Amr ibn Dinar said: I heard Ibn Umar say: We did not see any harm in sharecropping till I heard Rafi' ibn Khadij say: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has forbidden it. So I mentioned it to Tawus. He said: Ibn Abbas told me that the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) had not forbidden it, but said: It is better for one of you to lend to his brother than to take a prescribed sum from him.
Ikrimah said: Ibn Abbas was informed that so-and-so, a certain wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him), had died. He fell down prostrating himself. He was questioned: Why do you prostrate yourself this moment? He said: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When you see a portent (an accident), prostrate yourselves. And which portent (accident) can be greater than the death of a wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Such water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies for consumption, its saliva is also pure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundhir said, "The scholars are agreed that such water is permissible to drink or use for ablution."
Such water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in which the Messenger of Allah was asked about making ablution with drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts of prey." This hadith was related by ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are put together they become strong." It has also been related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah went out at night while he was on a journey. He passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said 'Umar, "Did a beast of prey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O owner of the pond, do not inform him. It is not necessary, for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach and for us is what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported that once 'Umar was among a group that included 'Amr ibn al-'Aas and, when they came upon a pond, 'Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered your pond?" 'Umar said, "Do not inform us, since the people drink after the wild beasts and the wild beasts after the people." This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar and from Busr ibn Said and from al-Araj-all of whom related it from Abu Hurayra - that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Whoever manages to do a raka of subh before the sun has risen has done subh in time, and whoever manages to do a raka of asr before the sun has set has done asr in time."
Allah's Apostle was the most generous of all the people, and he used to reach the peak in generosity in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel met him. Gabriel used to meet him every night of Ramadan to teach him the Qur'an. Allah's Apostle was the most generous person, even more generous than the strong uncontrollable wind (in readiness and haste to do charitable deeds).
This has been confirmed in mutawatir (continuous) reports from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, concerning his actions and statements. Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet lagged behind us in one of our travels. He caught up with us after we had delayed the afternoon prayer. We started to make ablution and were wiping over our feet, when the Prophet said, 'Woe to the heels, save them from the Hell-fire,' repeating it two or three times." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Needless to say, the preceding obligations are the ones that Allah has mentioned in (al-Ma'idah 6).
Allah mentioned the obligations in a specific order. He also differentiated the legs from the hands--though both of them have to be washed--from the head, which only needs to be wiped. The polytheists of Arabia would not differentiate items unless there was some benefit in doing so. The way Allah structured the ablution made it easier for them to comprehend it. Al-Ma'idah 6 explains what is obligatory and it falls under the generality of the Prophet's statement, "Begin with what Allah began with." The Prophet used to follow that sequence as one of ablution's principles. There is no such report that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, ever departed from that sequence. Ablution is part of worship, and in matters of worship there is no room for anything except doing what has been commanded.
Malik related to us from Abdullah ibn Yazid the mawla of al-Aswad ibn Sufyan, from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Muhammad ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Thawban from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the heat is fierce delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is a part of the blast of Jahannam."
He added, "The Fire complained to its Lord, so He allowed it two breaths in each year, a breath in winter and a breath in summer."
The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."
Said the Prophet, "Make ablution for every prayer." According to Malik, this is only preferred and not obligatory (unless she nullifies her ablution, of course).
She is to wash her vagina before she makes ablution, and she should wear something which soaks up the blood. It is preferred for her to do what she can to keep the blood in check.
She should not make ablution before the prayer's time begins.
She may have intercourse with her husband even while the blood is flowing, according to most scholars, because there is no evidence to the contrary. Said Ibn 'Abbas, "If she can pray, her husband can have intercourse with her." Al-Bukhari says that if she is pure enough for prayer, she certainly must be pure enough for intercourse. Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi related that 'Akramah bint Hamnah had a prolonged flow of blood and that her husband had intercourse with her. An-Nawawi holds its chain to be hassan.
She is to be considered a pure person, and she may pray, fast, remain in the mosque, recite the Qur'an, touch a copy of the Qur'an, and so on.
That he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of (the Prophet) Moses. Ibn 'Abbas said that he was Khadir. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him, saying "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses, asked the way to meet. Have you heard the Prophet mentioning something about him? He said, "Yes. I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "While Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him. "Do you know anyone who is more learned than you? Moses replied: "No." So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: 'Yes, Our slave Khadir (is more learned than you.)' Moses asked (Allah) how to meet him (Khadir). So Allah made the fish as a sign for him and he was told that when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said to him: Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. On that Moses said: 'That is what we have been seeking? (18.64) So they went back retracing their footsteps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further to them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah. (18.54 up to 18.82)
The prayer is a type of worship consisting of specific statements and actions. It is begun by pronouncing the greatness of Allah, and is concluded with salutations of peace. As prayer is the essence of Islam, we will discuss it here in detail.
To state it simply, prayer must exist, for without it Islam can not stand. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is the prayer, and the top of its hump is jihad in the way of Allah." It was the first act of worship that was made obligatory by Allah. Its obligation was revealed directly to the Prophet, during his ascension to heaven. Said Anas, "The prayers were made obligatory on the Prophet, upon whom be peace, the night of his ascension to heaven. At first, they were fifty in number, but were reduced several times until they were five. Then it was proclaimed, 'O Muhammad, the order is not changed. These five are (equivalent) to the fifty.''
As to the authenticity of the report, it is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmidhi, who said it is sahih.
Salah is the first act that the person will be held accountable for. 'Abdullah ibn Qart related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said "The first act that the slave will be accountable for on the Day of Judgement will be prayer. If it is good, then the rest of his acts will be good. And if it is evil, then the rest of his acts will be evil." (Related by at-Tabarani.) It is the last thing that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, recommended to his nation before he died, saying, "Prayer, prayer and what your right hand possesses." It will be the last thing taken away from the religion. When it perishes, Islam will perish. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If Islam were stripped away, piece by piece, people would hold tight to the next one. The first thing taken would be ruling and governance, and the last thing would be prayer." (Related by Ibn Hibban from the hadith of Abu Umamah.) In many verses of the Qur'an, Allah follows up prayer with the remembrance of Allah. "Lo! Worship preserves (one) from lewdness and iniquity, but verily, remembrance of Allah is more important." (al-'Ankabut 45); "He is successful who grows and remembers the name of his Lord, so pray (al-A'la 14-15); "So serve Me and establish worship for My remembrance" (Taha 74). Sometimes He mentions prayer along with zakah: "Establish prayer and pay zakah" (al-Baqarah 110). And at times, with patience: "Seek help in patience and prayer" (al-Baqarah 45), and with hajj: "So pray unto your Lord and sacrifice" (al-Kauthar 2); "Say: Lo! my worship and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the Worlds. He has no partner. This am I commanded, and I am the first of those who surrender (unto Him)" (al-An'am 162-163). At other times, Allah begins the acts of piety with prayers and ends with them, as in the verses about the ma'arij (ascension to heaven): "Successful indeed are the believers who are humble in their prayers," and the verses, "And who pay heed to their prayers. These are the heirs who will inherit Paradise. There will they abide" (al-Mu'minun 1-29-11).
The importance of salah is so great that one is ordered to observe it while travelling or not, while one is safe or in fear: "Be guardians of your prayers, and of the mid-most prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah. And if you go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. When you are safe, remember Allah, as He has taught you that which (heretofore) you knew not" (al-Baqarah 238-239).
Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)."
"And when you are among them and arrange their prayers for them, let only a party of them stand with you (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then, when they have performed their prostrations, let them fall to the rear and let another party come to pray with you, and let them take their precautions and arms. They who disbelieve long for you to neglect your arms and your baggage, that they may attack. It is no sin for you to lay aside your arms, if rain impedes you or if you are sick. But take your precautions. Lo! Allah prepares for the disbelievers shameful punishment. When you have performed your prayer, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. And when you are in safety, observe your prayer properly. Prayer at fixed hours has been enjoined on the believers" (an-Nisa' 102-103).
Once I came riding a she-ass and had (just) attained the age of puberty. Allah's Apostle was offering the prayer at Mina. There was no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the row while they were offering their prayers. There I let the she-ass loose to graze and entered the row, and nobody objected to it.
that he differed with Hur bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari regarding the companion of the Prophet Moses. Meanwhile, Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him saying, "My friend (Hur) and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses asked the way to meet. Have you heard Allah's Apostle mentioning something about him?" Ubai bin Ka'b said: "Yes, I heard the Prophet mentioning something about him (saying) while Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked him: 'Do you know anyone who is more learned than you?' Moses replied: 'No.' So Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: 'Yes, Our slave Khadir is more learned than you.' Moses asked Allah how to meet him (Al-Khadir). So Allah made the fish a sign for him and he was told when the fish was lost, he should return (to the place where he had lost it) and there he would meet him (Al-Khadir). So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant-boy of Moses said: 'Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock, I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it.' On that Moses said, 'That is what we have been seeking.' So they went back retracing their footsteps, and found Khadir. (And) what happened further about them is narrated in the Holy Qur'an by Allah." (18.54 up to 18.82)
This prayer begins in the afternoon when the shadow of an object is of the same length as the object itself, and continues until the sun sets. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the afternoon prayer before the sun sets and then prays the remainder of the prayer after the sun has set has not missed the afternoon prayer."
The best and most preferred time to pray the afternoon prayer ends when the sun becomes yellowish on the horizon. This is implied by the preceding hadith of Jabir and 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar. To delay the prayer until the sun becomes yellowish, although it is permissiable, is greatly disliked, unless there is some need to do so. Anas reported that he heard the Prophet, upon whom be peace, say, "The following is the prayer of the hypocrite: he waits until the sun is between the horns of Satan, then he gets up and prays four quick rak'ah, and he does not remember Allah therein save a little bit." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah.)
Says an-Nawawi in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, "Our companions (the Shafiyyah) hold that the afternoon prayer time can be divided into five categories: the most virtuous time, the preferred time, the allowable time in which there is no disliked aspect, the allowable time that contains some aspect of dislike, and the time that is due to some excuse or necessity. The most virtuous time is at the beginning of the permissible time. The preferred time is until the shadow of an object is twice the length of the object itself. The permissible time without any aspect of dislike is from the time the sun becomes yellowish. The permissible time with some aspect of dislike is from the time the sun becomes yellowish until the setting of the sun. The time of excuse or necessity begins, in fact, at the time of the noon prayer for one who is to combine the noon and afternoon prayers, due to travelling or rain. If the afternoon prayer is made during any of those times, it has been fulfilled properly. If all of those times pass and the sun has set, then one must make up the prayer."
On a cloudy day, it should be prayed earlier in its time. Buraidah al-Aslami reported, "We were with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, during a battle and he said, "Hasten in praying on a cloudy day, for one who misses the afternoon prayer has destroyed all of his works." (Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.)
Of the subjecat, Ibn al-Qayyim says, "Leaving the prayer is of two types: leaving it completely and never praying it (which destroys all of one's deeds), and leaving it during a particular day, which destroys all of the deeds of that day."
Somebody said to the Prophet (during his last Hajj), "I did the slaughtering before doing the Rami." The Prophet beckoned with his hand and said, "There is no harm in that." Then another person said, "I got my head shaved before offering the sacrifice." The Prophet beckoned with his hand saying, "There is no harm in that."
There are three ways to make the adhan:
Allah's Apostle said "Three persons will have a double reward:
Once Allah's Apostle came out while Bilal was accompanying him. He went towards the women thinking that they had not heard him (i.e. his sermon). So he preached them and ordered them to pay alms. (Hearing that) the women started giving alms; some donated their earrings, some gave their rings and Bilal was collecting them in the corner of his garment.
I stayed overnight in the house of my aunt Maimuna bint Al-Harith (the wife of the Prophet) while the Prophet was there with her during her night turn. The Prophet offered the 'Isha' prayer (in the mosque), returned home and after having prayed four Rakat, he slept. Later on he got up at night and then asked whether the boy (or he used a similar word) had slept? Then he got up for the prayer and I stood up by his left side but he made me stand to his right and offered five Rakat followed by two more Rakat. Then he slept and I heard him snoring and then (after a while) he left for the (Fajr) prayer.
The Prophet, upon whom be peace, would make the first rak'ah of the morning prayer longer than the second. At times, he would continue to prolong his recitation until he heard no more footsteps (of the people coming to catch the prayer). He made the morning prayer the longest of his (obligatory) prayers. This is because its recitation is witnessed by Allah and the angels. It is also stated that it is witnessed by both the angels who record the daytime deeds and those who record the nighttime deeds. Whether it is Allah and His angels or His angels alone who witness that time, or does it continue until the morning prayer is over or until the sun rises cannot be said with certainty, though both of the statements are correct.
Furthermore, since the morning prayer has the least number of rak'ah, the recitation is prolonged to compensate for it. It is prayed right after sleep. As such, people are well rested. Also, it occurs before they have engaged themselves in their livelihood and other worldly affairs. The spirit as well as the body is responsive to the words of Allah. This makes the recital easier to ponder over and comprehend. Also, prayer is the basis and the first of all works. Therefore, it is preferred to prolong the recital of the morning prayer. This would be recognized by one who is familiar with Islamic law and its aim, purpose and wisdom.
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you on having sexual relations with his wife said (and he must say it before starting) 'In the name of Allah. O Allah! Protect us from Satan and also protect what you bestow upon us (i.e. the coming offspring) from Satan, and if it is destined that they should have a child then, Satan will never be able to harm that offspring."
It is sunnah to recite aloud in the two rak'ah of the morning and the Friday congregational prayer, in the first two rak'ah of the evening and the night prayer, in the two 'id prayers, the prayer for eclipses, and the prayer of asking for rain. The recital should be subdued during all of the noon and the afternoon prayer, during the last rak'ah of the evening prayer, and during the last two rak'ah of the night prayer. Concerning voluntary prayers, those made during the days should be subdued, while those made during the night can be either loud or subdued.
One night, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by Abu Bakr when he was praying in a very low voice, and he passed by 'Umar who was praying with his voice raised. (Later), when they were together with him, he said, "O Abu Bakr, I passed by you and you were praying in a very low voice." He said, "O Messenger of Allah, the one who I was praying to could hear me." And he said to 'Umar, "O 'Umar, I passed by you and you were praying with a raised voice." He said, "O Messenger of Allah, this was to stop the drowsiness and to drive away Satan." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "O Abu Bakr, raise your voice somewhat. And 'Umar, lower your voice somewhat." (Related by Abu Dawud and Ahmad.) If one forgets and recites aloud when he should be silent or vice-versa, there is no blame upon him. If one recalls the correction while he is doing the mistaken act, he may change to the correct way.
Once the Prophet entered a lavatory and I placed water for his ablution. He asked, "Who placed it?" He was informed accordingly and so he said, "O Allah! Make him (Ibn 'Abbas) a learned scholar in religion (Islam)."
The Prophet performed ablution by washing the body parts only once.
Allah's Apostle drank milk, rinsed his mouth and said, "It has fat."
Once the Prophet, while passing through one of the graveyards of Medina or Mecca heard the voices of two persons who were being tortured in their graves. The Prophet said, "These two persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid)." The Prophet then added, "Yes! (they are being tortured for a major sin). Indeed, one of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends). The Prophet then asked for a green leaf of a date-palm tree, broke it into two pieces and put one on each grave. On being asked why he had done so, he replied, "I hope that their torture might be lessened, till these get dried."
The Prophet once passed by two graves and said, "These two persons are being tortured not for a major sin (to avoid). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends)." The Prophet then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into (pieces) and fixed one on each grave. They said, "O Allah's Apostle! Why have you done so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment might be lessened till these (the pieces of the leaf) become dry." (See the footnote of Hadith 215).
The Prophet and Maimuna used to take a bath from a single pot.
A woman is allowed to leave (go back home) if she gets menses (after Tawaf-Al-Ifada). Ibn 'Umar formerly used to say that she should not leave but later on I heard him saying, "She may leave, since Allah's Apostle gave them the permission to leave (after Tawaf-Al-Ifada."
When the Prophet entered the Ka'ba, he invoked Allah in each and every side of it and did not pray till he came out of it, and offered a two-Rak'at prayer facing the Ka'ba and said, "This is the Qibla."
Allah's Apostle in his fatal illness came out with a piece of cloth tied round his head and sat on the pulpit. After thanking and praising Allah he said, "There is no one who had done more favor to me with life and property than Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafa. If I were to take a Khalil, I would certainly have taken Abu Bakr but the Islamic brotherhood is superior. Close all the small doors in this mosque except that of Abu Bakr."
Once I came riding a she-ass when I had just attained the age of puberty. Allah's Apostle was offering the prayer at Mina with no wall in front of him and I passed in front of some of the row. There I dismounted and let my she-ass loose to graze and entered the row and nobody objected to me about it.
"Once a delegation of 'Abdul Qais came to Allah's Apostle and said, 'We belong to such and such branch of the tribe of Rab'a and we can only come to you in the sacred months. Order us to do something good so that we may (carry out) take it from you and also invite to it our people whom we have left behind (at home).' The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things. (The first four are as follows):
(The other four things which are forbidden are as follows):
"The Prophet prayed eight Rakat for the Zuhr and 'Asr, and seven for the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers in Medina." Aiyub said, "Perhaps those were rainy nights." Anas said, "May be."
The Prophet prayed seven Rakat together and eight Rakat together.
Some people told me the same narration (as above).
Once I passed the night in the house of my aunt Maimuna. Allah's Apostle offered the 'Isha' prayer and then came to the house and offered four Rakat and slept. Later on, he woke up and stood for the prayer and I stood on his left side. He drew me to his right and prayed five Rakat and then two. He then slept till I heard him snoring (or heard his breath sounds). Afterwards he went out for the morning prayer.
One night I slept at the house of (my aunt) Maimuna and the Prophet was there on that night. He performed ablution and stood up for the prayer. I joined him and stood on his left side but he drew me to his right and prayed thirteen Rakat and then slept till I heard his breath sounds. And whenever he slept, he used to breathe with audible sounds. The Mu'adhdhin came to the Prophet and he went out and prayed the morning prayer) without repeating the ablution.
Once I passed the night in the house of my aunt Maimuna. The Prophet stood for the night prayer and I joined him and stood on his left side but he drew me to his right by holding me by the head.
I prayed with the Prophet one night and stood on his left side. Allah's Apostle caught hold of my head from behind and drew me to his right and then offered the prayer and slept. Later the Mu'adhdhin came and the Prophet stood up for prayer without performing ablution.
One night I stood to the left of the Prophet in the prayer but he caught hold of me by the hand or by the shoulder (arm) till he made me stand on his right and beckoned with his hand (for me) to go from behind (him). (Al-Kashmaihani-Fateh al-Bari).
(My mother) Umu-l-Fadl heard me reciting "Wal Mursalati 'Urfan" (77) and said, "O my son! By Allah, your recitation made me remember that it was the last Sura I heard from Allah's Apostle. He recited it in the Maghrib prayer."
The Prophet set out with the intention of going to Suq 'Ukaz (market of 'Ukaz) along with some of his companions. At the same time, a barrier was put between the devils and the news of heaven. Fire commenced to be thrown at them. The devils went to their people, who asked them, "What is wrong with you?" They said, "A barrier has been placed between us and the news of heaven. And fire has been thrown at us." They said, "The thing which has put a barrier between you and the news of heaven must be something which has happened recently. Go eastward and westward and see what has put a barrier between you and the news of heaven." Those who went towards Tuhama came across the Prophet at a place called Nakhla and it was on the way to Suq 'Ukaz and the Prophet was offering the Fajr prayer with his companions. When they heard the Qur'an they listened to it and said, "By Allah, this is the thing which has put a barrier between us and the news of heaven." They went to their people and said, "O our people; verily we have heard a wonderful recital (Qur'an) which shows the true path; we believed in it and would not ascribe partners to our Lord." Allah revealed the following verses to his Prophet (Sura 'Jinn') (72): "Say: It has been revealed to me." And what was revealed to him was the conversation of the Jinns.
The Prophet recited aloud in the prayers in which he was ordered to do so and quietly in the prayers in which he was ordered to do so. "And your Lord is not forgetful." "Verily there was a good example for you in the ways of the Prophet."
The Prophet was ordered (by Allah) to prostrate on seven parts and not to tuck up the clothes or hair (while praying). Those parts are: the forehead (along with the tip of nose), both hands, both knees, and (toes of) both feet.
The Prophet said, "We have been ordered to prostrates on seven bones and not to tuck up the clothes or hair."
The Prophet said, "I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bones i.e. on the forehead along with the tip of the nose and the Prophet pointed towards his nose, both hands, both knees and the toes of both feet and not to gather the clothes or the hair."
The Prophet was ordered to prostrate on seven bony parts and not to tuck up his clothes or hair.
The Prophet said, "I have been ordered to prostrate on seven (bones) and not to tuck up the hair or garment."
I used to recognize the completion of the prayer of the Prophet by hearing Takbir.
One night I slept at the house of my aunt Maimuna and the Prophet slept (too). He got up (for prayer) in the last hours of the night and performed a light ablution from a hanging leather skin. ('Amr, the sub-narrator described that the ablution was very light). Then he stood up for prayer and I got up too and performed the ablution in the same way and joined him on his left side. He pulled me to the right and prayed as much as Allah will. Then he lay down and slept and I heard his breath sounds till the Mu'adhdhin came to him to inform him about the (Fajr) prayer. He left with him for the prayer and prayed without repeating the ablution. (Sufyan the sub-narrator said: We said to 'Amr, "Some people say, 'The eyes of the Prophet sleep but his heart never sleeps.' ") 'Amr said, "Ubai bin 'Umar said, 'The dreams of the Prophets are Divine Inspirations.' Then he recited, '(O my son), I have seen in dream that I was slaughtering you (offering you in sacrifice).' " (37.102)
Once I came riding a she-ass and I, then, had just attained the age of puberty. Allah's Apostle was leading the people in prayer at Mina facing no wall. I passed in front of the row and let loose the she-ass for grazing and joined the row and no one objected to my deed.
It is preferred for a person to say after the taslim: "Glory be to the Master, the Holy," three times aloud, saying the third time: "Lord of the angels and the souls." Abu Dawud and anNasa'i record that Ubayy ibn Ka'b said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite al-A'la and al-Kafirun in the witr prayer. When he made the taslim, he would say: 'Glory be to the Master, the Holy ,' three times, prolonging the third repetition and saying it aloud." This is the wording in which an-Nasa'i recorded it. Ad-Daraqutni has the addition: "And he would say, 'Lord of the angels and the spirits. "' He would then make supplications and, according to what Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmidhi record from 'Ali, he would say at the end of his witr: "O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from your anger. And I seek refuge in Your granting well being from Your punishment. And I seek refuge in You from You. I cannot reckon Your praise: You are as You have praised Yourself."
Whoever has performed the witr prayer and then wishes to do some more, he may do so but he is not to repeat the witr.
Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmidhi have recorded from 'Ali that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "There are no two witr prayers in one night." At-Tirmidhi grades it hasan.
'Aishah relates that the Prophet would make the taslim in such a manner that we could hear him and then, he would pray two rak'at while sitting. This is related by Muslim.
Umm Salamah also narrates that he prayed two rak'at while sitting, after the witr prayer. This was related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and others.
Yahya related to me from Malik that he saw Rabia ibn Abd ar-Rahman vomit several times when he was in the mosque and he did not leave, nor did he do wudu before he prayed.
Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a man who vomited food had to do wudu and he said, "He does not have to do wudu, but he should rinse the inside of his mouth and wash his mouth out."
The first Jumua prayer which was offered after a Jumua prayer offered at the mosque of Allah's Apostle took place in the mosque of the tribe of 'Abdul Qais at Jawathi in Bahrain.
Performing the prayers in congregation is a sunnah mu'akkadah. Many ahadith discuss the superiority and excellence of prayers in congregation. Such ahadith include the following:
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Prayer in congregation is superior to a prayer performed individually by twenty-seven degrees." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The prayer of a man in congregation is twenty-five times more superior (in reward) to his prayer in his house or market - and this is because he makes the wudu' and perfects it and goes to the mosque with the sole purpose of performing the salah. He does not take a step without being raised a degree and having one of his sins erased. When he prays, as long as he does not lose his wudu, the angels keep on praying [for him] 'O Allah, bless him. O Allah, have mercy on him.' And he is considered in salah as long as he is waiting for the salah." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim, and it is presented in al-Bukhari's wording.
Abu Hurairah also reports that a blind man said to the Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah, I have no guide to guide me to the mosque." He asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam for permission to pray in his house and the Prophet gave it to him. Then, when he turned to go, the Prophet called him and said: "Do you hear the call to prayer?" The blind man said "yes." The Prophet then said: "Then respond to it!" [by coming to the mosque.] This is related by Muslim.
