer for one who is to combine the noon and afternoon prayers, due to travelling or rain. If the afternoon prayer is made during any of those times, it has been fulfilled properly. If all of those times pass and the sun has set, then one must make up the prayer."
On a cloudy day, it should be prayed earlier in its time. Buraidah al-Aslami reported, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, during a battle and he said, "Hasten in praying on a cloudy day, for one who misses the afternoon prayer has destroyed all of his works." (Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.)
Of the subjecat, Ibn al-Qayyim says, "Leaving the prayer is of two types: leaving it completely and never praying it (which destroys all of one's deeds), and leaving it during a particular day, which destroys all of the deeds of that day."
Somebody said to the Prophet (during his last Hajj), "I did the slaughtering before doing the Rami." The Prophet beckoned with his hand and said, "There is no harm in that." Then another person said, "I got my head shaved before offering the sacrifice." The Prophet beckoned with his hand saying, "There is no harm in that."
There are three ways to make the adhan:
Allah's Apostle said "Three persons will have a double reward:
Once Allah's Apostle came out while Bilal was accompanying him. He went towards the women thinking that they had not heard him (i.e. his sermon). So he preached them and ordered them to pay alms. (Hearing that) the women started giving alms; some donated their earrings, some gave their rings and Bilal was collecting them in the corner of his garment.
I stayed overnight in the house of my aunt Maimuna bint Al-Harith (the wife of the Prophet) while the Prophet was there with her during her night turn. The Prophet offered the 'Isha' prayer (in the mosque), returned home and after having prayed four Rakat, he slept. Later on he got up at night and then asked whether the boy (or he used a similar word) had slept? Then he got up for the prayer and I stood up by his left side but he made me stand to his right and offered five Rakat followed by two more Rakat. Then he slept and I heard him snoring and then (after a while) he left for the (Fajr) prayer.
The Prophet, upon whom be peace, would make the first rak'ah of the morning prayer longer than the second. At times, he would continue to prolong his recitation until he heard no more footsteps (of the people coming to catch the prayer). He made the morning prayer the longest of his (obligatory) prayers. This is because its recitation is witnessed by Allah and the angels. It is also stated that it is witnessed by both the angels who record the daytime deeds and those who record the nighttime deeds. Whether it is Allah and His angels or His angels alone who witness that time, or does it continue until the morning prayer is over or until the sun rises cannot be said with certainty, though both of the statements are correct.
Furthermore, since the morning prayer has the least number of rak'ah, the recitation is prolonged to compensate for it. It is prayed right after sleep. As such, people are well rested. Also, it occurs before they have engaged themselves in their livelihood and other worldly affairs. The spirit as well as the body is responsive to the words of Allah. This makes the recital easier to ponder over and comprehend. Also, prayer is the basis and the first of all works. Therefore, it is preferred to prolong the recital of the morning prayer. This would be recognized by one who is familiar with Islamic law and its aim, purpose and wisdom.
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you on having sexual relations with his wife said (and he must say it before starting) 'In the name of Allah. O Allah! Protect us from Satan and also protect what you bestow upon us (i.e. the coming offspring) from Satan, and if it is destined that they should have a child then, Satan will never be able to harm that offspring."
It is sunnah to recite aloud in the two rak'ah of the morning and the Friday congregational prayer, in the first two rak'ah of the evening and the night prayer, in the two 'id prayers, the prayer for eclipses, and the prayer of asking for rain. The recital should be subdued during all of the noon and the afternoon prayer, during the last rak'ah of the evening prayer, and during the last two rak'ah of the night prayer. Concerning voluntary prayers, those made during the days should be subdued, while those made during the night can be either loud or subdued.
One night, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by Abu Bakr when he was praying in a very low voice, and he passed by 'Umar who was praying with his voice raised. (Later), when they were together with him, he said, "O Abu Bakr, I passed by you and you were praying in a very low voice." He said, "O Messenger of Allah, the one who I was praying to could hear me." And he said to 'Umar, "O 'Umar, I passed by you and you were praying with a raised voice." He said, "O Messenger of Allah, this was to stop the drowsiness and to drive away Satan." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "O Abu Bakr, raise your voice somewhat. And 'Umar, lower your voice somewhat." (Related by Abu Dawud and Ahmad.) If one forgets and recites aloud when he should be silent or vice-versa, there is no blame upon him. If one recalls the correction while he is doing the mistaken act, he may change to the correct way.
Once the Prophet entered a lavatory and I placed water for his ablution. He asked, "Who placed it?" He was informed accordingly and so he said, "O Allah! Make him (Ibn 'Abbas) a learned scholar in religion (Islam)."
The Prophet performed ablution by washing the body parts only once.
Allah's Apostle drank milk, rinsed his mouth and said, "It has fat."
Once the Prophet, while passing through one of the graveyards of Medina or Mecca heard the voices of two persons who were being tortured in their graves. The Prophet said, "These two persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid)." The Prophet then added, "Yes! (they are being tortured for a major sin). Indeed, one of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends). The Prophet then asked for a green leaf of a date-palm tree, broke it into two pieces and put one on each grave. On being asked why he had done so, he replied, "I hope that their torture might be lessened, till these get dried."
The Prophet once passed by two graves and said, "These two persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends)." The Prophet then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into (pieces) and fixed one on each grave. They said, "O Allah's Apostle! Why have you done so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment might be lessened till these (the pieces of the leaf) become dry." (See the footnote of Hadith 215).
The Prophet and Maimuna used to take a bath from a single pot.
A woman is allowed to leave (go back home) if she gets menses (after Tawaf-Al-Ifada). Ibn 'Umar formerly used to say that she should not leave but later on I heard him saying, "She may leave, since Allah's Apostle gave them the permission to leave (after Tawaf-Al-Ifada."
When the Prophet entered the Ka'ba, he invoked Allah in each and every side of it and did not pray till he came out of it, and offered a two-Rak'at prayer facing the Ka'ba and said, "This is the Qibla."
Allah's Apostle in his fatal illness came out with a piece of cloth tied round his head and sat on the pulpit. After thanking and praising Allah he said, "There is no one who had done more favor to me with life and property than Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafa. If I were to take a Khalil, I would certainly have taken Abu Bakr but the Islamic brotherhood is superior. Close all the small doors in this mosque except that of Abu Bakr."
Once I came riding a she-ass when I had just attained the age of puberty. Allah's Apostle was offering the prayer at Mina with no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the row. There I dismounted and let my she-ass loose to graze and entered the row and nobody objected to me about it.
"Once a delegation of 'Abdul Qais came to Allah's Apostle and said, 'We belong to such and such branch of the tribe of Rab'a and we can only come to you in the sacred months. Order us to do something good so that we may (carry out) take it from you and also invite to it our people whom we have left behind (at home).' The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things. (The first four are as follows):
(The other four things which are forbidden are as follows):
"The Prophet prayed eight Rakat for the Zuhr and 'Asr, and seven for the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers in Medina." Aiyub said, "Perhaps those were rainy nights." Anas said, "May be."
The Prophet prayed seven Rakat together and eight Rakat together.
Some people told me the same narration (as above).
Once I passed the night in the house of my aunt Maimuna. Allah's Apostle offered the 'Isha' prayer and then came to the house and offered four Rakat and slept. Later on, he woke up and stood for the prayer and I stood on his left side. He drew me to his right and prayed five Rakat and then two. He then slept till I heard him snoring (or heard his breath sounds). Afterwards he went out for the morning prayer.