Abu Hurairah also reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "By Him in whose hand is my soul! I have considered ordering a fire to be kindled and then ask someone to lead the people in salah. And then go to the men [who did not attend the prayer] and burn their houses over them." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud says: "If anyone would like to meet Allah tomorrow as a Muslim, he should persevere in abserving these five prayers whenever the call for them is made, for Allah has chosen for your Prophet the way of right guidance. And the [five prayers in congregation] are part of this right guidance. If you were to pray them in your houses, as this man who stays behind in his house, you would be leaving a sunnah of your Prophet. If you leave the sunnah of your Prophet, you would go astray. Verily, I have seen a time when no one stayed away from them [the congregational prayers] except for the hypocrites who were well known for their hypocrisy. A man would be brought, supported by two people [due to his weakness] until he was placed in a row." This is related by Muslim.
Abu ad-Darda' reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If there are three men in a village or desert and salah is not established among them, then the Satan takes mastery over them. So be with the congregation since the wolf devours the remote (stray) sheep." This is related by Abu Dawud with a hasan chain.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Abbas used to have nose-bleeds and would leave to wash off the blood. He would then return and complete his prayer.
Once the Prophet ascended the pulpit and it was the last gathering in which he took part. He was covering his shoulder with a big cloak and binding his head with an oily bandage. He glorified and praised Allah and said, "O people! Come to me." So the people came and gathered around him and he then said, "Amma ba'du. From now onward the Ansar will decrease and other people will increase. So anybody who becomes a ruler of the followers of Muhammad and has the power to harm or benefit people then he should accept the good from the benevolent amongst them (Ansar) and overlook the faults of their wrong-doers."
If some people cannot hear the imam, it is preferred for one to repeat in a loud voice the imam's words for the others to hear. There is consensus among scholars that repeating aloud after the imams without there being any real need for it is an abhorent innovation.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn Abdullah that his father Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "A man's kissing his wife and fondling her with his hands are part of intercourse. Someone who kisses his wife or fondles her with his hand must do wudu."
Once the Prophet (p.b.u.h) led the fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Takbir (Allahu-Akbar) and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Raka and those who had prayed the first Raka left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer but they were guarding one another during the prayer.
It is permissible to keep some one from passing in front of a person who is praying.
If a praying person has a sutrah in front of him, then it is allowed for him to prevent any human or animal from passing in front of him. If a person passes in front of him from beyond the sutrah, then the person in salah is neither to prevent the passer-by nor will he be harmed by him.
Abu Saleh as-Saman said: "I will narrate to you what I heard and saw from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri. One day I was with Abu Sa'id and he was offering salah on Friday facing something which concealed him from the people when a young man from the tribe of Mu'ait came and tried to pass in front of Abu Sa'id. He pushed him back. He tried again and Abu Sa'id struck him harder. The two scuffled. The man went to Marwan to complain. Abu Sa'id also went to Marwan. Marwan asked: 'What has happened between you and the son of your brother that caused him to complain?' Abu Sa'id said: 'I heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: 'If any of you prays toward a sutrah and someone tries to pass in front of you, then turn him away. If he refuses, use force for he is a devil."' This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The salah is not invalidated by anything (passing in front of the praying person).
'Ali, 'Uthman, ibn al-Musayyab, ash-Sh'abiy, Malik, ash-Shaf'i, Sufyan al-Thauri and the Hanafi scholars are of the opinion that the salah is not invalidated by anything which passes in front of a person. This is based on the hadith recorded by Abu Dawud from Abu al-Waddak who says: "A young person tried to pass in front of Abu Sa'id while he was praying. Abu Sa'id held him off and then the young man tried again. Abu Sa'id pushed him off. This happened three times and when [Abu Sa'id] finished [the prayer], he said: 'The salah is not invalidated by anything but the Messenger of Allah said: 'Repulse [the person who is trying to pass in front of you] to the best of your ability for he is a devil.'"
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say, "If you have intercourse with your wife and then wish to go to sleep before doing ghusl, do not sleep until you have done wudu as for prayer."
I offered the 'Id prayer with Allah's Apostle, Abu Bakr, Umar and 'Uthman and all of them offered the prayer before delivering the Khutba.
Crying, moaning, or groaning, regardless of whether it is due to a fear of Allah or to any other reason (e.g., a moan due to some pain or injury that one cannot contain), is permissible. This is based on the Qur'anic verse: "When the revelations of the Merciful were recited unto them, they fell prostrating and adoring." This verse is general and includes one who is praying.
'Abdullah ibn ash-Schikhir relates: "I saw the Messenger of Allah praying and his chest was 'buzzing', like the buzzing of a cooking pot, due to crying." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmidhi. The latter classifies it as sahih.
'Ali reports: "There was no horseman among us at the battle of Badr save al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad. I saw that not one of us was standing save the Messenger of Allah who was praying under a tree and crying until the dawn." This is related by Ibn Hibban.
'Aishah relates the incident that occurred during the fatal illness of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam. The Messenger of Allah said: "Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer." 'Aishah responded: "O Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr is a very soft-hearted man and he cannot control his tears, and if he recites the Qur'an, he cries." 'Aishah later admitted: "I said that only because I hated that the people should blame Abu Bakr for being the first to take the place of the Messenger of Allah." The Messenger of Allah said: "Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in salah. You women are like the companions of Yusuf." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Hibban, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it sahih. The fact that the Prophet insisted that Abu Bakr lead the salah after he was inforrned that he would be overcome by weeping proves that it is permissible to cry while praying.
'Umar prayed fajr and recited Surah Yusuf, and when he reached the verse "I expose my distress and anguish only unto Allah," he raised his voice in crying. This is related by al-Bukhari, Sa'id ibn Mansur, and ibn al-Mundhir. In 'Umar's raising his voice in crying is a refutation of those who say that crying invalidates the salah if it causes a sound from the mouth, regardless of whether it is due to the fear of Allah or not. They argue that sound from the mouth due to crying is like speaking, but this is not acceptable as crying and speaking are two different things.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ismail ibn Abi Hakim that Ata ibn Yasar told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said the takbir in one of the prayers and then indicated to them with his hand to stay in place. He left and then returned with traces of water on his skin.
The Prophet offered a two Rakat prayer on the Day of 'Id ul Fitr and he did not pray before or after it. Then he went towards women along with Bilal and ordered them to pay alms and so they started giving their earrings and necklaces (in charity).
It is allowed for men to say subhanallah and for women to clap if there is some need to do so (such as alerting the imam to a mistake or informing someone that he or she may enter the room or to warn a blind person, and so on). Sahl ibn Sa'd asSa'di relates that the Prophet said: "If someone is faced with something during the salah, he should say 'subhanallah.' Clapping is for the women and saying subhanallah is for the men." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i.
If the imam forgets a verse, it is permissible for a follower to remind him of it, regardless of whether the recitation is a part of the obligatory recitation or not. Ibn 'Umar reports that the Messenger of Allah prayed and had some confusion in his recitation. When he finished, he said to 'Umar: "Were you present with us [during the prayer]?" He replied: "Yes." So, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam asked him: "What prevented you from correcting me?" This is related by Abu Dawud and others and its narrators are trustworthy.
Rifa'ah ibn Rafi' relates: "I prayed behind the Messenger of Allah, and I sneezed and said, 'Praise be to Allah, a great deal of praise, beautiful and blessed, as our Lord loves and is pleased with.' [Afterward,] the Messenger of Allah asked: 'Who spoke during the salah?' No one said anything. He asked again, and no one said anything. He asked again, and I said: 'It was I, O Messenger of Allah!' He then said: 'By the One in whose hand is Muhammad's soul, thirty some odd angels raced to get that phrase to raise it [to the Lord].'" This is related by an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmidhi, and by al-Bukhari with a different wording.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Messenger of Allah prayed in one garment and covered his face with a portion of it to avoid the heat or coldness of the ground. This is related by Ahmad with a sahih isnad (chain). It is disliked if it is done without any genuine reason.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Umm Sulayman said to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Should a woman do ghusl when she experiences the same as a man in her sleep?" The Messenger of Al lah said to her, "Yes, she should do ghusl. "A'isha said to her, "Shame on you! Does a woman see that?" (i.e. a liquid.) The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to her, "May your right hand be full of dust. From where does family resemblance come?"
The Prophet said, "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja)." Then some companions of the Prophet said, "Not even Jihad?" He replied, "Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and does not return with any of those things."
'Aishah reports that the Messenger of Allah prayed in a cloak which had some designs on it. He said: "These designs have distracted me. Take [this cloak] to Abu Jahm [i.e., the person who gave it to the Prophet] and bring me a plain cloak." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Al-Bukhari records that Anas said: "'Aishah had a curtain to cover [the doorway of] her house. The Prophet said to her: 'Remove your curtain for its picturcs always distract me during my prayers.'" This hadith proves that looking at some writing or design does not invalidate the salah.
Some say that this act is disliked while others hold that it is allowed, though disliked. Those hadith which state it is disliked are not authentic.
Ibn al-Qayyim said: "The correct position is: if keeping one's eyes open does not affect one's attention, then it is preferred to keep them open; however, if there is something in front of the person, such as some ornament or decoration, which could affect his attention, then it is, in no way, disliked to close his eyes. In fact, under such circumstances, to say it is preferred to close one's eyes is more consistent with the principles and goals of the shar'iah than to say that it is disliked."
Jabir ibn Samurah said: "We prayed behind the Prophet and he said: 'What is wrong with them that they make salutation with their hands as if they were the tails of horses? It is enough for you to place your hand on your thigh and say, as salam 'alaikum, as salam 'alaikum!'" This is related by an-Nasa'i and others.
Abu Hurairah said: "The Messenger of Allah prohibited assadl in the salah and prohibited a man to cover his mouth." This is related by the five and by al-Hakim who says that it is sahih according to Muslim's conditions. Al-Khattabi explains: "As-sadl is to lower one's garment until it reaches the ground." Al-Kamal ibn al-Hamam adds: "This also applies to wearing a cloak without putting one's arms through its sleeves."
'Aishah reports that the Prophet said: "If dinner is served and the prayer is ready, start with the dinner [first]." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Naf'i reports that the food would be served for Ibn 'Umar while the iqamah was being made, but he would not come to the salah until he finished his meal although he could hear the reciting of the imam. This is related by al-Bukhari.
Al-Khattabi says: "The Prophet ordered that one should begin with one's meal in order to satisfy his need. In this way, he will come to the salah in calm and his desire or hunger will not disturb the completion or perfection of his ruku' and sajjud and the rest of the acts of the salah."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar and he were approaching Juruf. When they got to Mirbad, Abdullah got down and did tayammum with some good earth. He wiped his face, and his arms to the elbows, and then prayed.
I (in my boyhood) went out with the Prophet on the day of 'Id ul Fitr or Id-ul-Adha. The Prophet prayed and then delivered the Khutba and then went towards the women, preached and advised them and ordered them to give alms.
The scholars are all in agreement about the legality of "fear prayer" (salatul Khauf). The Qur'an says: "When You (O Prophet) are with them, and stand to lead them in prayer, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them. When they finish prostrations, let them take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which has not yet prayed - and let them pray with you, taking all precautions, and bearing arms: the unbelievers wish if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the unbelievers Allah has prepared humiliating punishment."
On this subject Imam Ahmad says: "There are six or seven confirmed hadith about 'salatul khauf,' and whichever way one performs it, it will be valid."
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "Basically, there are six ways to pray salatal khauf, although some say there are more than (six ways of praying it). Whenever they notice any difference in the narration of an incident, they describe it as a difference [in the manner of prayer] thus coming to seventeen ways. This might be due to different acts of the Prophet or simply to differences in the narrations." Al-Hafiz says: "This is the true position and its explanation is given below.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "I used to comb the head of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, while I was menstruating."
The Prophet went out and offered a two Rakat prayer on the Day of 'Id ul Fitr and did not offer any other prayer before or after it and at that time Bilal was accompanying him.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Fatima bint Abu Hubaysh said, 'Messenger of Allah, I never become pure - am I permitted to pray?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'That is a vein, not menstruation. So when your period approaches, leave off from the prayer, and when its grip leaves, wash the blood from yourself and pray.' "
Once I passed the night in the house of Maimuna (his aunt). I slept across the bed while Allah's Apostle and his wife slept length-wise. The Prophet slept till midnight or nearly so and woke up rubbing his face and recited ten verses from Surat "Al-Imran." Allah's Apostle went towards a leather skin and performed ablution in the most perfect way and then stood for the prayer. I did the same and stood beside him. The Prophet put his right hand on my head, twisted my ear and then prayed two Rakat five times and then ended his prayer with Witr. He laid down till the Mu'adhdhin came then he stood up and offered two Rakat (Sunna of Fajr prayer) and then went out and offered the Fajr prayer.
(See Hadith No. 183, Vol. 1)
If the day of 'Id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul 'Id.
Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul 'id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.
Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." This is related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'id prayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."
According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the 'id prayer. Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed two rak'at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until 'asr.
The Prophet said, "I was granted victory with As-Saba and the nation of 'Ad was destroyed by Ad-Dabur (westerly wind). "
The prostration of Sad is not a compulsory one but I saw the Prophet prostrating while reciting it.
The Prophet I prostrated while reciting An-Najm and with him prostrated the Muslims, the pagans, the jinns, and all human beings.
The Prophet once stayed for nineteen days and prayed shortened prayers. So when we traveled (and stayed) for nineteen days, we used to shorten the prayer but if we traveled (and stayed) for a longer period we used to offer the full prayer.
The Prophet and his companions reached Mecca in the morning of the 4th Dhul-Hijja reciting Talbiya (O Allah! We are obedient to your orders, we respond to your call) . . . intending to perform Hajj. The Prophet ordered his companions to assume the Ihram for Umra instead of Hajj, excepting those who had Hadi (sacrifice) with them.
When the Prophet got up at night to offer the Tahajjud prayer, he used to say: Allahumma lakal-hamd. Anta qaiyimus-samawati wal-ard wa man fihinna. Walakal-hamd, Laka mulkus-samawati wal-ard wa man fihinna. Walakal-hamd, anta nurus-samawati wal-ard. Walakalhamd, anta-l-haq wa wa'duka-l-haq, wa liqa'uka Haq, wa qualuka Haq, wal-jannatu Han wan-naru Haq wannabiyuna Haq. Wa Muhammadun, sallal-lahu'alaihi wasallam, Haq, was-sa'atu Haq. Allahumma aslamtu Laka wabika amantu, wa 'Alaika tawakkaltu, wa ilaika anabtu wa bika khasamtu, wa ilaika hakamtu faghfir li ma qaddamtu wama akh-khartu wama as-rartu wama'a lantu, anta-l-muqaddim wa anta-l-mu akh-khir, la ilaha illa anta (or la ilaha ghairuka). (O Allah! All the praises are for you, You are the Holder of the Heavens and the Earth, And whatever is in them. All the praises are for You; You have the possession of the Heavens and the Earth And whatever is in them. All the praises are for You; You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth And all the praises are for You; You are the King of the Heavens and the Earth; And all the praises are for You; You are the Truth and Your Promise is the truth, And to meet You is true, Your Word is the truth And Paradise is true And Hell is true And all the Prophets (Peace be upon them) are true; And Muhammad is true, And the Day of Resurrection is true. O Allah! I surrender (my will) to You; I believe in You and depend on You. And repent to You, And with Your help I argue (with my opponents, the non-believers) And I take You as a judge (to judge between us). Please forgive me my previous And future sins; And whatever I concealed or revealed And You are the One who make (some people) forward And (some) backward. There is none to be worshipped but you . Sufyan said that 'Abdul Karim Abu Umaiya added to the above, 'Wala haula Wala quwata illa billah' (There is neither might nor power except with Allah).
The prayer of the Prophet used to be of thirteen Rakat, i.e. of the night prayer.
A person died and Allah's Apostle used to visit him. He died at night and (the people) buried him at night. In the morning they informed the Prophet (about his death). He said, "What prevented you from informing me?" They replied, "It was night and it was a dark night and so we disliked to trouble you." The Prophet went to his grave and offered the (funeral) prayer.
While a man was riding (his Mount) in 'Arafat, he fell down from it (his Mount) and broke his neck (and died). The Prophet said, "Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth, and neither perfume him, nor cover his head, for he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection saying, 'Labbaik,' (i.e. like a pilgrim)."
While a man was at 'Arafat (for Hajj) with Allah's Apostle the fell down from his Mount and broke his neck (and died). So Allah's Apostle said, "Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth and neither perfume him nor cover his head, for Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection and he will be saying 'Labbaik."
A man was killed by his camel while we were with the Prophet and he was a Muhrim. So the Prophet said, "Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth and neither perfume him nor cover his head, for Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection and he will be saying 'Labbaik'."
A man fell from his Mount and died while he was with the Prophet at 'Arafat. The Prophet said, "Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth and neither perfume him nor cover his head, for he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection saying, 'Labbaik'."
Allah's Apostle passed by a grave of a deceased who had been buried at night. He said, "When was this (deceased) buried?" The people said, "Yesterday." He said, "Why did you not inform me?" They said, "We buried him when it was dark and so we disliked to wake you up." He stood up and we lined up behind him. (Ibn Abbas said): I was one of them, and the Prophet offered the funeral prayer.
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) offered the funeral prayer of a man one night after he was buried, he and his companions stood up (for the Prayer). He had asked them about him before standing, saying, "Who is this?" They said, "He is so and so and was buried last night." So all of them offered the funeral prayer.
The Prophet said, "Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary (sacred place) and it was a sanctuary before me and will be so after me. It was made legal for me (to fight in it) for a few hours of the day. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs or to cut its trees or to chase its game or to pick up its fallen things except by a person who announces it publicly." On that Al-Abbas said (to the Prophet), "Except Al-Idhkhir for our goldsmiths and for our graves." And so the Prophet added, "Except Al-Idhkhir. " And Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, "Except Al-Idhkhir for our graves and houses." And Ibn Abbas said, "For their goldsmiths and houses."
My mother and I were among the weak and oppressed. I from among the children, and my mother from among the women.
The Prophet once passed by two graves, and those two persons (in the graves) were being tortured. He said, "They are being tortured not for a great thing (to avoid). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other was going about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends). He then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree split it into two pieces and fixed one on each grave. The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Why have you done so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment may be lessened till they (the leaf) become dry."
The Prophet once passed by two graves and said, "They (the deceased persons in those graves) are being tortured not for a great thing to avoid." And then added, "Yes, (they are being punished for a big sin), for one of them used to go about with calumnies while the other never saved himself from being soiled with his urine." (Ibn Abbas added): Then he took a green leaf of a date-palm) and split it into two pieces and fixed one piece on each grave and said, "May their punishment be abated till these (two pieces) get dry."
Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) was asked about the children of (Mushrikeen) pagans. The Prophet replied, "Since Allah created them, He knows what sort of deeds they would have done."
Abu Lahab, may Allah curse him, once said to the Prophet (p.b.u.h), "Perish you all the day."
Then the Divine Inspiration came: "Perish the hands of Abi Lahab! And perish he!" (111.1).
Thy Prophet sent Muadh to Yemen and said, "Invite the people to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah's Apostle, and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night (in twenty-four hours), and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor."
A delegation of the tribe of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi'a, and the infidels of the tribe of Mudar stands between us and you; so we cannot come to you except during the Sacred Months. Please order us to do something (religious deeds) which we may carry out and also invite to it our people whom we have left behind." The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you four others: (I order you) to have faith in Allah, and confess that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, (and the Prophet gestured with his hand like this (i.e. one knot) and to offer prayers perfectly and to pay the Zakat, and to pay one-fifth of the booty in Allah's cause. And I forbid you to use Dubba', Hantam, Naqir and Muzaffat (all these are the names of utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks)."
The Prophet went out for the 'Id prayer on the 'Id day and offered a two Rakat prayer; and he neither offered a prayer before it or after it. Then he went towards the women along with Bilal. He preached them and ordered them to give in charity. And some (amongst the women) started giving their forearm bangles and earrings.
I am a witness that Allah's Apostle offered the Id prayer before delivering the sermon and then he thought that the women would not be able to hear him (because of the distance), so he went to them along with Bilal who was spreading his garment. The Prophet advised and ordered them to give in charity. So the women started giving their ornaments (in charity). (The sub-narrator Aiyub pointed towards his ears and neck meaning that they gave ornaments from those places such as earrings and necklaces.)
When Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) sent Muadh to Yemen, he said (to him), "You are going to people of a (Divine) Book. First of all invite them to worship Allah (alone) and when they come to know Allah, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers in every day and night; and if they start offering these prayers, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, the Zakat. And it is to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them; and if they obey you in that, take Zakat from them and avoid (don't take) the best property of the people as Zakat."
The Prophet saw a dead sheep which had been given in charity to a freed slave-girl of Maimuna, the wife of the Prophet. The Prophet said, "Why don't you get the benefit of its hide?" They said, "It is dead." He replied, "Only to eat (its meat) is illegal."
The people of Yemen used to come for Hajj and used not to bring enough provisions with them and used to say that they depend on Allah. On their arrival in Medina they used to beg the people, and so Allah revealed, "And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is the fear of Allah." (2.197).
Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) made Dhul-Huiaifa as the Miqat for the people of Medina; Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham; Qarn-al-Manazil for the people of Najd; and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen; and these Mawaqit are for the people at those very places, and besides them for those who come thorough those places with the intention of performing Hajj and 'Umra; and whoever is living within these boundaries can assume Ihram from the place he starts, and the people of Mecca can assume Ihram from Mecca.
Allah's Apostle had fixed Dhul Hulaifa as the Miqat for the people of Medina; Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham; and Qarn Ul-Manazil for the people of Najd; and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. So, these (above mentioned) are the Mawaqit for all those living at those places, and besides them for those who come through those places with the intention of performing Hajj and 'Umra and whoever lives within these places should assume Ihram from his dwelling place, and similarly the people of Mecca can assume Ihram from Mecca.
The Prophet fixed Dhul-Hulaifa as the Miqat for the people of Medina, Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham, Yalamlam for the people of Yemen, and Qarn for the people of Najd. And these Mawaqit are for those living at those very places, and besides them for those who come through those places with the intention of performing Hajj and Umra; and whoever is living inside these places can assume Ihram from his own dwelling place, and the people of Mecca can assume Ihram from Mecca.
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) fixed Dhul-Hulaifa as the Miqat for the people of Medina, Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham, Qarn-al-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen; and these Mawaqit are for those living at those very places, and besides them for those whom come through them with the intention of performing Hajj and Umra; and whoever is living within these Mawaqit should assume Ihram from where he starts, and the people of Mecca can assume Ihram from Mecca.
The people (of the pre-Islamic period) used to think that to perform 'Umra during the months of Hajj was one of the major sins on earth. And also used to consider the month of Safar as a forbidden (i.e. sacred) month and they used to say, "When the wounds of the camel's back heal up (after they return from Hajj) and the signs of those wounds vanish and the month of Safar passes away then (at that time) 'Umra is permissible for the one who wishes to perform it." In the morning of the 4th of Dhul-Hijja, the Prophet and his companions reached Mecca, assuming Ihram for Hajj and he ordered his companions to make their intentions of the Ihram for 'Umra only (instead of Hajj) so they considered his order as something great and were puzzled, and said, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind (of finishing) of Ihram is allowed?" The Prophet replied, "Finish the Ihram completely like a non-Muhrim (you are allowed everything)."
On the day of the conquest of Mecca, Allah's Apostle said, "Allah has made this town a sanctuary. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, its game should not be chased, and its fallen things should not be picked up except by one who would announce it publicly."
The Prophet said, "As if I were looking at him, a black person with thin legs plucking the stones of the Ka'ba one after another."
When Allah's Apostle came to Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba with idols in it. He ordered (idols to be taken out). So they were taken out. The people took out the pictures of Abraham and Ishmael holding Azlams in their hands. Allah's Apostle said, "May Allah curse these people. By Allah, both Abraham and Ishmael never did the game of chance with Azlams." Then he entered the Ka'ba and said Takbir at its corners but did not offer the prayer in it.
When Allah's Apostle and his companions came to Mecca, the pagans circulated the news that a group of people were coming to them and they had been weakened by the Fever of Yathrib (Medina). So the Prophet ordered his companions to do Ramal in the first three rounds of Tawaf of the Ka'ba and to walk between the two corners (The Black Stone and Yemenite corner). The Prophet did not order them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf out of pity for them.
In his Last Hajj the Prophet performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba riding a camel and pointed a bent-headed stick towards the Corner (Black Stone).
The Prophet performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba while riding a camel, and whenever he came in front of the Corner, he pointed towards it (with something).
The Prophet performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba riding a camel, and every time he came in front of the Corner (having the Black Stone), he pointed towards it with something he had with him and said Takbir.
While the Prophet was performing Tawaf of the Kaba, he passed by a person who had tied his hands to another person with a rope or string or something like that. The Prophet cut it with his own hands and said, "Lead him by the hand."
The Prophet saw a man performing Tawaf of the Kaba tied with a string or something else. So the Prophet cut that string.
The Prophet arrived at Mecca and performed Tawaf of the Kaba and Sa'i between Safa and Marwa, but he did not go near the Kaba after his Tawaf till he returned from Arafat.
Allah's Apostle performed Tawaf (of the Kaba) riding a camel (at that time the Prophet had foot injury). Whenever he came to the Corner (having the Black Stone) he would point out towards it with a thing in his hand and say, "Allahu-Akbar."
Allah's Apostle came to the drinking place and asked for water. Al-Abbas said, "O Fadl! Go to your mother and bring water from her for Allah's Apostle." Allah's Apostle said, "Give me water to drink." Al-Abbas said, "O Allah's Apostle! The people put their hands in it." Allah's Apostle again said, "Give me water to drink." So, he drank from that water and then went to the Zam-zam (well) and there the people were offering water to the others and working at it (drawing water from the well). The Prophet then said to them, "Carry on! You are doing a good deed." Then he said, "Were I not afraid that other people would compete with you (in drawing water from Zam-zam), I would certainly take the rope and put it over this (i.e. his shoulder) (to draw water)." On saying that the Prophet pointed to his shoulder.
I gave Zam-zam water to Allah's Apostle and he drank it while standing. 'Asia (a sub-narrator) said that 'Ikrima took the oath that on that day the Prophet had not been standing but riding a camel.
Allah's Apostle performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba and the Sa'i of Safa and Marwa so as to show his strength to the pagans.
Allah's Apostle had sent me from Jam' (i.e. Al-Muzdalifa) at night.
I was among those whom the Prophet sent on the night of Al-Muzdalifa early being among the weak members of his family.
The Prophet made Al-Fadl ride behind him, and Al-Fadl informed that he (the Prophet) kept on reciting Talbiya till he did the Rami of the Jamra. (Jamrat-al-'Aqaba.)
The Prophet was asked about a person who had his head shaved before slaughtering (his Hadi) (or other similar ceremonies of Hajj). He replied, "There is no harm, there is no harm."
A man said to the Prophet "I performed the Tawaf-al-Ifada before the Rami (throwing pebbles at the Jamra)." The Prophet replied, "There is no harm." The man said, "I had my head shaved before slaughtering." The Prophet replied, "There is no harm." He said, "I have slaughtered the Hadi before the Rami." The Prophet replied, "There is no harm."
The Prophet was asked by a man who said, "I have done the Rami in the evening." The Prophet replied, "There is no harm in it." Another man asked, "I had my head shaved before the slaughtering." The Prophet replied, "There is no harm in it."
When the Prophet came to Mecca, he ordered his companions to perform Tawaf round the Ka'ba and between Safa and Marwa, to finish their Ihram and get their hair shaved off or cut short.
The Prophet was asked about the slaughtering, shaving (of the head), and the doing of Rami before or after the due times. He said, "There is no harm in that."
The Prophet was asked (as regards the ceremonies of Hajj) at Mina on the Day of Nahr and he replied that there was no harm. Then a man said to him, "I got my head shaved before slaughtering." He replied, "Slaughter (now) and there is no harm in it." (Another) man said, "I did the Rami (of the Jimar) after midday." The Prophet replied, "There was no harm in it."
I heard the Prophet delivering a sermon at 'Arafat.
The people were ordered to perform the Tawaf of the Ka'ba (Tawaf-al-Wada') as the lastly thing, before leaving (Mecca), except the menstruating women who were excused.
A menstruating woman was allowed to leave Mecca if she had done Tawaf-al-Ifada. Tawus (a sub-narrator) said from his father, "I heard Ibn 'Umar saying that she would not depart. Then later I heard him saying that the Prophet had allowed them (menstruating women) to depart."
Staying at Al-Mahassab is not one of the ceremonies (of Hajj), but Al-Mahassab is a place where Allah's Apostle camped (during his Hajjat-al-Wida).
Dhul-Majaz and 'Ukaz were the markets of the people during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. When the people embraced Islam, they disliked to do bargaining there till the following Holy Verses were revealed: "There is no harm for you If you seek of the bounty Of your Lord (during Hajj by trading, etc.) (2.198)."
An-Nawawi says: "As for olives, our [Shaf'iyyah] view is that there is no zakah on them." This is also the opinion of Hasan ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Layla, and Abu 'Ubaid.
Scholars such as as-Zuhri, al-Auza'i, al-Layth, Malik, athThauri, Abu Hanifah, and Abu Thaur maintain that there is zakah on olives. Az-Zuhri, al-Layth, and al-Auza'i hold: "Determine its quantity by conjecture (yukharras), and then take its zakah in the form of olive oil," while Malik says: "There is no need to compute its quantity by conjecture (yukharras). Take a tithe subsequent to the olives being pressed and attain the weight of five awsuq."
Of their differences on the payment of zakah pertaining to plants and fruits, Ibn Rushd informs us: "The difference of opinion lies in the fact that some jurists confine paying of zakah to only those items of consumption which are generally agreed upon, while others go beyond those items and include dried fruits in them too. [The crux of the issue is]: What qualifies the four edible items [wheat, barley, dates, and dried grapes] for zakah? Are they subject to zakah because of their being delineated as such or because of their special import to the subsistence of life? Those who subscribe to the first view restrict payment of zakah to the four edibles, and those who subscribe to the second view extend the obligation to all land produce except for grass, firewood, and bamboo. There is a consensus on the latter being excluded from zakah. However, when it comes to the use of analogy based on a general statement, both groups rest on shaky ground."
The saying of the Prophet, which uses the expression alladhi yaqtadhi, reads: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due], and from what is watered by irrigation [nadh] a half a tithe." The relative pronoun ma is used to mean al-ladhi, which is a general expression. Allah, the Exalted, also says: "It is He who has brought into being gardens--both the cultivated ones and those growing wild--and the date palm, and fields bearing multiform produce, and the olive trees, and the pomegranate: all resembling one another and yet so different. Eat of their fruit when it comes to fruition, and give unto the poor their due on the harvest day ..." [al-An'am 141].
Analogically speaking, zakah aims at counteracting poverty and this cannot be done through zakah on land produce which is edible and sustains life.
Restricting a general statement with this kind of analogical reasoning vitiates zakah on all land produce except ones which sustain life. Those who follow the general import of the Prophet's saying add some more to the generally acknowledged four items. Excluded of course are the ones on which there is consensus.
Again, those who agree upon land produce of a subsistance kind often differ over whether it can be considered as being subsistent. Can analogical reasoning be the basis of what they agree upon or not? An example of such a disagreement is that of Malik and ash-Shaf'i regarding olives. Malik holds that zakah on olives is obligatory, while ash-Shaf'i is against it, according to a latter view expressed in Egypt. The reason for his disagreement is whether olives could be considered as food vital for life or not.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mutim that his father said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite at-Tur (Sura 52) in the maghrib prayer."
When the Prophet arrived at Mecca, some boys of the tribe of Bani 'Abdul Muttalib went to receive him, and the Prophet made one of them ride in front of him and the other behind him.
Most scholars say that there is no zakah on honey. AlBukhari, for one, states: "There is no authentic tradition concerning zakah on honey." Ash-Shaf'i explains: "In my view, no zakah is levied on it because there is no evidence in the traditions (sunan and 'athar) for doing so. Thus, it was exempted." Ibn al-Mundhir affirms: "There is no tradition (khabar) which states that zakah must be paid on honey, nor is there a consensus. Therefore, there is no zakah on honey. This is the opinion of most scholars."
The Hanafiyyah and Ahmad are of the opinion that honey is subject to zakah, even though there is no evidence for this view in any tradition, except for some traditions ('athar) which support each other. Their reason is that since it is produced from blossoms, trees, and flowers and weighed and stored like other types of produce, zakah is due on it. They also say it is subject to zakah because the cost of producing it is less than the cost of growing fruits and plants. Abu Hanifah made it a condition that when zakah is due on honey, it should only be collected on honey produced on tithe land. However, he did not stipulate any nisab for it. If this is so, then reason dictates that it should be a tithe due on any amount. Imam Ahmad, on the contrary, stipulated that it should attain a nisab equal to ten 'afraq. One faraq equals sixteen Iraqi pounds. It makes no difference whether it is produced on kharaj or 'ushr land. Abu Yusuf contends: "Its nisab is ten pounds but Muhammad maintains: "It is five 'afraq." One faraq equals thirty-six pounds.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that his father heard Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Rabia say, "We prayed subh behind Umar ibn al-Khattab and he recited suraYusuf (Sura 12) and surat al-Hajj (Sura 22) slowly." I (Hisham's father) said, "By Allah, then it must have been his habit to get up at the crack of dawn." He said, "Of course."
Allah's Apostle was prevented from performing ('Umra). Therefore, he shaved his head and had sexual relations with his wives and slaughtered his Hadi and performed 'Umra in the following year.
There are eight categories of the beneficiaries of zakah which Allah specifies in the Qur'an: "The alms are only for the poor and the needy, for those who collect them, for those whose hearts are to be reconciled, for the freedom of those who are captives and in debt, for the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarers; [it is] a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is the Knower, the Wise" [at-Taubah 60]. Ziyad ibn alHarith as-Suda'i reported: "I came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and pledged allegience to him. Then a man came and said to the Messenger: 'Give me some of the collected sadaqah.' The Messenger replied: 'Allah did not leave the matter of sadaqat to be decided by a prophet nor to others ... He Himself classified it into eight categories. If you fit into any of these categories, I will give you your due.' " It was narrated by Abu Dawud although in its chain of transmission there is 'Abdurrahman al-'Afriqi, who is of questionable merits.
The following is an elaboration upon the preceding eight categories:
A hadith attributed to Mu'adh instructs: "Take from the rich [that is those who are self-sufficient] and give to their poor." Thus, zakah should be taken from the rich who own a nisab and given to those who are not so fortunate.
No difference has been made here between the poor (fuqura') and the needy (nasakin) as far as their needs, their poverty, and their qualification for receiving zakah are concerned. The two are brought together in the preceding Qur'anic 'ayah with the necessary conjunction so that they could be differentiated from each other. This does not contradict our categorizing the masakin as a subgroup of the fuqura'. In the following hadith, the text indicates that the needy are the poor who are not noticed by the people because they abstain from begging. The Qur'an takes note of them because they, perhaps due to their modesty, go unnoticed.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "The needy person (miskin) is not one who goes around asking the people for a date or two, or for a mouthful or two, but the one who is too embarrassed to ask. Read if you wish: 'They do not beg from men importunately' [alBaqarah 273]." In a variant of this report, it is related: "The needy person is not one who goes around asking people for a mouthful or two or a date or two, but the one who has not enough [money] to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others. Thus, sadaqah is given to him and he does not beg from the people." This is narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said al-Ansari that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad told him that A'isha, the wife of the prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the tashahhud, "Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and I testify that Muhammad is the slave of Allah and His Messenger. Peace be upon you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun . Peace be upon you . "
"At-tahiyatu, at-tayibatu, as-salawatu, az-zakiyatu lillah. Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa'llah, wahdahu la sharika llah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu. As-salamu alayka ayyuha-n-nabiyyu wa rahmatu-llahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu alayna wa ala ibadi-llahi's-salihin. As-salamu alaykum."
The Prophet said, "Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary, so it was a sanctuary before me and will continue to be a sanctuary after me. It was made legal for me (i.e. I was allowed to fight in it) for a few hours of a day. It is not allowed to uproot its shrubs or to cut its trees, or to chase (or disturb) its game, or to pick up its luqata (fallen things) except by a person who would announce that (what he has found) publicly." Al-'Abbas said, "O Allah's Apostle! Except Al-Idhkhir (a kind of grass) (for it is used) by our goldsmiths and for our graves." The Prophet then said, "Except Al-Idhkhir." 'Ikrima said, "Do you know what 'chasing or disturbing' the game means? It means driving it out of the shade to occupy its place."
Zakah aims at supporting the poor by satisfying their needs. A specified amount is therefore given to them on a continuous basis to alleviate their state of poverty. This amount differs depending on circumstances and individuals. 'Umar reported: "If you happen to give [alms], you should give to satisfy one's needs." Qadi 'Abdulwahhab says that Malik never stipulated a limit to the amount that can be given. To him, zakah may even be given to one who has a house, a servant, and a mount to ride, provided he is in need. The import of the preceding hadith is clear-- that is, asking for help is permissible for a person who is poor until he gets what he needs for his livelihood and is freed from his needs.
Qabisah ibn Mukhariq al-Hilali reported: "I had a debt. I went to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and asked for his help. He answered: 'Wait until we have funds for sadaqah, then we will give you some.' He also said: 'O Qabisah, sadaqah is justified only for the following three: first, a man who is in debt, for his case makes it permissible to receive [alms] until his difficulty is resolved; second, a man who is struck by calamity which destroys his holdings, which also makes it permissible for him to receive [alms] until he is in a position to earn a sustenance [or he said, '... what satisfies his needs and makes him self-sufficient']; and third, a man who has been reduced to poverty and three persons of caliber from among his people testify to his desperate situation will receive until he finds for himself a means of support [or he said, '... what satisfies his needs and makes him selfsufficient']. Other than these cases, O Qabisah, it is not permissible (sahat). A person receiving it (sadaqah) will be consuming forbidden holdings.' " This is narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and anNasa'i.
Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab and Nafi, the mawla of Ibn Umar, whether a man who joined an imam who had already done a raka should say the tashahhud with the imam in the second and fourth rakas, even though these were odd for him? They said, "He should say tashahhud with him."
Malik said, "That is the position with us."
On the day of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet said, "There is no more emigration (from Mecca) but Jihad and intentions, and whenever you are called for Jihad, you should go immediately. No doubt, Allah has made this place (Mecca) a sanctuary since the creation of the heavens and the earth and will remain a sanctuary till the Day of Resurrection as Allah has ordained its sanctity. Fighting was not permissible in it for anyone before me, and even for me it was allowed only for a portion of a day. So, it is a sanctuary with Allah's sanctity till the Day of Resurrection. Its thorns should not be uprooted and its game should not be chased; and its luqata (fallen things) should not be picked up except by one who would announce that publicly, and its vegetation (grass etc.) should not be cut." Al-'Abbas said, "O Allah's Apostle! Except Al-Idhkhir, (for it is used by their blacksmiths and for their domestic purposes)." So, the Prophet said, "Except Al-Idhkhir."
Individuals strong in body and earning their living are not entitled to zakah. Their position is similar to that of the rich.
Concerning the merits of this hadith, al-Khattabi says that it provides the criterion that if a person is not known to have means, it will be presumed that he has none. The hadith also provides the rule that one who appears to be sturdy is not excluded from receiving the zakah unless his income is determined, for there are some people who are strong in body but for one reason or another are unable to work. Such people may receive charity according to this hadith.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn Amr ibn AIqama from Malik ibn Abdullah as-Sadi that Abu Hurayra said, "The one who raises his head and lowers it before the imam - his forelock is in the hand of a shaytan."
Malik said, concerning someone who forgot and raised his head before the imam in ruku or sujud, "The sunna of that is to return to bowing or prostrating and not to wait for the imam to come up. What he has done is a mistake, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The imam is appointed to be followed as a leader, so do not oppose him.' Abu Hurayra said, 'The one who raises his head and lowers it before the imam - his forelock is in the hand of a shaytan.' "
Allah's Apostle was cupped while he was in a state of Ihram.
Abdullah ibn as-Sa'di related that he came from Syria to see 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, who asked him: "Is it true that you perform a certain job for the Muslims and you are given wages for that, but you do not accept them?" He answered: "Yes, indeed. I possess horses and slaves. I am well-off. I want my work to be a charity for the Muslims." Then 'Umar said: "I also wanted what you desired, but the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to pay compensation to me. I would say to him: 'Give it to one who is poorer than I.' Once he gave me money and I said to him: 'Give it to a person more needy than I.' Then the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: 'Take what Allah, to Whom belongs might and majesty, gives you of His bounties without your having asked for it or being eager.' So take it and keep it, or give it away as charity--and what is not given should not be asked for." This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i.
AlMustawrid ibn Shaddad relates that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "If someone performed a job for us and has no house, let him have a house; if he has no wife, let him have a wife; if he has no servant, let him have a servant; or if he has no mount to ride, let him have one. He who clamors for anything other than these is being excessive." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud and its chain is sound. Commenting on the subject, al-Khattabi says: "This may be interpreted in two different ways. The first means that the individual is permitted to have a servant or a house deducted from his wages, which are similar to any other wages. He is not permitted to take anything else. The second means that the zakah worker has the right to have lodging and a servant. Thus, if he does not have a house or a servant, one may be hired to serve him and a house may be rented for him during the tenure of his job."
This applies primarily to that group of people whose hearts, due to their weak Islam, need to be reconciled or strengthened for Islam. In this case, zakah is distributed to rid Muslims of their evil, or to procure their assistance in the defense of Muslims. The jurists divide such people into Muslims and unbelievers. The Muslims are divided into four groups:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Da'ud ibn al-Husayn that Abu Sufyan, the mawla of Ibn Abi Ahmad, said that he heard Abu Hurayra say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed asr and said the taslim after two rakas. Dhu'l-Yadayn stood up and said, 'Has the prayer been shortened, Messenger of Allah, or have you forgotten?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood up and completed what remained of the prayer, and then, remaining sitting after saying the taslim, he made two prostrations."
The Prophet married Maimuna while he was in the state of Ihram, (only the ceremonies of marriage were held).
As for the unbelievers, they are of two categories:
The Hanafiyyah say that the share of such people are cancelled when Islam is strong. For instance, 'Uyainah ibn Hisn, al-Aqra' ibn Habis, and al-'Abbas ibn Mirdas came to Abu Bakr and requested their share. He wrote them a letter, which they took to 'Umar. He tore the letter and said: "This is something that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to give you to reconcile you to Islam. Now, Allah has fortified Islam and it is no longer in need of you. Unless you stay with Islam, the sword will be between you and us. Say: 'It is the truth from the Lord of you [all]. Then whoever will, let him believe, and whoever will, let him disbelieve' [al Kahf 29]." They returned to Abu Bakr and said: "Are you the Caliph or is 'Umar? You wrote a letter for us and 'Umar tore it up." He answered: "This is the way it is."
The Hanafiyyah continue: "Indeed, Abu Bakr agreed with 'Umar, and none of the companions disapproved of it. Likewise, it was never reported from 'Uthman or 'Ali that they gave anything to anyone in this category."
It can be answered that the case under reference was 'Umar's own judgment. He saw that there would be no benefit in mollifying these people after Islam had become well-established among their people, and no harm would follow if they abandoned Islam. Also, if 'Uthman and 'Ali stopped spending this kind of endowment, this does not necessarily mean that the provision for it was repealed. It is possible that the change of circumstances did not call for the continuation of such an endowment to the nonbelievers. However, this does not amount to the invalidation of the provision for such endowments. Should the contingency call for its revival, the endowments in this category can be given. This is because their sanction lies in the Qur'an and sunnah.
Ahmad and Muslim reported from Anas that whenever the Prophet, upon whom be peace, was asked for anything for the sake of Islam, he would give it away. A man came and asked for sadaqah. The Prophet ordered that the man be given the entire lot of sheep between two mountains. These sheep were part of the sadaqah. The man returned to his people and said: "Oh my people! Accept Islam, for indeed, Muhammad gives in such a way as if he does not fear poverty." Ash-Shaukani says that al-'Itrah, al-Jobbani, al-Balkhi, and Ibn Mubashshir held that sadaqah may be given to those whose hearts are to be reconciled to Islam. On the contrary, ash-Shaf'i maintains that such endowments are not for unbelievers. As for the sinner (faszq), he may be given from such allocations.
Abu Hanifah and his followers hold that this kind of endowment was cancelled with the spread and domination of Islam and, as evidence, they cite Abu Bakr's refusal to restore endowments to Abu Sufyan, 'Uyainah, al-Aqra', and al-'Abbas ibn Mirdas. It appears that reconciliation is permitted when the need for it arises. In other words, it is permitted to give them sadaqah for reconciliation when a people obey a leader only for worldly affairs, and they cannot be controlled except by force and domination. The spread of Islam has no ramification on the issue of reconciliation because it makes no difference in this case. The author of al-Manar testifies: "This is the whole truth. Only independent judgment can be exercised to elaborate on the eligibility and the amount of sadaqah or booty to be given away when they are available, along with other kinds of property [immovable and movable]. It is necessary to seek consultation of capable people (ahl ashShura) as the caliphs did in those matters that required ijtihad. Whether a leader can force them into obedience by coercive action before resorting to the use of the endowment is an unsettled issue. Nevertheless, this cannot be followed as a rule but rather as the principle of inclining to the lesser of two evils and to the best benefit of the society."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al-Musayyab, and from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman, the same as that.
Malik said, "Every forgetfulness which decreases from the prayer, prostrations for it come before the greeting, and every forgetfulness which is an addition to the prayer, prostrations for it come after the greeting."
A man was crushed to death by his she-camel and was brought to Allah's Apostle who said, "Give him a bath and shroud him, but do not cover his head, and do not bring any perfume near to him, as he will be resurrected reciting Talbiya."
This category includes two kinds of slaves: contracted slaves (rnukazabun) and regular slaves. Both categories were aided with sadaqah to obtain their freedom. Al-Bara' reported: "A man came to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and said to him: 'Guide me to a deed that makes me close to Heaven and far from Hell.' The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: 'Free a person and redeem a slave.' " Then al-Bara' asked: "O Messenger of Allah. Are not the two the same?" He answered: "No. Freeing a person is to grant him freedom [by redeeming him from his bondage], but the redeeming of the neck means buying him his freedom." This is related by Ahmad and ad-Daraqutni and their report is trustworthy.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Three persons have the right to be helped by Allah: the warrior (ghazi) who fights for Allah, the contracted slave who longs to buy his freedom, and one who wishes to get married for the sake of chastity." This is related by Ahmad and the ashab as-Sunan. At-Tirmidhi grades this report as good and sound.
As to the meaning of free captives (wa fi ar-riqab), ash-Shaukani says that scholars differ over it. 'Ali ibn Abu Talib, Sa'id ibn Jubair, al-Layth, ath-Thauri, al-'Itrah, the Hanafiyyah, the Shaf'iyyah, and the majority of scholars are reported to believe that it refers to contracted slaves (rnukatabdn) whose freedom is secured through payment from zakah. According to Ibn 'Abbas, al-Hasan al-Basri, Malik, Ahrnad ibn Hanbal, Abu Thaur, and Abu 'Ubaid, it means using zakah in the release of any kind of slave. Al-Bukhari and Ibn al-Mundhir are also supportive of this view. Their rationale is that the expression wa fi ar-riqab cannot be confined to the kind of slavery arising from a contract because, if that had been the case, then it would have fallen under the category of those in debt (gharimln), for theirs is an obvious case of debt. As such, freeing a slave from bondage is better than helping a contracted slave. He could be aided or helped, but not freed, for the contracted slave is a slave as long as he owes even one dirham. At the same time, freeing a slave is possible at any time, in contrast to the situation of a contracted slave.
Commenting on the subject, az-Zuhri says that the preceding position entails two possibilities. The Qur'anic 'ayah on the subject alludes to these two possibilities, which have been pointed out by ashShaukani in his Muntaqa al-Akhbar. In the hadith narrated by alBara', evidence suggests that redeeming necks is not the same as freeing them. Nor is the deed of freeing slaves the same as helping contracted ones with money to pay off the contract. Both of these bring the individual closer to Heaven and distance him from Hell.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayd from Salim ibn Abdullah that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "If you are uncertain in the prayer, estimate what you think you have forgotten of the prayer and repeat it, then do the two sajdas of forgetfulness from the sitting position."
I heard the Prophet delivering a sermon at 'Arafat saying, "If a Muhrim does not find slippers, he could wear Khuffs (but he has to cut short the Khuffs below the ankles), and if he does not find an Izar (a waist sheet for wrapping the lower half of the body) he could wear trousers."
Fee sabil lillah means for the sake of Allah--that is, making use of knowledge and deeds to attain Allah's pleasure. Most scholars understood this phrase as fighting for the cause of Allah. Part of zakah designated for the cause of Allah is given to volunteer fighters, especially those who are not on the payroll of the state, regardless of their financial status.
The hadith of the Messenger of Allah, stated elsewhere, also confirms it: "Sadaqah is not permitted to the rich except to the following five: the warrior (ghuzi) for the cause of Allah . . . and so on."
As to the pilgrimage (hajj, it does not fall under the zakah designated for the cause of Allah because it is an obligation for one who can afford it. Commenting on the issue, the authors of al-Manar say: "Spending of this portion on securing the routes of the pilgrimage and for providing water, food, and health services for the pilgrims is permissible if funds from other sources are not available."
Included in the share designated "for the cause of Allah" are those spendings in the interest of the common good that pertain to both religious and secular matters. The foremost is the preparations for war, including buying arms, food supplies for soldiers, means of transportation, and equipment for warriors. However, the supplies for warriors are to be returned to the treasury after the war. This applies especially to unconsumable items such as weapons, horses, and so on. A warrior does not always possess such items, for he uses them in the cause of Allah only when necessary. This is not the case, however, with other recipients of zakah, such as zakah collectors, debtors, people who received money under the expense account "reconciliation of hearts," and the wayfarers. They do not have to return the zakah, even if they are no longer entitled to it.
Also included in the expense account "for the cause of Allah" are projects such as establishing military hospitals, paved and unpaved roads, the extension of military (not commercial) railway lines, and the building of cruisers, warplanes, fortresses, and trenches. An important item in this category could be the preparation of Muslim missionaries and sending them to non-Muslim countries to spread Islam, just as non-Muslim missionaries are now spreading their religions in Islamic countries. Also falling under this heading would be school expenses to prepare adequate courses in religious sciences and in other areas of public interest. Teachers involved in such programs should be given sadaqah as long as they continue to perform their assigned jobs without resorting to other means of income. Scholars who are rich should not be paid for their work, despite their obvious benefits to the people.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar, when questioned about forgetfulness in the prayer, said, "If you think that you have forgotten part of the prayer, then pray it."
The Prophet delivered a sermon at 'Arafat and said, "Whoever does not get an Izar can wear trousers, and whoever cannot get a pair of shoes can wear Khuffs."
According to Ibn Rushd: "The cause of their differences lies between the literal and the intended meaning. The literal meaning determines the classifications, but the intended meaning shows that priority should be given to the needy according to the immediacy of their needs since the aim [of the institution of zakah] is to eliminate poverty. The enumeration [of the categories] in the Qur'an is meant to distinguish the different kinds--that is, the people eligible for zakah, and not necessarily their grouping. The first interpretation is the literal one while the second is the intended interpretation." Ash-Shaf'i builds his case on the hadith of as-Suda'i which is related by Abu Dawud. A man came to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and asked for zakah. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Allah has not left the matter to the judgment of a prophet nor to others. He has laid the rules for it--that is, He has classified [the beneficiaries] into eight categories. If you fit into any of these, I will give you your due."
The author of ar-Rawdah an-Nadiyyah says: "Distributing all of the zakah to one group is more benefiting to the realization of the word of Allah." In brief, one may say that Allah made zakah applicable only to the eight specifically mentioned categories. Spelling out these categories does not mean that the zakah has to be distributed among them equally or even that it has to be divided among them. The intended meaning, however, is that the categories of sadaqah are similar to various groups of people who are eligible for it. Thus, one who is obligated to pay anything to any category of sadaqah and gives it to a person in a parallel group is considered to be fulfilling what Allah commanded him to do. Contrary to this, if one divides his zakah due into the acknowledged eight categories, if all eight exist, then that would not only be contrary to the practice of the Muslims throughout history, but it would cause hardship to the payer of zakah. For example, if the collected zakah were meager, it would be of no benefit to any designated category--even if it was of one kind, to say nothing if it was of numerous kinds. To endorse such a practice would be tantamount to counter what the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did when he permitted the payment of a penance (kaffarah) from the charity collected for Salmah ibn Sakhr. Obviously, the hadith of as-Suda'i cannot be used as evidence.
There is not a single case in the entire corpus of hadith literature which could be used to make the distribution of zakah to all groups of people obligatory. Using the hadith of Mu'adh as evidence that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, instructed him to take zakah from the rich Yemenites and give it to their poor will not be of much help because it does not establish that the zakah was distributed to all the groups. Nor is the hadith of Ziyad ibn al-Harith as-Suda'i valid in this regard because in its chain of narrators is 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Ziyad al-'Afriqi, whose credibility has been questioned by many scholars. Assuming that this hadith is valid for the point under discussion, the meaning of the division of zakah into parts is its distribution according to the apparent meaning of the Qur'anic 'ayah and what the Prophet, upon whom be peace, had in mind. Assuming that the division of zakah itself is intended, the distribution has to be done according to the specified categories. In this case, any transfer of the share of one group to another, even if the group concerned was for some reason non-existent, will not be permissible. Such an approach will be contrary to the consensus of Muslim scholars. If we accept that, then the deciding factor for the sadaqah's distribution is the leader's wish rather than, and not the specific categories of eligible people. Thus, there is no evidence that makes division obligatory, and it is consequently permissible to give some sadaqah to those eligible people and some to other groups. Indeed, when the leader collects all the sadaqat from his people and all eight categories are eligible to receive them, each group has the right to claim its share. However, he does not have to divide the collected sadaqat among them equally or distribute it without any distinction, for he can give any amount to any group or groups that he wants to, or he can give some without giving the rest if he thinks it is in the interest of Islam and its people. For example, if the sadaqah was collected and then a jihad was announced, meaning that it would become necessary to defend the territory of Islam against the unbelievers, the leader can give some or all of it to the deserving warriors. This also applies to other concerns if the interest of Islam necessitates it.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Hurmuz that Abdullah ibn Buhayna said, "The Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed dhuhr with us and he stood straight up after two rakas without sitting. When he had finished the prayer, he did two sajdas and then said the taslim after that."
Malik said, concerning someone who forgot in his prayer and stood up after he had completed four rakas and recited and then went into ruku and then, when he raised his head from ruku, remembered that he had already completed (his prayer), "He returns to a sitting position and does not do any sajda. If he has already done one sajda I do not think he should do the other. Then when his prayer is finished he does two sajdas from the sitting position after saying the taslim."
The Prophet fixed Dhul-Hulaifa as the Miqat (the place for assuming Ihram) for the people of Medina, and Qaran-al-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. These Mawaqit are for those people and also for those who come through these Mawaqit (from places other than the above-mentioned) with the intention of (performing) Hajj and Umra. And those living inside these Mawaqit can assume Ihram from the place where they start; even the people of Mecca can assume Ihram from Mecca.
Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that Abu Talha al-Ansari was praying in his garden when a wild pigeon flew in and began to fly to and fro trying to find a way out. The sight was pleasing to him and he let his eyes follow the bird for a time and then he went back to his prayer but could not remember how much he had prayed. He said, "A trial has befallen me in this property of mine." So he came to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned the trial that had happened to him in his garden and said, "Messenger of Allah, it is a sadaqa for Allah, so dispose of it wherever you wish."
While a man was standing with the Prophet at 'Arafat, he fell from his mount and his neck was crushed by it. The Prophet said, "Wash the deceased with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth, and neither perfume him nor cover his head, for Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection and he will be reciting Talbiya."
The jurists agree that it is not permissible to give zakah to one's father, grandfather, mother, grandmother, son, grandson, daughter, and her children because the zakah payer is obligated to take care of all such people anyway. In case of their poverty, they should draw upon his largesse because it is their right. Thus, if he pays them zakah, he benefits himself and avoids the obligation of supporting them. Malik exempts the grandfather, grandmother, grandsons, and granddaughters because one does not have an obligation to support them if they are poor. However, if they are well-off and fought voluntarily for the cause of Allah, the zakah payer may give them some of the zakah designated for those fighting in the cause of Allah. He may also give them some of the share meant for debtors, though he is not obligated to pay off their debts. He may also give them a portion of the amount set aside for zakah collectors, provided they are in this category.
Ibn al-Mundhir says that all scholars agree that a man is not obligated to give his wife zakah, the reason being that adequate support for her is already enjoined upon him, unless she is in debt. In that case, she may be given from the debtor's share to pay off her debt.
It is not permissible to distribute zakah so as to grow nearer to Allah other than what Allah, the Exalted One, mentions in the 'ayah: "The alms are only for the poor and the needy" (at-Taubah 60). Thus, zakah cannot be paid for establishing mosques, bridges, road repair, hospitality, shrouding the dead, and so on. Abu Dawud witnesses: "I heard Ahmad while he was asked whether spending part of the zakah on shrouding the deceased was permissible. He said: 'No. Nor can it be used to pay the debt of the dead.' " He also said: "One can pay the debt of a living person from the zakah but not that of the deceased. For a person who dies, there is no debt."
Ahmad was also asked what would happen if it had been given to help them redeem their debt. He answered: "Yes, for his family it is all right."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr that a man from the Ansar was praying in a garden of his in Quff, one of the valleys of Madina, during the date season and the palms' branches were weighed down with fruit on all sides. He looked at them and what he saw of their fruits amazed him. Then he went back to his prayer and he did not know how much he had prayed. He said, "A trial has befallen me in this property of mine." So he went toUthman ibn Affan, who was the khalifa at the time, and mentioned it to him and said, "It is sadaqa, so give it away in the paths of good." Uthman ibn Affan sold it for fifty thousand and so that property became known as the Fifty.
While a man was standing with the Prophet at 'Arafat, he fell from his Mount and his neck was crushed by it. The Prophet said, "Wash the deceased with water and Sidr and shroud him in two pieces of cloth, and neither perfume him nor cover his head, for Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Resurrection and he will be reciting Talbiya."
The Messenger of Allah used to send his authorized agents to collect zakah. He would then distribute it among the deserving people. Abu Bakr and 'Umar did the same. There is no difference between unhidden wealth (i.e., plants, fruit, cattle, and minerals) and hidden wealth (i.e., trade goods, gold, silver, and treasure). When 'Uthman became caliph, he followed this practice for a while. Later on, when he saw that the hidden wealth was tremendous and that pursuing it embarrassed the community and while checking it harmed its owners, he left the payment of the zakah on such property to the individual's discretion. Jurists agree that the owners themselves should assume the distribution of zakah, especially when it is for hidden wealth. As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid reported: "I once heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace. He said: 'This is the month of your zakah. If any one of you still owes a debt, let him pay it off so that your properties become free from debts. Then, you can pay the zakah on them.' " Al-Baihaqi relates it with a sahih chain.
An-Nawawi says that some scholars agree with this practice.
Is it preferable for the owners to distribute the zakah due on their hidden wealth, or is it preferable to let the leader distribute it?
There is more than one opinion on this subject. The preferred choice among the Shaf'iyyah is that zakah be paid to the government, especially when it is a just government. According to the Hanbaliyyah, it is preferable that the zakah payer distribute it himself, even though it is permissible to give it to the ruler. On the other hand, Malik and the Hanafiyyah hold that if the wealth is unhidden, the Muslim leader and his agents have the authority to ask for and take their zakah. The opinion of the Shaffiyyah and the Hanbaliyyah concerning unhidden wealth is similar to that on the hidden ones.
It is permissible to pay zakah to a Muslim leader, whether he is just or not, provided he rules (more or less) according to Islamic laws. The property owner absolves himself of his obligation by giving zakah to the leader. If the leader does not distribute it properly, it is preferable that the property owner do so himself, unless the leader or his agent asks for it.
Anas reported: "A man from the tribe of Banu Tamim came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and said: 'O Messenger of Allah! If I paid the zakah to your representative, am I acquitted of my responsibility?' The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: 'Yes, if you pay it to my representative, then you have acquitted yourself. Its reward will be yours and its sin will be upon whoever misused it.' " This is related by Ahmad.
Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "After me, there will be selfishness and you will deny obligations." They said: "O Messenger of Allah! What do you command us to do?" He answered: "Pay the due which is upon you and ask Allah what is right for you." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Wa'il ibn Hajar reported: "I heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say after a man had asked him his opinion of our leaders who deny their right [of collecting and distributing the zakah]: 'Listen and obey, for indeed, they have their responsibility and you have yours.' " This is related by Muslim.
Commenting on the subject, ash-Shaukkani says that the hadith cited in this section are used by many scholars to justify the permissibility of transferring both kinds of zakah to unjust rulers. This applies to rulers of Muslims in the world of Islam (Dar al Islam).
As to contemporary Muslim governments, Sheikh Rashid Rida says: "At present, the majority of Muslims do not have an Islamic govemment which establishes Islam, propagates and defends it, calls for jihad individually or collectively, implements its divine injunctions, and collects and distributes zakah according to the rules laid down by Allah, the Exalted One.
Some of the Muslim rulers are under the influence of Western powers, while others are under the tutelage of polytheists. These foreign powers employ Muslim leaders as tools to subjugate the people in the name of Islam, thus destroying Islam itself. They use the influence of the Muslim leaders and Muslim resources, including zakah and endowments, to further their interests. To such rulers, it is not permissible to pay any part of zakah, regardless of their title or profession of faith. As for the rest of the Islamic governments whose rulers and heads of state profess Islam and whose finances are not controlled by foreigners, the payment of unhidden zakah should be made to their leaders. This also applies to hidden properties, such as gold and silver, when the leaders request it, even if they are unjust in some of their judgments, as is said by the jurists."
A man was in the company of the Prophet and his she-camel crushed his neck while he was in a state of Ihram and he died. Allah's Apostle said, "Wash him with water and Sidr and shroud him in his two garments; neither perfume him nor cover his head, for he will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection, reciting Talbiya."
A woman from the tribe of Juhaina came to the Prophet and said, "My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May I perform Hajj on my mother's behalf?" The Prophet replied, "Perform Hajj on her behalf. Had there been a debt on your mother, would you have paid it or not? So, pay Allah's debt as He has more right to be paid."
Zakah is given to a Muslim provided he is eligible to receive it. Whether he is good or sinful does not matter. If, however, it is known that he will use it to perpetuate what Allah has forbidden, it should be denied to him. It is preferable that one who pays zakah should give it to the pious, the knowledgeable, and those of kind disposition. It is related from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The likeness of a believer and the likeness of belief are similar to the horse that, tied to its post, walks around and then comes back to its post. The believer may forget, but he returns to his belief. Thus, give your food to the righteous people and entrust your favors to the believers." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain and as-Suyuti authenticated it.
Ibn Taimiyyah says that the needy who discards his salah will not be given anything until he repents and offers salah again because neglecting salah is a grave sin. It is not right that one who commits this sin should be financially helped until he repents to Allah. Included along with those who neglect salah are offenders who are not ashamed to commit sinful acts and remain unrepentant. Also, one whose conscience is corrupted has an innate character which is distorted and a sense of good which is virtually dead. Such a person is not given zakah unless doing so will turn him in the right direction and help him reform.
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, prohibited the one who gives zakah to buy back what he gave up for Allah, the Exalted One. This is similar to the case of those immigrants who were prohibited (by the Messenger) to return to Makkah after they had left it as immigrants. It is related by 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar that: "Once 'Umar gave away a horse, for the cause of Allah, as sadaqah. Later, he saw it for sale and wanted to buy it. He asked the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, if he could do so. The Messenger answered: 'Do not buy back what you gave in sadaqah.'" This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i. AnNawawi says it is a purifying prohibition, not one of unlawfulness. It is unsuitable (makruh) for a person to buy back what he has given in sadaqah, or zakah, or penance for a promise, or anything of the nature which brings one closer to Allah, the Exalted One. This is also applicable to a gift offered to someone which the donor cannot own even if it is allowed by the recipient. However, it can be owned by him again if he inherits it. According to Ibn Battal, most scholars disliked someone to buy his sadaqah back. This is in accordance with 'Umar's hadith. Ibn al-Mundhir says that al-Hasan, 'Ikrimah, Rabi'ah, and al-Auza'i allowed buying one's charity back. Ibn Hazm is also inclined to this view because of a hadith from Abu Sa'id alKhudri. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Sadaqah is not allowed to the well-to-do except for five among them: one who fights in the cause of Allah; one who administers zakah; one who is in debt; one who bought [the article of zakah] with his money; or one who has a poor neighbor to whom he gave sadaqah, and the latter gave it as a gift to him."
A woman from the tribe of Khath'am came in the year (of ,Hajjat-al-Wada' of the Prophet ) and said, "O Allah's Apostle! My father has come under Allah's obligation of performing Hajj but he is a very old man and cannot sit properly on his mount. Will the obligation be fulfilled if I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet replied in the affirmative.
An-Nawawi holds that if someone is able to earn a suitable living and wants to occupy himself by studying some of the religious sciences but finds that his work will not allow him to do so, then he may be given zakah since seeking knowledge is considered a collective duty (fard kifayah). As for the individual who is not seeking knowledge, zakah is not permissible for him if he is able to earn his living even though he resides at a school. An-Nawawi says: "As for one who is engaged in supererogatory worship (nawafil) or for one who occupies himself in nawafil with no time to pursue his own livelihood, he may not receive zakah. This is because the benefit of his worship is confined only to him, contrary to the one who seeks knowledge."
Formulating the issue, an-Nawawi says in al-Majmu': "Suppose a person owes a debt to another person and at the same time he qualifies for zakah. [When zakah is due for the lender to pay,] he tells [the borrower]: 'Consider the debt for [my] zakah.' Would it be valid?" An-Nawawi says there are two opinions on it. According to Ahmad and Abu Hanifah, who held the better opinion, it does not constitute zakah because it cannot be discharged unless actually paid, while Hasan al-Basri and 'Ata maintain that the responsibility to pay zakah will be discharged even though there is no payment of zakah (at that point in time) by its payer.
Likewise, if an individual trustingly assigns some money to a person to keep and at the time of zakah he asks the assignee to keep the amount in lieu of his zakah, it will be valid.
The jurists, however, agree that if a person pays zakah to another who owes him money and then receives it back to redeem his loan to him, the obligation to pay zakah will not be discharged. It is also invalid for a person to accept zakah on the condition that he will pay it back to the lender (the zakah payer) for the amount he owes him. Nevertheless, if at the time of lending and acceptance of the loan both agree to do so, even though it was not mentioned in the deal, it will be valid as zakah.
The Prophet sent me (to Mina) with the luggage from Jam' (i.e. Al-Muzdalifa) at night.
The Prophet said, "A woman should not travel except with a Dhu-Mahram (her husband or a man with whom that woman cannot marry at all according to the Islamic jurisprudence), and no man may visit her except in the presence of a Dhu-Mahram." A man got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I intend to go to such and such an army and my wife wants to perform Hajj." The Prophet said (to him), "Go along with her (to Hajj)."
When the Prophet returned after performing his Hajj, he asked Um Sinan Al-Ansari, "What did forbid you to perform Hajj?" She replied, "Father of so-and-so (i.e. her husband) had two camels and he performed Hajj on one of them, and the second is used for the irrigation of our land." The Prophet said (to her), "Perform 'Umra in the month of Ramadan, (as it is equivalent to Hajj or Hajj with me (in reward)."
Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever is generous to himself and to his family on the day of 'Ashurah will have Allah's generosity bestowed on him for the rest of the year." This is related by al-Baihaqi in ash-Shu'ab and by Ibn 'Abdul-Barr. The hadith has other chains, but they are all weak; however, strung together these chains strengthen the rank of the hadith, as as-Sakhawi said.
The Prophet was the most generous amongst the people, and he used to be more so in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel visited him, and Gabriel used to meet him on every night of Ramadan till the end of the month. The Prophet used to recite the Holy Qur'an to Gabriel, and when Gabriel met him, he used to be more generous than a fast wind (which causes rain and welfare).
The Prophet was cupped while he was in the state of Ihram, and also while he was observing a fast.
The Prophet was cupped while he was fasting.
Allah's Apostle set out for Mecca in Ramadan and he fasted, and when he reached Al-Kadid, he broke his fast and the people (with him) broke their fast too. (Abu 'Abdullah said, "Al-Kadid is a land covered with water between Usfan and Qudaid.")
A man came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! My mother died and she ought to have fasted one month (for her missed Ramadan). Shall I fast on her behalf?" The Prophet replied in the affirmative and said, "Allah's debts have more right to be paid." In another narration a woman is reported to have said, "My sister died..."
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: A woman said to the Prophet "My mother died and she had vowed to fast but she didn't fast." In another narration Ibn 'Abbas is reported to have said, "A woman said to the Prophet, "My mother died while she ought to have fasted for fifteen days."
The Prophet never fasted a full month except the month of Ramadan, and he used to fast till one could say, "By Allah, he will never stop fasting," and he would abandon fasting till one would say, "By Allah, he will never fast."
The Prophet came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day." The Prophet said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." So, the Prophet fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).
I never saw the Prophet seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, the day of 'Ashura', or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.
The Prophet said, "Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan"on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadan (i.e. 21, 23, 25, respectively).
Allah's Apostle said, "The Night of Qadr is in the last ten nights of the month (Ramadan), either on the first nine or in the last (remaining) seven nights (of Ramadan)." Ibn 'Abbas added, "Search for it on the twenty-fourth (of Ramadan)."
'Ukaz, Majanna and Dhul-Majaz were marketplaces in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. When Islam came, Muslims felt that marketing there might be a sin. So, the Divine Inspiration came: "There is no harm for you to seek the bounty of your Lord (in the seasons of Hajj)." (2.198) Ibn 'Abbas recited the verse in this way.
Allah's Apostle said, "Allah made Mecca a sanctuary and it was neither permitted for anyone before, nor will it be permitted for anyone after me (to fight in it). And fighting in it was made legal for me for a few hours of a day only. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs or to cut down its trees or to chase its game or to pick up its Luqata (fallen things) except by a person who would announce it publicly." 'Abbas bin 'Abdul-Muttalib requested the Prophet, "Except Al-Idhkhir, for our goldsmiths and for the roofs of our houses." The Prophet said, "Except Al-Idhkhir." 'Ikrima said, "Do you know what is meant by chasing its game? It is to drive it out of the shade and sit in its place." Khalid said, "('Abbas said: Al-Idhkhir) for our goldsmiths and our graves."
'Ukaz, Majanna and Dhul-Majaz were markets in the pre-Islamic period. When the people embraced Islam they considered it a sin to trade there. So, the following Holy Verse came: "There is no harm for you if you seek of the bounty of your Lord (Allah) in the Hajj season." (2.198) Ibn 'Abbas recited it like this.
Once the Prophet got his blood out (medically) and paid that person who had done it. If it had been illegal, the Prophet would not have paid him.
The Prophet forbade the selling of foodstuff before receiving it. I consider that all types of sellings should be done similarly.
The Prophet forbade Muzabana and Muhaqala.
Once 'Umar was informed that a certain man sold alcohol. 'Umar said, "May Allah curse him! Doesn't he know that Allah's Apostle said, 'May Allah curse the Jews, for Allah had forbidden them to eat the fat of animals but they melted it and sold it."
Allah's Apostle came to Medina and the people used to pay in advance the price of fruits to be delivered within one or two years. (The sub-narrator is in doubt whether it was one to two years or two to three years.) The Prophet said, "Whoever pays money in advance for dates (to be delivered later) should pay it for known specified weight and measure (of the dates)."
The Prophet came to Medina and the people used to pay in advance the price of dates to be delivered within two or three years. He said (to them), "Whoever pays in advance the price of a thing to be delivered later should pay it for a specified measure at specified weight for a specified period."
The Prophet came (to Medina) and he told the people (regarding the payment of money in advance that they should pay it) for a known specified measure and a known specified weight and a known specified period.
The Prophet came to Medina and the people used to pay in advance the prices of fruits to be delivered within two to three years. The Prophet said (to them), "Buy fruits by paying their prices in advance on condition that the fruits are to be delivered to you according to a fixed specified measure within a fixed specified period." Ibn Najih said, " ... by specified measure and specified weight."
When the Prophet was cupped, he paid the man who cupped him his wages.
When the Prophet was cupped, he paid the man who cupped him his wages. If it had been undesirable he would not have paid him.
The Prophet said, "May Allah be merciful to the mother of Ishmael! If she had left the water of Zam-Zam (fountain) as it was, (without constructing a basin for keeping the water), (or said, "If she had not taken handfuls of its water"), it would have been a flowing stream. Jurhum (an Arab tribe) came and asked her, 'May we settle at your dwelling?' She said, 'Yes, but you have no right to possess the water.' They agreed."
The Prophet sent Mu'adh to Yemen and said, "Be afraid, from the curse of the oppressed as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah."
The Prophet (along with his companions) reached Mecca in the morning of the fourth of Dhul-Hijja assuming Ihram for Hajj only. So when we arrived at Mecca, the Prophet ordered us to change our intentions of the Ihram for 'Umra and that we could finish our Ihram after performing the 'Umra and could go to our wives (for sexual intercourse). The people began talking about that. Jabir said surprisingly, "Shall we go to Mina while semen is dribbling from our male organs?" Jabir moved his hand while saying so. When this news reached the Prophet he delivered a sermon and said, "I have been informed that some peoples were saying so and so; By Allah I fear Allah more than you do, and am more obedient to Him than you. If I had known what I know now, I would not have brought the Hadi (sacrifice) with me and had the Hadi not been with me, I would have finished the Ihram." At that Suraqa bin Malik stood up and asked "O Allah's Apostle! Is this permission for us only or is it forever?" The Prophet replied, "It is forever." In the meantime 'Ali bin Abu Talib came from Yemen and was saying Labbaik for what the Prophet has intended. (According to another man, 'Ali was saying Labbaik for Hajj similar to Allah's Apostle's). The Prophet told him to keep on the Ihram and let him share the Hadi with him.
The Prophet said, "One who takes back his gift (which he has already given) is like a dog that swallows its vomit."
That the people sitting with that person will be his co-owners. But this report is not confirmed by an authentic narration. (Refer to Hadith 778)
The Prophet said, "He who takes back his present is like him who swallows his vomit."
The Prophet said, "The bad example is not for us. He who takes back his present is like a dog that swallows back its vomit."
The Prophet said about Hamza's daughter, "I am not legally permitted to marry her, as foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs). She is the daughter of my foster brother."
Hilal bin Umaiya accused his wife before the Prophet of committing illegal sexual intercourse with Sharik bin Sahma. The Prophet said, "Produce a proof, or else you would get the legal punishment (by being lashed) on your back." Hilal said, "O Allah's Apostle! If anyone of us saw another man over his wife, would he go to search for a proof." The Prophet went on saying, "Produce a proof or else you would get the legal punishment (by being lashed) on your back." The Prophet then mentioned the narration of Lian (as in the Holy Book). (Surat-al-Nur: 24)
The majority of scholars hold that the use of wine and other prohibited things as medicine, is unlawful. They base their arguments on the following hadith:
Wa'il ibn Hujr al-Hadrami reported that, "Tariq ibn Suwaid asked the Prophet, peace be upon him, if he could use liquor as medicine. The Prophet replied: 'It is not a cure, but a disease'.'' (Muslim, Abu Daw'ud, and Tirmidhi.)
Umm Salamah, the wife of the Prophet, peace be upon him, reports that he once said: "Allah has not placed a cure for your diseases in things that He has forbidden for you.'' (Reported by Baihaqi; Ibn Hibban considers this hadith to be sound.Bukhari has also related it on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud.)
Abu ad-Darda reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Allah has sent down both the malady and its remedy. For every disease He has created a cure. So seek medical treatment, but never with something the use of which Allah has prohibited.'' (Reported by Abu Daw'ud. Among the natrators of this hadith we find Isma'il ibn 'Aiyash, who is considered trustworthy by the Syrians, but regarded as a weak narrator by the scholars of Hijaz.)
Abu Hurairah narrated: "The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, prohibited the use of a harmful medicine, namely, poison."(Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.)
Using a few, unnoticeable drops that cannot induce intoxication, is not prohibited, provided they are a part of a compound medicine. For example, the use of a small amount of pure natural silk in a woven fabric, as explained in al-Manar.
In his book, Al-Adab ash-Shar'iah, Ibn Muflih writes that Shaikh Taqiyyuddin Ibn Taymiyyah said: "A credible Jew or Christian who has medical expertise may treat a sick Muslim. Such a person may, likewise, be entrusted with funds or other financial transactions, for Allah, the Exalted, says: 'Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will (readily) pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stand over them demanding it'.'' (Qur'an 3.75)
We find in a sound hadith that the Prophet, peace be upon him, hired a polytheist as a guide at the time of his migration to Madinah, so he entrusted him with his life and money. The people of the tribe of Khuza'ah, who were both Muslims and non-Muslims, acted as scouts for the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. It is also reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered Muslims to seek treatment from Al-Harith ibn Kaldah, who was a disbeliever. But when a Muslim physician with the expertise is available, one should seek his or her treatment and not turn to anyone else. The same applies when one has to entrust a person with funds or deal with him in business. If a Muslim has to confide in or turn to someone from the people of the Book for medical treatment, he may do so. It is not prohibited to befriend Jews and Christians. And when the Muslim has an opportunity to talk to them, he should address them in ways that are polite and sincere. Indeed, Allah, the Exalted, says: "And do not argue with the people of the Book, except in ways that are best." Qur'an 29.46
In a hadith on the Treaty of Hudaibiyah, Abu Al-Khattab tells us that "the Prophet, peace be upon him, sent a man of the Khuza'ah tribe to gather intelligence, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, accepted his report despite the fact that he was a disbeliever." This proves, according to Abu Al-Khattab, that it is quite permissible to take the advice of a non-believing physician for diagnosis and treatment, provided he is not suspect and his fidelity is not doubtful."
I recommend that people reduce the proportion of what they bequeath by will to the fourth (of the whole legacy), for Allah's Apostle said, "One-third, yet even one third is too much."
'Amr ibn Shu'aib relates from his father and from his grandfather, 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn Al-'Aas, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "If one of you is frightened while sleeping, one should say: A'udhu billah min hamazatish shayatin wa an yahdrun ' I seek refuge in Allah's perfect words from His anger, His chastisement, from the evil of His creatures, and from the suggestions and approach of devils.' Then one will never be harmed." 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related further that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr "used to teach this prayer to his older sons who could comprehend and memorize. For those who were not able to do so, he wrote these words down, wrapped them as pendants, and made them wear these around their necks." (Narrated by Abu Daw'ud, Nasa'i, and Tirmihi, who says it is an acceptable but unknown hadith. Al-Hakim says it is sound)
'Aishah, Malik, and most of the scholars of the schools of Ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal also subscribe to this view. Nevertheless Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn Mas'ud, scholars of the Hanafi school, and some scholars of the Ash-Shafi'i and Hanbali schools, according to one study, are of the opinion that it is not permissible for a person to wear anything as an amulet in the light of the above mentioned general prohibition regarding amulets.
The custom (in old days) was that the property of the deceased would be inherited by his offspring; as for the parents (of the deceased), they would inherit by the will of the deceased. Then Allah cancelled from that custom whatever He wished and fixed for the male double the amount inherited by the female, and for each parent a sixth (of the whole legacy) and for the wife an eighth or a fourth and for the husband a half or a fourth.
Saying: "Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un" (We belong to Allah and truly to Him we shall Return)
A believer should, at the death of a relative or a friend, invoke Allah and say: "Verily we belong to Allah, and truly to Him shall we return." The following reports show that to do so is commendable.
Ahmad and Muslim reported from Umm Salmah that she said: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying: "If a servant of Allah is afflicted with a misfortune and says: Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un, Allahumma ajirni fi musibati wa akhlif li khairan minha 'Verily we belong to Allah and truly to Him shall we return. O Allah! Protect me in this calamity that has befallen me and replace it with something better,'
Allah will accept his prayer, grant him reward for his affliction, and replace it with something better." She added: "When Abu Salmah (her husband) died, I invoked Allah in the words taught to me by the Prophet, peace be upon him, and Allah did grant me someone better than he, i.e., (He gave me) the Messenger of Allah (as a husband)."
Tirmidhi reports from Abu Musa al-Ash'ari that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "When a child of a servant of Allah passes away, Allah says to the angels: 'Did you take the soul of My servant's child?' They say: 'Yes.' He, the Almighty, says: 'Did you take away the apple of my servant's eye?' They say: 'Yes.' He, the Almighty says: 'What did My servant say at this?' They say: 'He praised You and said: "Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'a un (Verily we belong to Allah and to Him shall we return)." At this Allah says: ' Build for My servant a mansion in Paradise and call it the House of Praise (bayt al-hamd)'." Tirmidhi says this is a sound hadith.
Bukhari has reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Allah, the Exalted and Glorious says: 'I have no better reward than Paradise for a believing servant of Mine who is patient and resigned when I take away one of his beloved, one among those he most cherishes in the world."
"Those who say, when afflicted with calamity, 'To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return,' are those on whom descend blessings from Allah, and mercy, and they are the ones who receive guidance." 55 Commenting on these verses of the Qur'an, Ibn Abbas said: "Allah, the Almighty and the Exalted, informs us that when a believer is patient and resigned after a misfortune visits him and invokes Allah, Allah will grant him three (good) merits: blessings, mercy, and guidance to the right path."
The mother of Sad bin Ubada died in his absence. He said, "O Allah's Apostle! My mother died in my absence; will it be of any benefit for her if I give sadaqa on her behalf?" The Prophet said, "Yes," Sad said, "I make you a witness that I gave my garden called Al Makhraf in charity on her behalf."
Muslim scholars are agreed that weeping for the dead is permissible, whereas crying and wailing are not. It is reported in a sound hadith that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Allah does not punish a person for shedding tears or feeling pain in his heart. But He does punish, though he may show mercy, because of (what he utters with) this," and then he pointed to his tongue.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, wept on the death of his son, Ibrahim, and said: "The eyes shed tears and the heart feels pain, but we utter only what pleases our Lord. O Ibrahim! We are aggrieved at your demise." He also wept when his grand daughter, Umaymah, daughter of Zainab, died. At this Sa'ad ibn 'Ubadah said: "O Messenger of Allah! Are you weeping? Did you not forbid Zainab from weeping?" The Prophet, peace be upon him, replied: "This (weeping) is the mercy that Allah has placed in the hearts of His servants. And surely Allah bestows mercy upon those who are merciful among His servants." A report is transmitted by At-Tabarani on the authority of Abdullah ibn Zaid to the effect that weeping without wailing is permitted.
Weeping aloud and wailing cause pain and suffering to the dead person. It is reported from Ibn 'Umar that when 'Umar was stabbed and he became unconscious the people around him began crying loudly. When he regained consciousness he said to them: "Don't you know that the Messenger of Allah said: 'A dead person is tormented by the wailing of the living'."
Abu Musa reports that when 'Umar was wounded Suhaib cried: "O my dear brother!" At this 'Umar said: "O Suhaib! Don't you know that the Messenger of Allah said: 'A dead person is tormented by the wailing of the living people'."
Al-Mughirah ibn Sh'ubah reports that he heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying: "The one who is wailed for is tortured on account of it." The above hadith are reported by Bukhari and Muslim.
These hadith mean that a dead person feels pain and displeasure when his family wails over him, for he hears their wailing and their deeds are shown to him. This does not mean that the dead are actually punished and tormented because of the wailing of their families for them, because the Qur'an says that a person is not accountable for the actions of others.
Ibn Jarir reported from Abu Hurairah that he said: "Your deeds are shown to your dead relatives. So if these are good, they are pleased, and if these are bad, they despise them."
Ahmad and Tirmidhi reported on the authority of Anas that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Your deeds are shown to your dead relatives and kinsfolk. So if these are good they are pleased, and if these are bad they say: 'O Allah! Let them not die until You have guided them to the right path as You guided us before'."
An-N'uman ibn Bashir reports: "Abdullah ibn Rawahah fainted and his sister, 'Amrah, started wailing: 'O my monumental loss!' 'O, my this and that!' When he regained consciousness, he said to her: 'Every time you said something (about me) i was asked, "Are you really what she said?"'." This is narrated by Bukhari.
Some people claim that the order in the above verse is cancelled; by Allah, it is not cancelled, but the people have stopped acting on it. There are two kinds of guardians (who are in charge of the inheritance): One is that who inherits; such a person should give (of what he inherits to the relatives, the orphans and the needy, etc.), the other is that who does not inherit (e.g. the guardian of the orphans): such a person should speak kindly and say (to those who are present at the time of distribution), "I can not give it to you (as the wealth belongs to the orphans)."
It is permissible for a woman to mourn for a period of three days on the death of a near relative, provided that her husband does not object to her doing so. It is not permissible for her to mourn for more than three days, except in the case of her husband's death, when she is to mourn for four months and ten days, which is a legally prescribed period of waiting or "iddah". This is reported by the group, (The compilers of the six most reliable hadith books generally known as Sihah Sitta) except Tirmidhi. They report from Umm 'Atiyyah, that the Messenger of Allah said: "A woman should not mourn for any deceased person for more than three days, except in the case of her husband's death, which she may mourn for a period of four months and ten days. Such a woman (in mourning) is not to wear any (brightly) colored dress. She may wear only plain dress. During this period she should not use any adornment or eye makeup, nor wear any perfume, nor dye her hands and feet with henna, nor comb her hair, except at the end of her menstruation period, when she may use some cleaning or refreshing agents (such as perfume, etc. ) to get rid of any offensive smell left over from her period." Accordingly, when a widow mourns, she must not use any adornment, such as jewelry, kohl, 58 silk, perfume, or henna dye on her hands and feet. A widow must observe this waiting period in deference to her late husband's memory and to fulfill her obligations toward him.
Abdullah ibn Ja'far reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: "Prepare some food for the family of Ja'far, for what has befallen them is keeping them preoccupied." This is narrated by Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi, who grades it as a sound hadith.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, recommended this practice for it is an act of virtue and kindness and brings friends and neighbors closer to each other.
Ash-Shafi'i said: "It is recommended that the relatives of the deceased prepare enough food to feed all the deceased's family for one day and night, for it is the sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a practice of good people."
The scholars hold it commendable to urge the deceased's family to eat so that their sorrow or excessive grief will not cause them to avoid food and thereby become weak. These scholars also hold that to offer food to the women while they are mourning loudly is not permissible, for it would be helping them in something sinful.
All the schools of Islamic law disapprove of the deceased's family preparing food for the people coming to pay their condolences, for it adds to their grief and further encumbers them unnecessarily. Such a practice would also resemble the custom of the Arabs before Islam. Referring to this practice, Jarir says: "(In those days) we considered it a part of mourning to assemble at the deceased's house and prepare food after burial for those gathered there." Some scholars consider this to be absolutely forbidden (haram).
Ibn Qudamah observes: 'It is permissible, however, when there is genuine need for it, since sometimes people attending the funeral may be from distant places, and they have to stay with the family of the deceased, in which case the family has to host such guests.
Sad bin Ubada consulted Allah's Apostle saying, "My mother died and she had an unfulfilled vow." The Prophet said, "Fulfill it on her behalf."
Bukhari deals with this subject in a chapter entitled: "Those Who Prepared the Kafan in the Prophet's Days without him objecting to it. Reporting on the authority of Sahl, Bukhari says: "A woman came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, with a woven piece of cloth that had two seams on its edges. She said: 'I wove it with my own hands in order to wear it. ' The Prophet, peace be upon him, took it because he needed it. He wrapped it around his waist so that it covered the lower half of his body, and he came toward us. A man praised it, saying: 'This is a very nice cloth! Why don't you give it to me to wear?' Some of the people present there reproached the man for they knew that the Prophet needed that cloth and that he never denied anyone's request. The man replied: 'By Allah, I asked him for it not to wear it, but to save it and use it as my kafan'." Sahl continues: "And (later when he died) that same piece of cloth was used as his kafan."
Commenting on the above chapter of Bukhari, Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar says: "Bukhari phrased it so as to show that though (initially) the companions disliked the man's request for the cloth from the Prophet, they did not disapprove of it when he explained to them the reason for his request. This proves that it is permissible for a person to arrange during his lifetime for the things he will need after his death, such as a kafan or a grave." He cites Ibn Battal who said it is permissible to arrange for something before it is actually needed. Furthermore Al-Hafiz observes: "Some righteous people did indeed have their graves dug and prepared for them during their lifetime." Al-Zain ibn al-Munir criticized him, saying that the companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not do so, and that if doing so (preparing one's grave during one's lifetime) were desirable most of them would have done so.
Commenting on this Al-'Aini says: "The fact that it was not done by the companions of the Prophet does not imply that doing so is not permissible, for if an act is deemed good by Muslims, then it is also good in the sight of Allah, especially when it is practiced by some of the most pious scholars."
Ahmad said: "There is nothing wrong if a person purchases a site for his burial and makes a will to the effect that he is to be buried there. 'Uthman, 'Aishah, and 'Umar ibn Abd al-'Aziz, all did so."
That the mother of Sad bin Ubada the brother of Bani Saida died in Sad's absence, so he came to the Prophet saying, "O Allah's Apostle! My mother died in my absence, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" The Prophet said, "Yes." Sad said, "I take you as my witness that I give my garden Al-Makhraf in charity on her behalf."
The jurists are agreed on the permissibility of a wife washing the body of her dead husband. 'Aishah said: "Had I known then what I know now, I would not have allowed anyone, except his wives, to wash the body of the Prophet." This has been transmitted by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud, and by al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith.
There is a difference of opinion, however, on the permissibility of the husband washing the body of his dead wife. The majority of scholars, nonetheless, consider it permissible, as is shown by a report, narrated by ad-Daraqutni and Al-Baihaqi, that Ali washed the body of Fatimah on her death. This is also supported by a hadith that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said to 'Aishah: "If you die before me, I will myself wash you and enshroud you." Ibn Majah records this hadith.
The Hanafi school holds that it is not permissible for a husband to wash his wife's dead body, and if there is no other woman available then he should give her tayammum. However, the above hadith prove the contrary of this view.
A man said to Allah's Apostle , "My mother died, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?" The Prophet replied in the affirmative. The man said, "I have a garden and I make you a witness that I give it in charity on her behalf."
Allah's Apostle said, "There is no hijra (i.e. migration) (from Mecca to Medina) after the conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately.
On the day of the conquest (of Mecca) the Prophet said, "There is no emigration after the conquest but Jihad and intentions. When you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately." (See Hadith No. 42)
The Prophet, while in a tent (on the day of the battle of Badr) said, "O Allah! I ask you the fulfillment of Your Covenant and Promise. O Allah! If You wish (to destroy the believers) You will never be worshipped after today." Abu Bakr caught him by the hand and said, "This is sufficient, O Allah's Apostle! You have asked Allah pressingly." The Prophet was clad in his armor at that time. He went out, saying to me: "There multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense) and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter (than their worldly failure)." (54.45-46) Khalid said that was on the day of the battle of Badr.
Once the Prophet set out in the month of Ramadan. He observed fasting till he reached a place called Kadid where he broke his fast.
Abu Sufyan said, "Heraclius sent for me when I was in llya (i.e. Jerusalem). Then he asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and when he had finished its reading there was a great hue and cry around him and the voices grew louder and we were asked to quit the place. When we were turned out, I said to my companions, 'The cause of Ibn Abi Kabsha has become conspicuous as the King of Bani Al-Asfar is afraid of him.' "
That he heard the Prophet saying, "It is not permissible for a man to be alone with a woman, and no lady should travel except with a Muhram (i.e. her husband or a person whom she cannot marry in any case for ever; e.g. her father, brother, etc.)." Then a man got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have enlisted in the army for such-and-such ghazwa and my wife is proceeding for Hajj." Allah's Apostle said, "Go, and perform the Hajj with your wife."
A man came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have enlisted in the army for such-and-such ghazwa, and my wife is leaving for Hajj." Allah's Apostle said, "Go back and perform Hajj with your wife."
The Prophet said, on the day of the conquest of Mecca, "There is no migration (after the conquest), but Jihad and good intentions, and when you are called for Jihad, you should immediately respond to the call."
The delegates of the tribe of 'Abdul-Qais came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi'a, and there is the infidels of the tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us, so we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. So please order us some instructions that we may apply it to ourselves and also invite our people whom we left behind us to observe as well." The Prophet said, "I order you (to do) four (things) and forbid you (to do) four: I order you to believe in Allah, that is, to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah (the Prophet pointed with his hand); to offer prayers perfectly; to pay Zakat; to fast the month of Ramadan, and to pay the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the war booty to Allah and I forbid you to use Ad-dubba', An-Naqir, Al-Hantam and Al-Muzaffat (i.e. utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks)." (See Hadith No. 50, Vol. 1).
Allah's Apostle said on the day of the conquest of Mecca, "There is no migration now, but there is Jihad (i.e. holy battle) and good intentions. And when you are called for Jihad, you should come out at once." Allah's Apostle also said, on the day of the conquest of Mecca, "Allah has made this town a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah's Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Fighting in it was not legal for anyone before me, and it was made legal for me only for an hour by daytime. So, it (i.e. Mecca) is a sanctuary by Allah's Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, and its game should not be chased, its fallen property (i.e. Luqata) should not be picked up except by one who will announce it publicly; and its grass should not be uprooted." On that Al-'Abbas said, "O Allah's Apostle! Except the Idhkhir, because it is used by the goldsmiths and by the people for their houses." On that the Prophet said, "Except the Idhkhir."
The Prophet said, "I have been made victorious with the Saba (i.e. easterly wind) and the people of 'Ad were destroyed with the Dabur (i.e. westerly wind)."
Allah's Apostle asked Gabriel, "Why don't you visit us more often than you do?" Then the following Holy Verse was revealed (in this respect): "And we (angels) descend not but by the order of your Lord. To Him belong what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between those two and your Lord was never forgetful." (19.64)
Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel read the Qur'an to me in one way (i.e. dialect) and I continued asking him to read it in different ways till he read it in seven different ways."
Allah's Apostle was the most generous of all the people, and he used to be more generous in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel used to meet him. Gabriel used to meet him every night in Ramadan to study the Holy Qur'an carefully together. Allah's Apostle used to become more generous than the fast wind when he met Gabriel.
The Prophet said, "On the night of my Ascent to the Heaven, I saw Moses who was a tall brown curly-haired man as if he was one of the men of Shan'awa tribe, and I saw Jesus, a man of medium height and moderate complexion inclined to the red and white colors and of lank hair. I also saw Malik, the gate-keeper of the (Hell) Fire and Ad-Dajjal amongst the signs which Allah showed me." (The Prophet then recited the Holy Verse): "So be not you in doubt of meeting him when you met Moses during the night of Mi'raj over the heavens." (32.23)
Narrated Anas and Abu Bakra: "The Prophet said, "The angels will guard Medina from Ad-Dajjal (who will not be able to enter the city of Medina)."
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you, when having sexual relation with his wife, say: 'In the name of Allah. O Allah! Protect us from Satan and prevent Satan from approaching our offspring you are going to give us,' and if he begets a child (as a result of that relation) Satan will not harm it."
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you, on having sexual relation with his wife, says: 'O Allah! Protect me from Satan, and prevent Satan from approaching the offspring you are going to give me,' and if it happens that the lady conceives a child, Satan will neither harm it nor be given power over it."
The Prophet said, "I have been made victorious with As-Saba (i.e. an easterly wind) and the people of 'Ad were destroyed by Ad-Dabur (i.e. a westerly wind)." Narrated Abu Said: Ali sent a piece of gold to the Prophet who distributed it among four persons: Al-Aqra' bin Habis Al-Hanzali from the tribe of Mujashi, 'Uyaina bin Badr Al-Fazari, Zaid At-Ta'i who belonged to (the tribe of) Bani Nahban, and 'Alqama bin Ulatha Al-'Amir who belonged to (the tribe of) Bani Kilab. So the Quraish and the Ansar became angry and said, "He (i.e. the Prophet, ) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us." The Prophet said, "I give (them) so as to attract their hearts (to Islam)." Then a man with sunken eyes, prominent checks, a raised forehead, a thick beard and a shaven head, came (in front of the Prophet ) and said, "Be afraid of Allah, O Muhammad!" The Prophet said, "Who would obey Allah if I disobeyed Him? (Is it fair that) Allah has trusted all the people of the earth to me while, you do not trust me?" Somebody who, I think was Khalid bin Al-Walid, requested the Prophet to let him chop that man's head off, but he prevented him. When the man left, the Prophet said, "Among the off-spring of this man will be some who will recite the Qur'an but the Qur'an will not reach beyond their throats (i.e. they will recite like parrots and will not understand it nor act on it), and they will renegade from the religion as an arrow goes through the game's body. They will kill the Muslims but will not disturb the idolaters. If I should live up to their time I will kill them as the people of 'Ad were killed (i.e. I will kill all of them)."
The Prophet said, "You will be gathered (on the Day of Judgment), bare-footed, naked and not circumcised." He then recited: "As We began the first creation, We, shall repeat it: A Promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it." (21.104) He added, "The first to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham, and some of my companions will be taken towards the left side (i.e. to the (Hell) Fire), and I will say: 'My companions! My companions!' It will be said: 'They renegaded from Islam after you left them.' Then I will say as the Pious slave of Allah (i.e. Jesus) said, 'And I was a witness Over them while I dwelt amongst them. When You took me up You were the Watcher over them, And You are a witness to all things. If You punish them. They are Your slaves And if You forgive them, Verily you, only You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.' (5.120-121)"
The Prophet entered the Ka'ba and found in it the pictures of (Prophet) Abraham and Mary. On that he said' "What is the matter with them ( i.e. Quraish)? They have already heard that angels do not enter a house in which there are pictures; yet this is the picture of Abraham. And why is he depicted as practicing divination by arrows?"
When the Prophet saw pictures in the Ka'ba, he did not enter it till he ordered them to be erased. When he saw (the pictures of Abraham and Ishmael carrying the arrows of divination, he said, "May Allah curse them (i.e. the Quraish)! By Allah, neither Abraham nor Ishmael practiced divination by arrows."
The Prophet said, "May Allah bestow His Mercy on the mother of Ishmael! Had she not hastened (to fill her water-skin with water from the Zam-zam well), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth." Ibn 'Abbas further added, "(The Prophet) Abraham brought Ishmael and his mother (to Mecca) and she was suckling Ishmael and she had a water-skin with her."
The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka'ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water. So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ishmael's mother followed him saying, "O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?" She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him, "Has Allah ordered you to do so?" He said, "Yes." She said, "Then He will not neglect us," and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka'ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers:
"O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Kaba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayer perfectly. So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks." (14.37) Ishmael's mother went on suckling Ishmael and drinking from the water (she had).
When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ishmael) tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached the Marwa mountain where she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between Safa and Marwa) seven times.
The Prophet said, "This is the source of the tradition of the walking of people between them (i.e. Safa and Marwa). When she reached the Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, 'O, (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?" And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zam-zam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing), till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water was flowing out after she had scooped some of it."
The Prophet added, "May Allah bestow Mercy on Ishmael's mother! Had she let the Zam-zam (flow without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water) (to fill her water-skin), Zam-zam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth." The Prophet further added, "Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her, 'Don't be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.' The House (i.e. Kaba) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada'. They landed in the lower part of Mecca where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said, 'This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.' They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water, and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water)." The Prophet added, "Ishmael's mother was sitting near the water. They asked her, 'Do you allow us to stay with you?' She replied, 'Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.' They agreed to that." The Prophet further said, "Ishmael's mother was pleased with the whole situation as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ishmael) grew up and learnt Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.
After Ishmael's mother had died, Abraham came after Ishmael's marriage in order to see his family that he had left before, but he did not find Ishmael there. When he asked Ishmael's wife about him, she replied, 'He has gone in search of our livelihood.' Then he asked her about their way of living and their condition, and she replied, 'We are living in misery; we are living in hardship and destitution,' complaining to him. He said, 'When your husband returns, convey my salutation to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).' When Ishmael came, he seemed to have felt something unusual, so he asked his wife, 'Has anyone visited you?' She replied, 'Yes, an old man of so-and-so description came and asked me about you and I informed him, and he asked about our state of living, and I told him that we were living in a hardship and poverty.' On that Ishmael said, 'Did he advise you anything?' She replied, 'Yes, he told me to convey his salutation to you and to tell you to change the threshold of your gate.' Ishmael said, 'It was my father, and he has ordered me to divorce you. Go back to your family.' So, Ishmael divorced her and married another woman from amongst them (i.e. Jurhum).
Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished and called on them again but did not find Ishmael. So he came to Ishmael's wife and asked her about Ishmael. She said, 'He has gone in search of our livelihood.' Abraham asked her, 'How are you getting on?' asking her about their sustenance and living. She replied, 'We are prosperous and well-off (i.e. we have everything in abundance).' Then she thanked Allah. Abraham said, 'What kind of food do you eat?' She said. 'Meat.' He said, 'What do you drink?' She said, 'Water." He said, "O Allah! Bless their meat and water." The Prophet added, "At that time they did not have grain, and if they had grain, he would have also invoked Allah to bless it." The Prophet added, "If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be badly affected, unless he lives in Mecca." The Prophet added," Then Abraham said Ishmael's wife, "When your husband comes, give my regards to him and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.' When Ishmael came back, he asked his wife, 'Did anyone call on you?' She replied, 'Yes, a good-looking old man came to me,' so she praised him and added. 'He asked about you, and I informed him, and he asked about our livelihood and I told him that we were in a good condition.' Ishmael asked her, 'Did he give you any piece of advice?' She said, 'Yes, he told me to give his regards to you and ordered that you should keep firm the threshold of your gate.' On that Ishmael said, 'It was my father, and you are the threshold (of the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.'
Then Abraham stayed away from them for a period as long as Allah wished, and called on them afterwards. He saw Ishmael under a tree near Zam-zam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Abraham, he rose up to welcome him (and they greeted each other as a father does with his son or a son does with his father). Abraham said, 'O Ishmael! Allah has given me an order.' Ishmael said, 'Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.' Abraham asked, 'Will you help me?' Ishmael said, 'I will help you.' Abraham said, Allah has ordered me to build a house here,' pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it." The Prophet added, "Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Ka'ba). Ishmael brought the stones and Abraham was building, and when the walls became high, Ishmael brought this stone and put it for Abraham who stood over it and carried on building, while Ishmael was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, 'O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.' The Prophet added, "Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka'ba saying: O our Lord ! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." (2.127)
When Abraham had differences with his wife), (because of her jealousy of Hajar, Ishmael's mother), he took Ishmael and his mother and went away. They had a water-skin with them containing some water, Ishmael's mother used to drink water from the water-skin so that her milk would increase for her child. When Abraham reached Mecca, he made her sit under a tree and afterwards returned home. Ishmael's mother followed him, and when they reached Kada', she called him from behind, "O Abraham! To whom are you leaving us?" He replied, "(I am leaving you) to Allah's (care)." She said, "I am satisfied to be with Allah." She returned to her place and started drinking water from the water-skin, and her milk increased for her child. When the water had all been used up, she said to herself, "I'd better go and look so that I may see somebody." She ascended the Safa mountain and looked, hoping to see somebody, but in vain.
When she came down to the valley, she ran till she reached the Marwa mountain. She ran to and fro (between the two mountains) many times. They she said to herself, "I'd better go and see the state of the child." She went and found it in a state of one on the point of dying. She could not endure to watch it dying and said (to herself), "If I go and look, I may find somebody." She went and ascended the Safa mountain and looked for a long while but could not find anybody. Thus she completed seven rounds (of running) between Safa and Marwa. Again she said (to herself), "I'd better go back and see the state of the child." But suddenly she heard a voice, and she said to that strange voice, "Help us if you can offer any help." Lo! It was Gabriel (who had made the voice).
Gabriel hit the earth with his heel like this (Ibn 'Abbas hit the earth with his heel to illustrate it), and so the water gushed out. Ishmael's mother was astonished and started digging. (Abu Al-Qasim) (i.e. the Prophet) said, "If she had left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.") Ishmael's mother started drinking from the water and her milk increased for her child. Afterwards some people of the tribe of Jurhum, while passing through the bottom of the valley, saw some birds, and that astonished them, and they said, "Birds can only be found at a place where there is water." They sent a messenger who searched the place and found the water, and returned to inform them about it.
Then they all went to her and said, "O Ishmael's mother! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)?" (And thus they stayed there.) Later on her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them. Then an idea occurred to Abraham which he disclosed to his wife (Sarah), "I want to call on my dependents I left (at Mecca)." When he went there, he greeted (Ishmael's wife) and said, "Where is Ishmael?" She replied, "He has gone out hunting." Abraham said (to her), "When he comes, tell him to change the threshold of his gate." When he came, she told him the same whereupon Ishmael said to her, "You are the threshold, so go to your family (i.e. you are divorced)."
Again Abraham thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left (at Mecca), and he told his wife (Sarah) of his intentions. Abraham came to Ishmael's house and asked. "Where is Ishmael?" Ishmael's wife replied, "He has gone out hunting," and added, "Will you stay (for some time) and have something to eat and drink?" Abraham asked, "What is your food and what is your drink?" She replied, "Our food is meat and our drink is water." He said, "O Allah! Bless their meals and their drink." Abu Al-Qa-sim (i.e. Prophet) said, "Because of Abraham's invocation there are blessings (in Mecca)." Once more Abraham thought of visiting his family he had left (at Mecca), so he told his wife (Sarah) of his decision. He went and found Ishmael behind the Zam-zam well, mending his arrows. He said, "O Ishmael, Your Lord has ordered me to build a house for Him." Ishmael said, "Obey (the order of) your Lord." Abraham said, "Allah has also ordered me that you should help me therein." Ishmael said, "Then I will do." So, both of them rose and Abraham started building (the Ka'ba) while Ishmael went on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, "O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." (2.127) When the building became high and the old man (i.e. Abraham) could no longer lift the stones (to such a high position), he stood over the stone of Al-Maqam and Ishmael carried on handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, -O our Lord! Accept (this service) from us, Verily You are All-Hearing, All-Knowing." (2.127)
The Prophet used to seek refuge with Allah for Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and say: "Your forefather (i.e. Abraham) used to seek refuge with Allah for Ishmael and Isaac by reciting the following: 'O Allah! I seek refuge with Your Perfect Words from every devil and from poisonous pests and from every evil, harmful, envious eye.' "
The Prophet said, "One should not say that I am better than Jonah (i.e. Yunus) bin Matta." So, he mentioned his father Matta. The Prophet mentioned the night of his Ascension and said, "The prophet Moses was brown, a tall person as if from the people of the tribe of Shanu'a. Jesus was a curly-haired man of moderate height." He also mentioned Malik, the gate-keeper of the (Hell) Fire, and Ad-Dajjal.
When the Prophet came to Medina, he found (the Jews) fasting on the day of 'Ashura' (i.e. 10th of Muharram). They used to say: "This is a great day on which Allah saved Moses and drowned the folk of Pharaoh. Moses observed the fast on this day, as a sign of gratitude to Allah." The Prophet said, "I am closer to Moses than they." So, he observed the fast (on that day) and ordered the Muslims to fast on it.
That he differed with Al-Hur bin Qais Al-Fazari regarding the companion of Moses. Ibn 'Abbas said that he was Al-Khadir. Meanwhile Ubai bin Ka'b passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him saying, "My friend and I have differed regarding Moses' companion whom Moses asked the way to meet. Have you heard Allah's Apostle mentioning something about him?" He said, "Yes, I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'While Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites, a man came and asked (him), "Do you know anyone who is more learned than you?" Moses replied, "No." So, Allah sent the Divine Inspiration to Moses: "Yes, Our slave, Khadir (is more learned than you)." Moses asked how to meet him (i.e. Khadir). So, the fish, was made, as a sign for him, and he was told that when the fish was lost, he should return and there he would meet him. So, Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The servant boy of Moses said to him, "Do you know that when we were sitting by the side of the rock, I forgot the fish, and it was only Satan who made me forget to tell (you) about it." Moses said, "That was what we were seeking after," and both of them returned, following their footmarks and found Khadir; and what happened further to them, is mentioned in Allah's Book. "
The Prophet once came to us and said, "All the nations were displayed in front of me, and I saw a large multitude of people covering the horizon. Somebody said, 'This is Moses and his followers.' "
The Prophet said, "No slave (of Allah) should say that I am better than Yunus bin Matta." So the Prophet mentioned his father's name with his name.
The prostration in Sura-Sad is not amongst the compulsory prostrations, though I saw the Prophet prostrating on reciting the statement of Allah: "and to David We gave Solomon (for a son). How excellent (a) slave he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to us)." (38.30) And His statement: "He said: My Lord Forgive me and grant me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me." (38.35) And His statement: "And they followed what the Devils gave out (falsely), of magic in the life-time of Solomon." (2.102)
Allah's Apostle said, "You will be resurrected (and assembled) bare-footed, naked and uncircumcised." The Prophet then recited the Divine Verse: "As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it: A promise We have undertaken. Truly we shall do it." (21.104)
He added, "The first to be dressed will be Abraham. Then some of my companions will take to the right and to the left. I will say: 'My companions!' It will be said, 'They had been renegades since you left them.' I will then say what the Pious Slave Jesus, the son of Mary said: 'And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them; when You did take me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things. If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if you forgive them, You, only You are the All-Mighty the All-Wise.' " (5.117-118) Narrated Quaggas, "Those were the apostates who renegaded from Islam during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr who fought them".
I heard 'Umar saying, "May Allah Curse so-and-so! Doesn't he know that the Prophet said, 'May Allah curse the Jews for, though they were forbidden (to eat) fat, they liquefied it and sold it."
Regarding the Verse: "And (We) made you into Shu'ub and Qabail..." (49.13) that Shu'uib means the big Qabail (i.e. nations) while the Qabail (i.e. tribes) means the branch tribes.
The delegates of 'Abd-ul-Qais came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi'a and the infidels of Mudar tribe stand between us and you, so that we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. Therefore we would like you to give us some instructions which we may follow and convey to our people staying behind us." The Prophet said, "I order you to observe four things and forbid you (to do) four things: (I order you) to believe in Allah testifying that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah; to offer the prayer perfectly; to pay the Zakat; and to give one-fifth of the war booty to Allah. And I forbid you to use Ad-Dubba, Al-Hantam, An-Naqir and Al-Muzaffat." (These are names of utensils in which alcoholic drinks were served.)
When the news of the advent of the Prophet reached Abu Dhar, he said to his brother, "Ride to this valley and bring me the news of this man (i.e. the Prophet ) who claims to be a Prophet receiving information from the Heaven. Listen to him and then come to me." His brother set out till he met the Prophet and listened to his speech and returned to Abu Dhar and said to him, "I have seen him exhorting people to virtues and his speech was not like poetry." Abu Dhar said, "You have not satisfied me as to what I wanted." So, he took his journey-food and a water-skin full of water and set out till he reached Mecca, where he went to the Mosque looking for the Prophet , whom he did not know, and he would not like to ask someone about him. So, a portion of the night had passed when 'Ali saw him and realized that he was a stranger. Abu Dhar followed him (to his house), but neither of them asked the other about anything till it was morning, when he carried his water-skin and food and went to the Mosque. He spent that day without being observed by the Prophet till it was night, when he returned to his sleeping place. 'Ali again passed by him and said, "Hasn't the man (i.e. Abu Dhar) recognized his dwelling place yet?" So, 'Ali let him get up and took him (to his house), but neither of them asked the other about anything, till it was the third day when 'Ali had the same experience with him and Abu Dhar again stayed with him. 'Ali then asked, "Won't you tell me what has brought you here?" He replied, "If you give me a promise and a convention that you will guide me, then I will tell you." When 'Ali did, Abu Dhar informed him (of his purpose). 'Ali said, "It is the Truth, and he (i.e. Muhammad) is the Apostle of Allah. So when the morning comes, follow me, and if I should perceive any danger threatening you, I will give you a hint by pretending to go to the watercloset. But if I carried on walking, follow me till you enter the place that I will enter." Abu Dhur agreed and followed 'Ali till he entered the place of the Prophet and Abu Dhur entered with him. He then listened to the speech of the Prophet and embraced Islam on that very spot. The Prophet said to him, "Go back to your people and inform them (of this religion) till you receive my (further) orders." Abu Dhur said, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is! I will proclaim my conversion to Islam publicly amongst them (i.e. infidels)." He went out till he reached the mosque and announced as loudly as possible, "I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah." The people then got up and beat him till they knocked him down. Al-Abbas came and threw himself over him (to protect him) saying, "Woe to you! Don't you know that he is from Ghifar and there is the route (road) to your merchants towards Sham (i.e. through the place where this tribe dwells)?" Thus he saved him from them. Abu Dhar did the same on the next day and the people beat him again and Al-'Abbas drew himself over him (to save him as before).
If you wish to know about the ignorance of the Arabs, refer to Surat-al-Anam after Verse No. 130: "Indeed lost are those who have killed their children From folly without knowledge and have forbidden that which Allah has provided for them, inventing a lie against Allah. They have indeed gone astray and were not guided." (6.14)
When the verse: "And warn your tribe of near kindred," (26.214) was revealed, the Prophet started calling (the 'Arab tribes), "O Bani Fihr, O Bani 'Adi" mentioning first the various branch tribes of Quraish.
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: When the verse: "And warn your tribe of near kindred," (26.214). was revealed, the Prophet started calling every tribe by its name.
The Prophet was the most generous of all the people, and he used to become more generous in Ramadan when Gabriel met him. Gabriel used to meet him every night during Ramadan to revise the Qur'an with him. Allah's Apostle then used to be more generous than the fast wind.
Allah's Apostle used to let his hair hang down while the infidels used to part their hair. The people of the Scriptures were used to letting their hair hang down and Allah's Apostle liked to follow the people of the Scriptures in the matters about which he was not instructed otherwise. Then Allah's Apostle parted his hair.
The Prophet paid a visit to a sick bedouin. The Prophet when visiting a patient used to say, "No harm will befall you! May Allah cure you! May Allah cure you!" So the Prophet said to the bedouin. "No harm will befall you. May Allah cure you!" The bedouin said, "You say, may Allah cure me? No, for it is a fever which boils in (the body of) an old man, and will lead him to the grave." The Prophet said, "Yes, then may it be as you say."
Musailama-al-Kadhdhab (i.e. the liar) came in the life-time of Allah's Apostle with many of his people (to Medina) and said, "If Muhammad makes me his successor, I will follow him." Allah's Apostle went up to him with Thabit bin Qais bin Shams; and Allah's Apostle was carrying a piece of a date-palm leaf in his hand. He stood before Musailama (and his companions) and said, "If you asked me even this piece (of a leaf), I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid the fate you are destined to, by Allah. If you reject Islam, Allah will destroy you. I think that you are most probably the same person whom I have seen in the dream." Abu Huraira told me that Allah's Apostle said, "While I was sleeping, I saw (in a dream) two gold bracelets round my arm, and that worried me too much. Then I was instructed divinely in my dream, to blow them off and so I blew them off, and they flew away. I interpreted the two bracelets as symbols of two liars who would appear after me. And so one of them was Al-Ansi and the other was Musailama Al-Kadhdhab from Al-Yamama."
Allah's Apostle in his fatal illness came out, wrapped with a sheet, and his head was wrapped with an oiled bandage. He sat on the pulpit, and praising and glorifying Allah, he said, "Now then, people will increase but the Ansar will decrease in number, so much so that they, compared with the people, will be just like the salt in the meals. So, if any of you should take over the authority by which he can either benefit some people or harm some others, he should accept the goodness of their good people (i.e. Ansar) and excuse the faults of their wrong-doers." That was the last gathering which the Prophet attended.
The moon was split into two parts during the lifetime of the Prophet.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'n Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Ubaydullah, from Malik ibn Abi Amir that Uthman ibn Affan used to say in khutbas, and he would seldom omit it if he was giving the khutba, "When the imam stands delivering the khutba on the day of jumua, listen and pay attention, for there is the same portion for someone who pays attention but cannot hear as for someone who pays attention and hears. And when the iqama of the prayer is called, straighten your rows and make your shoulders adjacent to each other, because the straightening of the rows is part of the completion of the prayer." Then he would not say the takbir until some men who had been entrusted with straightening the rows came and told him that they were straight. Then he would say the takbir.
The Prophet said, "If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken Abu Bakr, but he is my brother and my companion (in Islam)."
While I was standing amongst the people who were invoking Allah for Umar bin Al-Khattab who was lying (dead) on his bed, a man behind me rested his elbows on my shoulder and said, "(O 'Umar!) May Allah bestow His Mercy on you. I always hoped that Allah will keep you with your two companions, for I often heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar were (somewhere). I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar did (something). I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar set out.' So I hoped that Allah will keep you with both of them." I turned back to see that the speaker was Ali bin Abi Talib.
Ifrad means a pilgrim intending to perform Hajj only should, while at the miqat, make intention for Hajj only. While making talbiyah he or she should say, Labbaik bihajj "(O Allah, I answer your call to perform Hajj)," and must keep his or her Hajj garb until all the rites of Hajj are completed. Then, if such a pilgrim desires, he or she may perform an 'Umrah.
The scholars disagree as to which of these is the best kind. The Shafi'i school holds that ifrad and tamattu' are superior to qiran, because in either of the former two kinds a pilgrim has the opportunity to perform complete rites of Hajj and of 'Umrah. On the other hand, a qarin (one who undertakes a qiran Hajj) is able to perform Hajj only.
As to which of the two--tamattu' or ifrad--is better, there are two opinions. One group of scholars holds tamattu' as superior to ifrad, while the others hold ifrad is better.
The Hanafi school holds that qiran is better than tamattu' and ifrad, and that tamattu ' is better than if rad. The Maliki school holds that if rad (Hajj only) is better than tamattu' and qiran. The Hanbali scholars, on the other hand, are of the view that tamattu' (combining Hajj and 'Umrah with a break in between), is better than the qiran and ifrad. This is comparatively easy and the people can perform it comfortably.
In fact, this is what the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed himself and commanded his Companions to do likewise. 'Ata said, "I heard Jabir ibn Abdullah saying, 'We (the Companions) declared our intention to perform Hajj only. On the 4th of Dhul-Hijjah the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded us to terminate our state of ihram, saying, "Terminate your state of ihram and go to your wives." He did not, however, oblige us to do so but he permitted us. We said: 'There are only five days left to the Day of 'Arafah. Shall we go to 'Arafah while semen is dribbling from our male organs?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) stood up and said: "You know that I fear Allah the most, and that I am the most truthful, and the most pious amongst you. If I had not brought my sacrificial animals with me, I also would have terminated my state of ihram. If I were to again come (to Makkah), I shall not bring the sacrificial animals with me. So terminate your state of ihram." At this we terminated our state of ihram; we listened to and obeyed (the Prophet)." This was reported by Muslim.
When (the dead body of) 'Umar was put on his deathbed, the people gathered around him and invoked (Allah) and prayed for him before the body was taken away, and I was amongst them. Suddenly I felt somebody taking hold of my shoulder and found out that he was 'Ali bin Abi Talib. 'Ali invoked Allah's Mercy for 'Umar and said, "O 'Umar! You have not left behind you a person whose deeds I like to imitate and meet Allah with more than I like your deeds. By Allah! I always thought that Allah would keep you with your two companions, for very often I used to hear the Prophet saying, 'I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar went (somewhere); I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar entered (somewhere); and I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar went out.' "
Upon arriving in Muzdalifah the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered Maghrib and two rak'ahs for 'Isha (making qasr). He ordered one single call for both 'Isha and Maghrib, but a separate iqamah for each. No other supererogatory prayer is to be olfered in between these two prayers. In the hadith recorded by Muslim we read that the Prophet (peace be upon him) arrived in Muzdalifah, and combined the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers, with one adhan and two iqamah.s. He did not offer any other prayer in between the two. Combining these prayers is, according to the consensus of the scholars, a sunnah, though there is disagreement as to those who offer these two prayers separately in their times. Most of the scholars consider it permissible, but hold that following the example of the Prophet is far more preferable. Thawri and other knowledgeable people are of the opinion that a pilgrim offering Maghrib prayer at any place other than Muzdalifah must re-do it. They are of the opinion, however, that offering Zuhr and 'Asr prayers separately in their due times is permissible, but it is a disliked act.
Jabir says: "When the Prophet (peace be upon him) reached Muzdalifah, he offered both Maghrib and 'Isha prayers, then he lay down to sleep. He slept until dawn, then he got up and offered Fajr prayer, and mounted his she camel, Al-Qaswa. When he reached Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram he stopped there until there was light all around, then before sunrise, he left the place. There is no evidence to show that the Prophet (peace be upon him) spent the night (at Muzdalifah) in prayers and supplications. This is the correct position about spending the night at Muzdalifah and stopping there in the light of the practice of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Ahmad holds that spending the night at Muzdalifah is obligatory for all pilgrims except shepherds and water providers for whom it is not obligatory to do so. All the imams of schools of Islamic law consider stopping and spending some time at Muzdalifah obligatory. They do not, however, regard spending the entire night there as obligatory. Spending some time there, means being present physically, in any posture or condition, standing, sitting, being awake or asleep, walking. or passing by.
The Hanafi school is of the opinion that it is obligatory to be present at Muzdalifah before the dawn of Yaum al-Nahr (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah). So, if one fails to do so without a genuine excuse, one must offer a sacrifice unless one has a genuine excuse in which case one is not obligated to be physically present, nor does one incur any penalty.
The Maliki school holds that stopping at Muzdalifah, before dawn, and spending some time there is enough, while going from Arafah to Mina, is obligatory when one has no excuse to do otherwise. For a pilgrim with a genuine excuse stopping and staying at Muzdalifah is not obligatory.
The Shafi'i school holds that only the physical presence in the second half of the night of the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah at Muzdalifah, after spending the day at Arafah, is obligatory. One is not required to spend the entire night there, nor is it essential even to make sure whether the place one is staying is within the boundaries of Muzdalifah.
It is the sunnah, however, to offer Fajr prayer at its early time, then head for and stop at Al-Mash'ar al-Haram till daylight spreads before the sunrise. One should spend this time in supplication and remembrance of Allah. Allah says in the Qur'an (2.198): "Then when you pour down from (mount) Arafah, celebrate the praises of Allah at the Sacred Monument and celebrate His praises as He has directed you, even though, before this, you went astray. Then pass on at a quick pace from the place whence it is usual for the multitude to do so, and ask for Allah's forgiveness. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
Before sunrise, the pilgrims leave Muzdalifah tor Mina, but when they pass through the valley called Muhassir, they should pass it at a quicker pace.
Once the Prophet embraced me (pressed me to his chest) and said, "O Allah, teach him wisdom (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur'an)."
Allah's Apostle (in his fatal illness) came out wrapped in a sheet covering his shoulders and his head was tied with an oily tape of cloth till he sat on the pulpit, and after praising and glorifying Allah, he said, "Then-after, O people! The people will go on increasing, but the Ansar will go on decreasing till they become just like salt in a meal. So whoever amongst you will be the ruler and have the power to harm or benefit others, should accept the good of the good-doers amongst them and excuse the wrong-doers amongst them."
The people used to consider the performance of 'Umra in the months of Hajj an evil deed on the earth, and they used to call the month of Muharram as Safar and used to say, "When (the wounds over) the backs (of the camels) have healed and the foot-marks (of the camels) have vanished (after coming from Hajj), then 'Umra becomes legal for the one who wants to perform 'Umra." Allah's Apostle and his companions reached Mecca assuming Ihram for Hajj on the fourth of Dhul-Hijja. The Prophet ordered his companions to perform 'Umra (with that Ihram instead of Hajj). They asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind of finishing of Ihram?" The Prophet said, "Finish the Ihram completely.'
The first event of Qasama in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance was practiced by us (i.e. Banu Hashim). A man from Banu Hashim was employed by a Quraishi man from another branch-family. The (Hashimi) laborer set out with the Quraishi driving his camels. There passed by him another man from Banu Hashim. The leather rope of the latter's bag had broken so he said to the laborer, "Will you help me by giving me a rope in order to tie the handle of my bag lest the camels should run away from me?" The laborer gave him a rope and the latter tied his bag with it. When the caravan halted, all the camels' legs were tied with their fetters except one camel. The employer asked the laborer, "Why, from among all the camels has this camel not been fettered?" He replied, "There is no fetter for it." The Quraishi asked, "Where is its fetter?" and hit the laborer with a stick that Caused his death (later on). Just before his death) a man from Yemen passed by him. The laborer asked (him), "Will you go for the pilgrimage?" He replied, "I do not think I will attend it, but perhaps I will attend it." The (Hashimi) laborer said, "Will you please convey a message for me once in your life?" The other man said, "Yes." The laborer wrote: -When you attend the pilgrimage, call the family of Quraish, and if they respond to you, call the family of Banu Hashim, and if they respond to you, ask about Abu Talib and tell him that so-and-so has killed me for a fetter." Then the laborer expired. When the employer reached (Mecca), Abu Talib visited him and asked, "What has happened to our companion?" He said, "He became ill and I looked after him nicely (but he died) and I buried him." Then Abu Talib said, "The deceased deserved this from you." After some time, the messenger whom the laborer has asked to convey the message, reached during the pilgrimage season. He called, "O the family of Quraish!" The people replied, "This is Quraish." Then he called, "O the family of Banu Hashim!" Again the people replied, "This is Banu Hashim." He asked, "Who is Abu Talib?" The people replied, "This is Abu Talib." He said, "'So-and-so has asked me to convey a message to you that so-and-so has killed him for a fetter (of a camel)." Then Abu Talib went to the (Quraishi) killer and said to him, "Choose one of three alternatives: (i) If you wish, give us one-hundred camels beCause you have murdered our companion, (ii) or if you wish, fifty of your men should take an oath that you have not murdered our companion, and if you do not accept this, (iii) we will kill you in Qisas." The killer went to his people and they said, "We will take an oath." Then a woman from Banu Hashim who was married to one of them (i.e.the Quraishis) and had given birth to a child from him, came to Abu Talib and said, "O Abu Talib! I wish that my son from among the fifty men, should be excused from this oath, and that he should not take the oath where the oath-taking is carried on." Abu Talib excused him. Then another man from them came (to Abu Talib) and said, "O Abu Talib! You want fifty persons to take an oath instead of giving a hundred camels, and that means each man has to give two camels (in case he does not take an oath). So there are two camels I would like you to accept from me and excuse me from taking an oath where the oaths are taken. Abu Talib accepted them from him. Then 48 men came and took the oath. Ibn 'Abbas further said:) By Him in Whose Hand my life is, before the end of that year, none of those 48 persons remained alive.
Allah's Apostle was inspired Divinely at the age of forty. Then he stayed in Mecca for thirteen years, and then was ordered to migrate, and he migrated to Medina and stayed there for ten years and then died.
When Abu Dhar received the news of the Advent of the Prophet he said to his brother, "Ride to this valley (of Mecca) and try to find out the truth of the person who claims to be a prophet who is informed of the news of Heaven. Listen to what he says and come back to me." So his brother set out and came to the Prophet and listened to some of his talks, and returned to Abu Dhar and said to him, "I have seen him enjoining virtuous behavior and saying something that is not poetry." Abu Dhar said, "You have not satisfied me as to what I wanted." He then took his journey-food and carried a water-skin of his, containing some water till be reached Mecca. He went to the mosque and searched for the Prophet and though he did not know him, he hated to ask anybody about him. When a part of the night had passed away, 'Ali saw him and knew that he was a stranger. So when Abu Dhar saw 'Ali, he followed him, and none of them asked his companion about anything, and when it was dawn, Abu Dhar took his journey food and his water-skin to the mosque and stayed there all the day long without being perceived by the Prophet, and when it was evening, he came back to his retiring place. 'Ali passed by him and said, "Has the man not known his dwelling place yet?" So 'Ali awakened him and took him with him and none of them spoke to the other about anything. When it was the third day. 'Ali did the same and Abu Dhar stayed with him. Then 'Ali said, "Will you tell me what has brought you here?" Abu Dhar said, "If you give me a firm promise that you will guide me, then I will tell you." 'Ali promised him, and he informed 'Ali about the matter. 'Ali said, "It is true, and he is the Apostle of Allah. Next morning when you get up, accompany me, and if I see any danger for you, I will stop as if to pass water, but if I go on, follow me and enter the place which I will enter." Abu Dhar did so, and followed 'Ali till he entered the place of the Prophet, and Abu Dhar went in with him, Abu Dhar listened to some of the Prophet's talks and embraced Islam on the spot. The Prophet said to him, "Go back to your people and inform them (about it) till you receive my order." Abu Dhar said, "By Him in Whose Hand my life is, I will proclaim my conversion loudly amongst them (i.e. the pagans)." So he went out, and when he reached the mosque, he said as loudly as possible, "I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah." The people got up and beat him painfully. Then Al-Abbas came and knelt over him ((to protect him) and said (to the people), "Woe to you! Don't you know that this man belongs to the tribe of Ghifar and your trade to Sha'm is through their way?" So he rescued him from them. Abu Dhar again did the same the next day. They beat him and took vengeance on him and again Al-Abbas knelt over him (to protect him).
Regarding the Statement of Allah"
"And We granted the vision (ascension to the heavens) which We made you see (as an actual eye witness) was only made as a trial for the people." (17.60)
Ibn Abbas added: The sights which Allah's Apostle was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Bait-ul-Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Qur'an is the tree of Zaqqum (itself).
Allah's Apostle started receiving the Divine Inspiration at the age of forty. Then he stayed in Mecca for thirteen years, receiving the Divine Revelation. Then he was ordered to migrate and he lived as an Emigrant for ten years and then died at the age of sixty-three (years).
Allah's Apostle stayed in Mecca for thirteen years (after receiving the first Divine Inspiration) and died at the age of sixty-three.
During the last Hajj led by 'Umar, 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf returned to his family at Mina and met me there. 'AbdurRahman said (to 'Umar), "O chief of the believers! The season of Hajj is the season when there comes the scum of the people (besides the good amongst them), so I recommend that you should wait till you go back to Medina, for it is the place of Migration and Sunna (i.e. the Prophet's tradition), and there you will be able to refer the matter to the religious scholars and the nobles and the people of wise opinions." 'Umar said, "I will speak of it in Medina on my very first sermon I will deliver there."
When the Prophet arrived at Medina he found that the Jews observed fast on the day of 'Ashura'. They were asked the reason for the fast. They replied, "This is the day when Allah Caused Moses and the children of Israel to have victory over Pharaoh, so we fast on this day as a sign of glorifying it." Allah's Apostle said, "We are closer to Moses than you." Then he ordered that fasting on this day should be observed.
They, the people of the Scriptures, divided this Scripture into parts, believing in some portions of it and disbelieving the others. (See 15.91)
On the day of the battle of Badr, the Prophet said, "O Allah! I appeal to You (to fulfill) Your Covenant and Promise. O Allah! If Your Will is that none should worship You (then give victory to the pagans)." Then Abu Bakr took hold of him by the hand and said, "This is sufficient for you." The Prophet came out saying, "Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs." (54.45)
The believers who failed to join the Ghazwa of Badr and those who took part in it are not equal (in reward).
regarding the Statement of Allah: "Those who have changed Allah's Blessings for disbelief..." (14.28) The people meant here by Allah, are the infidels of Quraish. ('Amr, a sub-narrator said, "Those are (the infidels of) Quraish and Muhammad is Allah's Blessing. Regarding Allah's Statement: "...and have led their people Into the house of destruction? (14.29) Ibn 'Abbas said, "It means the Fire they will suffer from (after their death) on the day of Badr."
The Prophet said on the day (of the battle) of Badr, "This is Gabriel holding the head of his horse and equipped with arms for the battle."
Abu Said bin Malik Al-Khudri returned from a journey and his family offered him some meat of sacrifices offered at 'Id-ul-Adha. On that he said, "I will not eat it before asking (whether it is allowed)." He went to his maternal brother, Qatada bin Ni'man, who was one of the Badr warriors, and asked him about it. Qatada said, "After your departure, an order was issued by the Prophet cancelling the prohibition of eating sacrifices after three days."
As below (Hadith 338).
Abu Talha, a companion of Allah's Apostle and one of those who fought at Badr together with Allah's Apostle told me that Allah's Apostle said. "Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture." He meant the images of creatures that have souls.
'Umar said, "When the Prophet died I said to Abu Bakr, 'Let us go to our Ansari brethren.' We met two pious men from them, who had fought in the battle of Badr." When I mentioned this to Urwa bin Az-Zubair, he said, "Those two pious men were 'Uwaim bin Sa'ida and Manbin Adi."
On the day of Uhud. the Prophet said, "This is Gabriel holding the head of his horse and equipped with war material.'
Allah's Wrath became severe on him whom the Prophet had killed in Allah's Cause. Allah's Wrath became severe on the people who Caused the face of Allah's Prophet to bleed.
Allah's Wrath gets severe on a person killed by a prophet, and Allah's Wrath became severe on him who had Caused the face of Allah's Apostle to bleed.
The Prophet said, "I have been made victorious by As-Saba (i.e. an easterly wind) and the Ad nation was destroyed by Ad-Dabur (i.e. a westerly wind)."
I do not know whether the Prophet forbade the eating of donkey-meat (temporarily) because they were the beasts of burden for the people, and he disliked that their means of transportation should be lost, or he forbade it on the day of Khaibar permanently.
When Allah's Apostle and his companions arrived (at Mecca), the pagans said, "There have come to you a group of people who have been weakened by the fever of Yathrib (i.e. Medina)." So the Prophet ordered his companions to do Ramal (i.e. fast walking) in the first three rounds of Tawaf around the Ka'ba and to walk in between the two corners (i.e. the black stone and the Yemenite corner). The only cause which prevented the Prophet from ordering them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf, was that he pitied them.
The Prophet hastened in going around the Ka'ba and between the Safa and Marwa in order to show the pagans his strength. Ibn 'Abbas added, "When the Prophet arrived (at Mecca) in the year of peace (following that of Al-Hudaibiya treaty with the pagans of Mecca), he (ordered his companions) to do Ramal in order to show their strength to the pagans and the pagans were watching (the Muslims) from (the hill of) Quaiqan.
The Prophet married Maimuna while he was in the state of Ihram but he consummated that marriage after finishing that state. Maimuna died at Saraf (i.e. a place near Mecca). Ibn 'Abbas added, The Prophet married Maimuna during the 'Umrat-al-Qada' (i.e. the 'Umra performed in lieu of the 'Umra which the Prophet could not perform because the pagans, prevented him to perform that 'Umra).
The Prophet left Medina (for Mecca) in the company of ten thousand (Muslim warriors) in (the month of) Ramadan, and that was eight and a half years after his migration to Medina. He and the Muslims who were with him, proceeded on their way to Mecca. He was fasting and they were fasting, but when they reached a place called Al-Kadid which was a place of water between 'Usfan and Kudaid, he broke his fast and so did they. (Az-Zuhri said, "One should take the last action of Allah's Apostle and leave his early action (while taking a verdict.")
Allah's Apostle set out towards Hunain in the month of Ramadan and some of the people were fasting while some others were not fasting, and when the Prophet mounted his she-camel, he asked for a tumbler of milk or water and put it on the palm of his hand or on his she-camel and then the people looked at him; and those who were not fasting told those who were fasting, to break their fast (i.e. as the Prophet had done so). Ibn Abbas added, "The Prophet went (to Hunain) in the year of the Conquest (of Mecca)."
When Allah's Apostle arrived in Mecca, he refused to enter the Ka'ba while there were idols in it. So he ordered that they be taken out. The pictures of the (Prophets) Abraham and Ishmael, holding arrows of divination in their hands, were carried out. The Prophet said, "May Allah ruin them (i.e. the infidels) for they knew very well that they (i.e. Abraham and Ishmael) never drew lots by these (divination arrows)." Then the Prophet entered the Ka'ba and said. "Allahu Akbar" in all its directions and came out and did not offer any prayer therein.
'Umar used to admit me (into his house) along with the old men who had fought in the Badr battle. Some of them said (to 'Umar), "Why do you allow this young man to enter with us, while we have sons of his own age?" 'Umar said, "You know what person he is." One day 'Umar called them and called me along with them, I had thought he called me on that day to show them something about me (i.e. my knowledge). 'Umar asked them, "What do you say about (the Sura): 'When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest (of Mecca) And you see mankind entering the Religion of Allah (i.e. Islam) in crowds. So celebrate the Praises Of your Lord and ask for His forgiveness, Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance and forgives.' (110.1-3)"
Some of them replied, "We are ordered to praise Allah and repent to Him if we are helped and granted victory." Some said, "We do not know." Others kept quiet. 'Umar then said to me, "Do you say similarly?" I said, "No." 'Umar said "What do you say then?" I said, "This Verse indicates the approaching of the death of Allah's Apostle of which Allah informed him. When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest, i.e. the Conquest of Mecca, that will be the sign of your (Prophet's) approaching death, so testify the uniqueness of your Lord (i.e. Allah) and praise Him and repent to Him as He is ready to forgive." On that, 'Umar said, "I do not know about it anything other than what you know."
The Prophet stayed in Mecca for 19 days during which he prayed 2 Rakat in each prayer.
Allah's Apostle said to Muadh bin Jabal when he sent him to Yemen, "You will come to the people of Scripture, and when you reach them, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Sadaqa (i.e. Rakat) to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them. And if they obey you in that, then be cautious! Don't take their best properties (as Zakat) and be afraid of the curse of an oppressed person as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah."
The delegation of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle We belong to the tribe of Rabia. The infidels of Mudar tribe intervened between us and you so that we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months, so please order us some things we may act on and invite those left behind to act on. The Prophet said, "I order you to observe four things and forbid you from four things: (I order you) to believe in Allah, i.e. to testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah." The Prophet pointed with finger indicating one and added, "To offer prayers perfectly: to give Zakat, and to give one-fifth of the booty you win (for Allah's Sake). I forbid you to use Ad-Dubba', An-Naquir, Al-Hantam and Al-Muzaffat, (Utensils used for preparing alcoholic liquors and drinks)."
The first Friday (i.e. Jumua) prayer offered after the Friday Prayer offered at the mosque of Allah's Apostle was offered at the mosque of Abdul Qais situated at Jawathi, that is a village at Al Bahrain.
Musailima Al-Kadhdhab came during the lifetime of the Prophet and started saying, "If Muhammad gives me the rule after him, I will follow him." And he came to Medina with a great number of the people of his tribe. Allah's Apostle went to him in the company of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas, and at that time, Allah's Apostle had a stick of a date-palm tree in his hand. When he (i.e. the Prophet ) stopped near Musailima while the latter was amidst his companions, he said to him, "If you ask me for this piece (of stick), I will not give it to you, and Allah's Order you cannot avoid, (but you will be destroyed), and if you turn your back from this religion, then Allah will destroy you. And I think you are the same person who was shown to me in my dream, and this is Thabit bin Qais who will answer your questions on my behalf." Then the Prophet went away from him. I asked about the Statement of Allah's Apostle: "You seem to be the same person who was shown to me in my dream," and Abu Huraira informed me that Allah's Apostle said, "When I was sleeping, I saw (in a dream) two bangles of gold on my hands and that worried me. And then I was inspired Divinely in the dream that I should blow on them, so I blew on them and both the bangles flew away. And I interpreted it that two liars (who would claim to be prophets) would appear after me. One of them has proved to be Al Ansi and the other, Musailima."
A woman from the tribe of Khath'am asked for the verdict of Allah's Apostle (regarding something) during Hajjat-ul-Wada' while Al-Fadl bin 'Abbas was the companion-rider behind Allah's Apostle. She asked, "Allah's ordained obligation (i.e. compulsory Hajj) enjoined on His slaves has become due on my old father who cannot sit firmly on the riding animal. Will it be sufficient if I perform the Hajj on his behalf?" He said, "Yes."
Allah's Apostle sent a letter to Khosrau with Abdullah bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi and told him to hand it over to the governor of Al-Bahrain. The governor of Al-Bahrain handed it over to Khosrau, and when he read the latter, he tore it into pieces. (The sub-narrator added, "I think that Ibn Al-Musaiyab said, 'Allah 's Apostle invoked (Allah) to tear them all totally (Khosrau and his companions) into pieces.
'Umar bin Al-Khattab used to let Ibn Abbas sit beside him, so 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf said to 'Umar, "We have sons similar to him." 'Umar replied, "(I respect him) because of his status that you know." 'Umar then asked Ibn 'Abbas about the meaning of this Holy Verse: "When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest of Mecca . . ." (110.1)
Ibn 'Abbas replied, "That indicated the death of Allah's Apostle which Allah informed him of." 'Umar said, "I do not understand of it except what you understand."
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet in his ailment in which he died, used to say, "O 'Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison."
Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Apostle became worse (on Thursday) and he said, fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a prophet. Some said, "What is wrong with him? (Do you think ) he is delirious (seriously ill)? Ask him ( to understand his state)." So they went to the Prophet and asked him again. The Prophet said, "Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for." Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, "Turn the pagans out of the 'Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them." (Said bin Jubair, the sub-narrator said that Ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, "I forgot it.") (See Hadith No. 116 Vol. 1)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that Dhakwan Abu Amr (a slave belonging to A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who was freed by her after her death) used tostand in prayer and recite for her in Ramadan.
Umar said, "Our best Qur'an reciter is Ubai and our best judge is 'Ali; and in spite of this, we leave some of the statements of Ubai because Ubai says, 'I do not leave anything that I have heard from Allah's Apostle while Allah said:
"Whatever verse (Revelations) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten but We bring a better one or similar to it." ' " (2.106)
The Prophet said, "Allah said, 'The son of Adam tells a lie against me though he has no right to do so, and he abuses Me though he has no right to do so. As for his telling a lie against Me, it is that he claims that I cannot recreate him as I created him before; and as for his abusing Me, it is his statement that I have offspring. No! Glorified be Me! I am far from taking a wife or offspring.' "
The law of Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) was prescribed for the children of Israel, but the Diya (i.e. blood money was not ordained for them). So Allah said to this Nation (i.e. Muslims):
"O you who believe! The law of Al-Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in cases of murder: The free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the relatives (or one of them) of the killed (person) forgive their brother (i.e. the killer) something of Qisas (i.e. not to kill the killer by accepting blood money in the case of intentional murder)--then the relatives (of the killed person) should demand blood-money in a reasonable manner and the killer must pay with handsome gratitude. This is an allevitation and a Mercy from your Lord, (in comparison to what was prescribed for the nations before you).
So after this, whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. to kill the killer after taking the blood-money) shall have a painful torment." (2.178)
'Ukaz, Mijanna and Dhul-Majaz were markets during the Pre-Islamic Period. They (i.e. Muslims) considered it a sin to trade there during the Hajj time (i.e. season), so this Verse was revealed: "There is no harm for you if you seek of the Bounty of your Lord during the Hajj season." (2.198)
A man who wants to perform the Hajj (from Mecca) can perform the Tawaf around the Ka'ba as long as he is not in the state of Ihram till he assumes the Ihram for Hajj. Then, if he rides and proceeds to 'Arafat, he should take a Hadi (i.e. animal for sacrifice), either a camel or a cow or a sheep, whatever he can afford; but if he cannot afford it, he should fast for three days during the Hajj before the day of 'Arafat, but if the third day of his fasting happens to be the day of 'Arafat (i.e. 9th of Dhul-Hijja) then it is no sin for him (to fast on it). Then he should proceed to 'Arafat and stay there from the time of the 'Asr prayer till darkness falls. Then the pilgrims should proceed from 'Arafat, and when they have departed from it, they reach Jam' (i.e. Al-Muzdalifa) where they ask Allah to help them to be righteous and dutiful to Him, and there they remember Allah greatly or say Takbir (i.e. Allah is Greater) and Tahlil (i.e. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah) repeatedly before dawn breaks. Then, after offering the morning (Fajr) prayer you should pass on (to Mina) for the people used to do so and Allah said:
"Then depart from the place whence all the people depart. And ask for Allah's Forgiveness. Truly! Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (2.199) Then you should go on doing so till you throw pebbles over the Jamra.
The last Verse (in the Qur'an) revealed to the Prophet was the Verse dealing with usury (i.e. Riba).
Abu Sufyan narrated to me personally, saying, "I set out during the Truce that had been concluded between me and Allah's Apostle. While I was in Sham, a letter sent by the Prophet was brought to Heraclius. Dihya Al-Kalbi had brought and given it to the governor of Busra, and the latter forwarded it to Heraclius. Heraclius said, 'Is there anyone from the people of this man who claims to be a prophet?' The people replied, 'Yes.' So I along with some of Quraishi men were called and we entered upon Heraclius, and we were seated in front of him. Then he said, 'Who amongst you is the nearest relative to the man who claims to be a prophet?' So they made me sit in front of him and made my companions sit behind me. Then he called upon his translator and said (to him), 'Tell them ( i.e. Abu Sufyan's companions) that I am going to ask him (i.e. Abu Sufyan) regarding that man who claims to be a prophet. So, if he tell me a lie, they should contradict him (instantly).' By Allah, had I not been afraid that my companions would consider me a liar, I would have told lies. Heraclius then said to his translator, 'Ask him: What is his (i.e. the Prophet's) family status amongst you?' I said, 'He belongs to a noble family amongst us.' Heraclius said, 'Was any of his ancestors a king?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Did you ever accuse him of telling lies before his saying what he has said?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Do the nobles follow him or the poor people?' I said, 'It is the poor who followed him.' He said, 'Is the number of his followers increasing or decreasing?' I said, 'They are increasing.' He said, 'Does anyone renounce his religion (i.e. Islam) after embracing it, being displeased with it?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'Did you fight with him?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'How was your fighting with him?' I said, 'The fighting between us was undecided and victory was shared by him and us by turns. He inflicts casualties upon us and we inflict casualties upon him.' He said, 'Did he ever betray?' I said, 'No, but now we are away from him in this truce and we do not know what he will do in it.' " Abu Sufyan added, "By Allah, I was not able to insert in my speech a word (against him) except that. Heraclius said, 'Did anybody else (amongst you) ever claim the same (i.e. Islam) before him? I said, 'No.' Then Heraclius told his translator to tell me (i.e. Abu Sufyan), 'I asked you about his family status amongst you, and you told me that he comes from a noble family amongst you. Verily, all Apostles come from the noblest family among their people. Then I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king, and you denied that. Thereupon I thought that had one of his fore-fathers been a king, I would have said that he (i.e. Muhammad) was seeking to rule the kingdom of his fore-fathers. Then I asked you regarding his followers, whether they were the noble or the poor among the people, and you said that they were only the poor (who follow him). In fact, such are the followers of the Apostles. Then I asked you whether you have ever accused him of telling lies before saying what he said, and your reply was in the negative. Therefore, I took for granted that a man who did not tell a lie about others, could ever tell a lie about Allah. Then I asked you whether anyone of his followers had renounced his religion (i.e. Islam) after embracing it, being displeased with it, and you denied that. And such is Faith when it mixes with the cheerfulness of the hearts. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You claimed that they were increasing. That is the way of true faith till it is complete. Then I asked you whether you had ever fought with him, and you claimed that you had fought with him and the battle between you and him was undecided and the victory was shared by you and him in turns; he inflicted casualties upon you and you inflicted casualties upon them. Such is the case with the Apostles; they are out to test and the final victory is for them. Then I asked you whether he had ever betrayed; you claimed that he had never betrayed. Indeed, Apostles never betray. Then I asked you whether anyone had said this statement before him; and you denied that. Thereupon I thought if somebody had said that statement before him, then I would have said that he was but a man copying some sayings said before him." Abu Safyan said, "Heraclius then asked me, 'What does he order you to do?' I said, 'He orders us (to offer) prayers and (to pay) Zakat and to keep good relationship with the kith and kin and to be chaste.' Then Heraclius said, 'If whatever you have said, is true, he is really a prophet, and I knew that he ( i.e. the Prophet ) was going to appear, but I never thought that he would be from amongst you. If I were certain that I can reach him, I would like to meet him and if I were with him, I would wash his feet; and his kingdom will expand (surely) to what is under my feet.' Then Heraclius asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and read it wherein was written:
'In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. (This letter is) from Muhammad, Apostle of Allah, to Heraclius, the sovereign of Byzantine...Peace be upon him who follows the Right Path. Now then, I call you to embrace Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be saved (from Allah's Punishment); embrace Islam, and Allah will give you a double reward, but if you reject this, you will be responsible for the sins of all the people of your kingdom (Allah's Statement): "O the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship None but Allah...bear witness that we are Muslims.' (3.64)
When he finished reading the letter, voices grew louder near him and there was a great hue and cry, and we were ordered to go out." Abu Sufyan added, "While coming out, I said to my companions, 'The situation of Ibn Abu Kabsha (i.e. Muhammad) has become strong; even the king of Banu Al-Asfar is afraid of him.' So I continued to believe that Allah's Apostle would be victorious, till Allah made me embrace Islam." Az-Zuhri said, "Heraclius then invited all the chiefs of the Byzantines and had them assembled in his house and said, 'O group of Byzantines! Do you wish to have a permanent success and guidance and that your kingdom should remain with you?' (Immediately after hearing that), they rushed towards the gate like onagers, but they found them closed. Heraclius then said, 'Bring them back to me.' So he called them and said, 'I just wanted to test the strength of your adherence to your religion. Now I have observed of you that which I like.' Then the people fell in prostration before him and became pleased with him." (See Hadith No. 6,Vol 1)
'Allah is Sufficient for us and He Is the Best Disposer of affairs," was said by Abraham when he was thrown into the fire; and it was said by Muhammad when they (i.e. hypocrites) said, "A great army is gathering against you, therefore, fear them," but it only increased their faith and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs, for us)." (3.173)
The last statement of Abraham when he was thrown into the fire was: "Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs for us)." (3.173)
I stayed overnight in the house of my aunt Maimuna. Allah's Apostle talked with his wife for a while and then went to bed. When it was the last third of the night, he got up and looked towards the sky and said:
"Verily! In the creation of the Heavens and the Earth and in the alteration of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding." (3.190)
Then he stood up, performed ablution, brushed his teeth with a Siwak, and then prayed eleven Rakat. Then Bilal pronounced the Adhan (i.e. call for the Fajr prayer). The Prophet then offered two Rakat (Sunna) prayer and went out (to the Mosque) and offered the (compulsory congregational) Fajr prayer.
(One night) I stayed overnight in the house of my aunt Maimuna, and said to myself, "I will watch the prayer of Allah's Apostle." My aunt placed a cushion for Allah's Apostle and he slept on it in its length-wise direction and (woke-up) rubbing the traces of sleep off his face and then he recited the last ten Verses of Surat-al-Imran till he finished it. Then he went to a hanging water skin and took it, performed the ablution and then stood up to offer the prayer. I got up and did the same as he had done, and stood beside him. He put his hand on my head and held me by the ear and twisted it. He offered two Rakat, then two Rakat, then two Rakat, then two Rakat, then two Rakat, then two Rakat, and finally the Witr (i.e. one Rak'a) prayer.
That once he stayed overnight in the house of his aunt, the wife of the Prophet. He added: I lay on the cushion transversely while Allah's Apostle lay along with his wife in the lengthwise direction of cushion. Allah's Apostle slept till the middle of the night, either a bit before or a bit after it, and then woke up rubbing the traces of sleep off his face with his hands, and then recited the last ten Verses of Surat al-Imran. Then he got up and went to a hanging water skin, performed ablution from it--and performed it perfectly. Then he stood up to perform the prayer. I also did the same as he had done and then went to stand beside him. Allah's Apostle put his right hand on my head and held and twisted my right ear. He then offered two Rakat, then two Rakat then two Rakat, then two then two Rakat, then two Rakat, and finally, one Rak'a Witr. Then lay down again till the Muadhdhin (i.e. the call-maker) came to him, whereupon he got up and offered a light two Rakat prayer and went out (to the Mosque) and offered the (compulsory congregational) Fajr prayer.
(In the Pre-Islamic Period) the children used to inherit all the property but the parents used to inherit only through a will. So Allah cancelled that which He liked to cancel and decreed that the share of a son was to be twice the share of a daughter, and for the parents one-sixth for each one of them, or one third, and for the wife one-eighth or one-fourth, and for the husband one-half, or one-fourth.
regarding the Divine Verse: "O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness that you may take back part of the (Mahr) dower you have given them." (4.19) (Before this revelation) if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife, and one of them could marry her if he would, or they would give her in marriage if they wished, or, if they wished, they would not give her in marriage at all, and they would be more entitled to dispose her, than her own relatives. So the above Verse was revealed in this connection.
Regarding the Verse: "To everyone, We have appointed heirs." (4.33) 'Mawali' means heirs. And regarding: "And those to whom your right hands have pledged,"
When the Emigrants came to Medina, an Emigrant used to be the heir of an Ansari with the exclusion of the latter's relatives, and that was because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet had established between them (i.e. the Emigrants and the Ansar). So when the Verse: "To everyone We have appointed heirs," was revealed, (the inheritance through bond of brotherhood) was cancelled. Ibn Abbas then said: "And those to whom your right hands have pledged," is concerned with the covenant of helping and advising each other. So allies are no longer to be the heir of each other, but they can bequeath each other some of their property by means of a will.
The Verse: "Obey Allah and Obey the Apostle and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority," (4.59) was revealed in connection with 'Abdullah bin Hudhafa bin Qais bin 'Adi' when the Prophet appointed him as the commander of a Sariyya (army detachment).
My mother and I were among the weak and oppressed (Muslims at Mecca).
Regarding the Verse: "And say not to anyone who offers you peace (by accepting Islam), 'You are not a believer.' " There was a man amidst his sheep. The Muslims pursued him, and he said (to them) "Peace be on you." But they killed him and took over his sheep. Thereupon Allah revealed in that concern, the above Verse up to: "...seeking the perishable good of this life." (4.94) i.e. those sheep.
Not equal are those believers who sat (at home) and did not join the Badr battle and those who joined the Badr battle.
'"Except the weak ones" (4.98) and added: My mother was one of those whom Allah excused.
Regarding the Verse: "Because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill." (4.102) (It was revealed in connection with) 'Abdur-Rahman bin Auf who was wounded.
Some people were asking Allah's Apostle questions mockingly. A man would say, "Who is my father?" Another man whose she-camel had gone astray would say, "Where is my she-camel? "So Allah revealed this Verse in this connection: "O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble." (5.101)
Allah's Apostle delivered a sermon and said, "O people! You will be gathered before Allah bare-footed, naked and not circumcised." Then (quoting Quran) he said:
"As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. A promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it..." (21.104)
The Prophet then said, "The first of the human beings to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham. Lo! Some men from my followers will be brought and then (the angels) will drive them to the left side (Hell-Fire). I will say. 'O my Lord! (They are) my companions!' Then a reply will come (from Almighty), 'You do not know what they did after you.' I will say as the pious slave (the Prophet Jesus) said: And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them. When You took me up, You were the Watcher over them and You are a Witness to all things.' (5.117) Then it will be said, 'These people have continued to be apostates since you left them.' "
The Prophet said, "You will be gathered (on the Day of Resurrection) and some people will be driven (by the angels) to the left side (and taken to Hell) whereupon I will say as the pious slave (Jesus) said: 'And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them...the All-Mighty, the All Wise.' " (5.117-118)
The Prophet said, "Nobody has the right to say that I am better than Jonah bin Matta."
'Uyaina bin Hisn bin Hudhaifa came and stayed with his nephew Al-Hurr bin Qais who was one of those whom 'Umar used to keep near him, as the Qurra (learned men knowing Qur'an by heart) were the people of 'Umar's meetings and his advisors whether they were old or young. 'Uyaina said to his nephew, "O son of my brother! You have an approach to this chief, so get for me the permission to see him." Al-Hurr said, "I will get the permission for you to see him." So Al-Hurr asked the permission for 'Uyaina and 'Umar admitted him. When 'Uyaina entered upon him, he said, "Beware! O the son of Al-Khattab! By Allah, you neither give us sufficient provision nor judge among us with justice." Thereupon 'Umar became so furious that he intended to harm him, but Al-Hurr said, "O chief of the Believers! Allah said to His Prophet: 'Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; and leave (don't punish) the foolish,' (7.199) and this (i.e. 'Uyaina) is one of the foolish." By Allah, 'Umar did not overlook that Verse when Al-Hurr recited it before him; he observed (the orders of) Allah's Book strictly.
Regarding the Verse: "Verily! The worst of beasts in the Sight of Allah are the deaf and the dumb--those who understand not." (8.22)
(The people referred to here) were some persons from the tribe of Bani 'Abd-Addar.
When the Verse: "If there are twenty steadfast amongst you, they will overcome two hundred." (8.65) was revealed, then it became obligatory for the Muslims that one (Muslim) should not flee from ten (non-Muslims). Sufyan (the sub-narrator) once said, "Twenty (Muslims) should not flee before two hundred (non-Muslims)." Then there was revealed: "But now Allah has lightened your (task)..." (8.66)
So it became obligatory that one-hundred (Muslims) should not flee before two hundred (non-Muslims). (Once Sufyan said extra, "The Verse: 'Urge the believers to the fight. If there are twenty steadfast amongst you (Muslims) patient and persevering...' was revealed.") Sufyan said, "Ibn Shabrama said, 'I see that this order is applicable to the obligation of enjoining good and forbidding evil."
When the Verse: "If there are twenty steadfast amongst you (Muslims), they will overcome two-hundred (non-Muslims)," was revealed, it became hard on the Muslims when it became compulsory that one Muslim ought not to flee (in war) before ten (non-Muslims). So (Allah) lightened the order by revealing:
"(But) now Allah has lightened your (task) for He knows that there is weakness in you. So if there are of you one-hundred steadfast, they will overcome (two-hundred (non-Muslims)." (8.66) So when Allah reduced the number of enemies which Muslims should withstand, their patience and perseverance against the enemy decreased as much as their task was lightened for them.
When 'Abdullah bin 'Ubai died, his son 'Abdullah bin 'Abdullah came to Allah's Apostle and asked him to give him his shirt in order to shroud his father in it. He gave it to him and then 'Abdullah asked the Prophet to offer the funeral prayer for him (his father). Allah's Apostle got up to offer the funeral prayer for him, but Umar got up too and got hold of the garment of Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Will you offer the funeral prayer for him though your Lord has forbidden you to offer the prayer for him?" Allah's Apostle said, "But Allah has given me the choice by saying:
'(Whether you) ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times...' (9.80) so I will ask more than seventy times." 'Umar said, "But he ('Abdullah bin 'Ubai) is a hypocrite!" However, Allah's Apostle did offer the funeral prayer for him whereupon Allah revealed:
"And never (O Muhammad) pray for anyone of them that dies, nor stand at his grave." (9.84)
When the Prophet arrived at Medina, the Jews were observing the fast on 'Ashura' (10th of Muharram) and they said, "This is the day when Moses became victorious over Pharaoh." On that, the Prophet said to his companions, "You (Muslims) have more right to celebrate Moses' victory than they have, so observe the fast on this day."
Those who have made their Scripture into parts are the people of the Scripture who divided it into portions and believed in a part of it and disbelieved the other.
Regarding: "And We granted the vision (Ascension to the Heaven 'Miraj') which We showed you (O Muhammad as an actual eye witness) but as a trial for mankind." (17.60) It was an actual eye-witness which was shown to Allah's Apostle during the night he was taken on a journey (through the heavens). And the cursed tree is the tree of Az-Zaqqum (a bitter pungent tree which grows at the bottom of Hell).
(regarding):"Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a low tone." (17.110) This Verse was revealed while Allah's Apostle was hiding himself in Mecca. When he prayed with his companions, he used to raise his voice with the recitation of Qur'an, and if the pagans happened to hear him, they would abuse the Qur'an, the One who revealed it and the one who brought it. Therefore Allah said to His Prophet : "Neither say your prayer aloud," (17.110) i.e. do not recite aloud lest the pagans should hear you, but follow a way between.
The Prophet said to Gabriel, "What prevents you from visiting us more often than you visit us now?" So there was revealed:
"And we (angels) descend not but by the command of your Lord. To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us..." (19.64)
When Allah's Apostle arrived at Medina, he found the Jews observing the fast on the day of 'Ashura' (10th of Muharram). The Prophet asked them (about it) and they replied, "This is the day when Moses became victorious over Pharaoh." The Prophet said (to the Muslims), "We are nearer to Moses than they, so fast on this day."
The Prophet delivered a sermon and said, "You (people) will be gathered before Allah (on the Day of Resurrection) barefooted, naked and uncircumcised." (The Prophet then recited): 'As We began the first creation We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise We have undertaken and truly We shall do it,' " and added, "The first man who will be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham. Lo! Some men from my followers will be brought and taken towards the left side, whereupon I will say, 'O Lord, (these are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what new things they introduced (into the religion) after you.' I will then say as the righteous pious slave, Jesus, said, 'I was a witness over them while I dwelt among them...(to His Statement)...and You are the Witness to all things.' (5.117) Then it will be said, '(O Muhammad)! These people never stopped to apostate since you left them.' "
Regarding the Verse: "And among men is he who worships Allah as it were on the very edge." (22.11).
A man used to come to Medina as if his wife brought a son and his mares produced offspring. He would say, "This religion (Islam) is good," but if his wife did not give birth to a child and his mares produced no offspring, he would say, "This religion is bad."
Hilal bin Umaiya accused his wife of committing illegal sexual intercourse with Sharik bin Sahma' and filed the case before the Prophet. The Prophet said (to Hilal), "Either you bring forth a proof (four witnesses) or you will receive the legal punishment (lashes) on your back." Hilal said, "O Allah's Apostle! If anyone of us saw a man over his wife, would he go to seek after witnesses?" The Prophet kept on saying, "Either you bring forth the witnesses or you will receive the legal punishment (lashes) on your back." Hilal then said, "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I am telling the truth and Allah will reveal to you what will save my back from legal punishment." Then Gabriel came down and revealed to him:
"As for those who accuse their wives..." (24.6-9) The Prophet recited it till he reached: "... (her accuser) is telling the truth." Then the Prophet left and sent for the woman, and Hilal went (and brought) her and then took the oaths (confirming the claim). The Prophet was saying, "Allah knows that one of you is a liar, so will any of you repent?" Then the woman got up and took the oaths and when she was going to take the fifth one, the people stopped her and said, "It (the fifth oath) will definitely bring Allah's curse on you (if you are guilty)." So she hesitated and recoiled (from taking the oath) so much that we thought that she would withdraw her denial. But then she said, "I will not dishonor my family all through these days," and carried on (the process of taking oaths). The Prophet then said, "Watch her; if she delivers a black-eyed child with big hips and fat shins then it is Sharik bin Sahma's child." Later she delivered a child of that description. So the Prophet said, "If the case was not settled by Allah's Law, I would punish her severely."
When the Verse: "And warn your tribe of near-kindred," was revealed, the Prophet ascended the Safa (mountain) and started calling, "O Bani Fihr! O Bani 'Adi!" addressing various tribes of Quraish till they were assembled. Those who could not come themselves, sent their messengers to see what was there. Abu Lahab and other people from Quraish came and the Prophet then said, "Suppose I told you that there is an (enemy) cavalry in the valley intending to attack you, would you believe me?" They said, "Yes, for we have not found you telling anything other than the truth." He then said, "I am a warner to you in face of a terrific punishment." Abu Lahab said (to the Prophet) "May your hands perish all this day. Is it for this purpose you have gathered us?" Then it was revealed: "Perish the hands of Abu Lahab (one of the Prophet's uncles), and perish he! His wealth and his children will not profit him..." (111.1-5)
Quran 28.85"...will bring you home" means to Mecca.
One day the Prophet ascended Safa mountain and said, "Oh Sabah! " All the Quraish gathered round him and said, "What is the matter?" He said, "Look, if I told you that an enemy is going to attack you in the morning or in the evening, would you not believe me?" They said, "Yes, we will believe you." He said, "I am a warner to you in face of a terrible punishment." On that Abu Lahab said, "May you perish ! Is it for this thing that you have gathered us?" So Allah revealed:
"Perish the hands of Abu Lahab!..." (111.1)
Some pagans who committed murders in great number and committed illegal sexual intercourse excessively, came to Muhammad and said, "O Muhammad! Whatever you say and invite people to, is good: but we wish if you could inform us whether we can make an expiation for our (past evil) deeds." So the Divine Verses came: "Those who invoke not with Allah any other god, nor kill such life as Allah has forbidden except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse." (25.68) And there was also revealed: "Say: O My slaves who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah." (39.53)
That he was asked (regarding):
"Except to be kind to me for my Kinship with you." (42.23) Said bin Zubair (who was present then) said, "It means here (to show what is due for) the relatives of Muhammad." On that Ibn Abbas said: "You have hurried in giving the answer! There was no branch of the tribe of Quraish but the Prophet had relatives therein. The Prophet said, 'I do not want anything from (you ) except to be Kind to me for my Kinship with you.' "
(regarding His Statement about the Lat and the Uzza: Lat was originally a man who used to mix Sawiq for the pilgrim.
The Prophet performed a prostration when he finished reciting Surat-an-Najm, and all the Muslims and pagans and Jinns and human beings prostrated along with him.
The moon was cleft asunder during the lifetime of the Prophet.
While in his tent on the day the Battle of Badr, the Prophet said, "O Allah! I request You (to fulfill) Your promise and contract. O Allah! If You wish (that the Believers be destroyed), You will never be worshipped henceforth." On that, Abu Bakr held the Prophet by the hand and said, "That is enough, O Allah's Apostle! You have appealed to your Lord too pressingly." The Prophet was wearing his armor and then went out reciting:
"Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense), and the Hour will be more previous and most bitter." (54.45-46)
Regarding the saying of Allah:
"And they will not disobey you in any just matter." (60.12) That was one of the conditions which Allah imposed on (the believing) women (who came to take the oath of allegiance to the Prophet).
I witnessed the 'Id-al-Fitr prayer with Allah's Apostle, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman; and all of them offered it before delivering the sermon... and then delivered the sermon. Once the Prophet (after completing the prayer and the sermon) came down, as if I am now looking at him waving at the men with his hand to sit down, and walked through them till he, along with Bilal, reached (the rows of) the women. Then he recited: "O Prophet! When believing women come to you to take the oath of allegiance that they will not worship anything other than Allah, will not steal, will not commit illegal sexual intercourse, will not kill their children, and will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood (by making illegal children belonging to their husbands)..." (60.12) Having finished, he said, "Do you agree to that?" One lady, other than whom none replied the Prophet said, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle!" (The sub-narrator, Al-Hasan did not know who the lady was.) Then the Prophet said to them: "Will you give alms?" Thereupon Bilal spread out his garment and the women started throwing big rings and small rings into Bilal's garment. (See Hadith No. 95 vol.2)
If someone says to his wife, "You are unlawful to me," he must make an expiation (for his oath). Ibn 'Abbas added: There is for you in Allah's Apostle, an excellent example to follow.
For the whole year I had the desire to ask 'Umar bin Al-Khattab regarding the explanation of a Verse (in Surat Al-Tahrim) but I could not ask him because I respected him very much. When he went to perform the Hajj, I too went along with him. On our return, while we were still on the way home, 'Umar went aside to answer the call of nature by the Arak trees. I waited till he finished and then I proceeded with him and asked him, "O chief of the Believers! Who were the two wives of the Prophet who aided one another against him?" He said, "They were Hafsa and 'Aisha." Then I said to him, "By Allah, I wanted to ask you about this a year ago, but I could not do so owing to my respect for you." 'Umar said, "Do not refrain from asking me. If you think that I have knowledge (about a certain matter), ask me; and if I know (something about it), I will tell you." Then 'Umar added, "By Allah, in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance we did not pay attention to women until Allah revealed regarding them what He revealed regarding them and assigned for them what He has assigned. Once while I was thinking over a certain matter, my wife said, 'I recommend that you do so-and-so.' I said to her, 'What have you got to do with the matter? Why do you poke your nose in a matter which I want to see fulfilled?' She said, How strange you are, O son of Al-Khattab! You don't want to be argued with whereas your daughter, Hafsa surely, argues with Allah's Apostle so much that he remains angry for a full day!' 'Umar then reported; how he at once put on his outer garment and went to Hafsa and said to her, 'O my daughter! Do you argue with Allah's Apostle so that he remains angry the whole day?' Hafsa said, 'By Allah, we argue with him.' 'Umar said, 'Know that I warn you of Allah's punishment and the anger of Allah's Apostle...O my daughter! Don't be betrayed by the one who is proud of her beauty because of the love of Allah's Apostle for her (i.e. 'Aisha).' " 'Umar added, "Then I went out to Um Salama's house who was one of my relatives, and I talked to her. She said, 'O son of Al-Khattab! It is rather astonishing that you interfere in everything; you even want to interfere between Allah's Apostle and his wives!' By Allah, by her talk she influenced me so much that I lost some of my anger. I left her (and went home). At that time I had a friend from the Ansar who used to bring news (from the Prophet) in case of my absence, and I used to bring him the news if he was absent. In those days we were afraid of one of the kings of Ghassan tribe. We heard that he intended to move and attack us, so fear filled our hearts because of that. (One day) my Ansari friend unexpectedly knocked at my door, and said, 'Open, Open!' I said, 'Has the king of Ghassan come?' He said, 'No, but something worse; Allah's Apostle has isolated himself from his wives.' I said, 'Let the nose of 'Aisha and Hafsa be stuck to dust (i.e. humiliated)!' Then I put on my clothes and went to Allah's Apostle's residence, and behold, he was staying in an upper room of his to which he ascended by a ladder, and a black slave of Allah's Apostle was (sitting) on the first step. I said to him, 'Say (to the Prophet ) 'Umar bin Al-Khattab is here.' Then the Prophet admitted me and I narrated the story to Allah's Apostle. When I reached the story of Um Salama, Allah's Apostle smiled while he was lying on a mat made of palm tree leaves with nothing between him and the mat. Underneath his head there was a leather pillow stuffed with palm fibres, and leaves of a saut tree were piled at his feet, and above his head hung a few water skins. On seeing the marks of the mat imprinted on his side, I wept. He said, 'Why are you weeping?' I replied, 'O Allah's Apostle! Caesar and Khosrau are leading the life (i.e. luxurious life) while you, Allah's Apostle though you are, is living in destitute.' The Prophet then replied, 'Won't you be satisfied that they enjoy this world and we the Hereafter?' "
I intended to ask 'Umar so I said, "Who were those two ladies who tried to back each other against the Prophet?" I hardly finished my speech when he said, "They were 'Aisha and Hafsa."
I intended to ask 'Umar about those two ladies who back each other against 'Allah's Apostle. For one year I was seeking the opportunity to ask this question, but in vain, until once when I accompanied him for Hajj. While we were in Zahran, 'Umar went to answer the call of nature and told me to follow him with some water for ablution. So I followed him with a container of water and started pouring water for him. I found it a good opportunity to ask him, so I said, "O chief of the Believers! Who were those two ladies who had backed each other (against the Prophet)?" Before I could complete my question, he replied, "They were 'Aisha and Hafsa."
(regarding the Verse): "Cruel after all that, base-born (of illegitimate birth)." (68.13) It was revealed in connection with a man from Quaraish who had a notable sign (Zanamah) similar to the notable sign which usually hung on the neck of a sheep (to recognize it).
All the idols which were worshipped by the people of Noah were worshipped by the Arabs later on. As for the idol Wadd, it was worshipped by the tribe of Kalb at Daumat-al-Jandal; Suwa' was the idol of (the tribe of) Murad and then by Ban, Ghutaif at Al-Jurf near Saba; Yauq was the idol of Hamdan, and Nasr was the idol of Himyr, the branch of Dhi-al-Kala. The names (of the idols) formerly belonged to some pious men of the people of Noah, and when they died Satan inspired their people to (prepare) and place idols at the places where they used to sit, and to call those idols by their names. The people did so, but the idols were not worshipped till those people (who initiated them) had died and the origin of the idols had become obscure, whereupon people began worshipping them.
Allah's Apostle went out along with a group of his companions towards 'Ukaz Market. At that time something intervened between the devils and the news of the Heaven, and flames were sent down upon them, so the devils returned. Their fellow-devils said, "What is wrong with you?" They said, "Something has intervened between us and the news of the Heaven, and fires (flames) have been shot at us." Their fellow-devils said, "Nothing has intervened between you and the news of the Heaven, but an important event has happened. Therefore, travel all over the world, east and west, and try to find out what has happened." And so they set out and travelled all over the world, east and west, looking for that thing which intervened between them and the news of the Heaven. Those of the devils who had set out towards Tihama, went to Allah's Apostle at Nakhla (a place between Mecca and Taif) while he was on his way to Ukaz Market. (They met him) while he was offering the Fajr prayer with his companions. When they heard the Holy Qur'an being recited (by Allah's Apostle), they listened to it and said (to each other). This is the thing which has intervened between you and the news of the Heavens." Then they returned to their people and said, "O our people! We have really heard a wonderful recital (Qur'an). It gives guidance to the right, and we have believed therein. We shall not join in worship, anybody with our Lord." (See 72.1-2) Then Allah revealed to His Prophet (Surat al-Jinn):
"Say: It has been revealed to me that a group (3 to 9) of Jinns listened (to the Qur'an)." (72.1) The statement of the Jinns was revealed to him.
The Prophet used to move his tongue when the divine Inspiration was being revealed to him. (Sufyan, a subnarrator, demonstrated (how the Prophet used to move his lips) and added, "In order to memorize it.") So Allah revealed: "Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith." (75.16)
(as regards) Allah's Statement:
"Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith." (75.16)
When Gabriel revealed the Divine Inspiration in Allah's Apostle, he (Allah's Apostle) moved his tongue and lips, and that state used to be very hard for him, and that movement indicated that revelation was taking place. So Allah revealed in Surat Al-Qiyama which begins:
"I do swear by the Day of Resurrection..." (75) the Verses:
"Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it (Qur'an) in your mind, and give you the ability to recite it by heart." (75.16-17) Ibn Abbas added: "It is for Us to collect it (Qur'an) (in your mind), and give you the ability to recite it by heart," means, "When We reveal it, listen." "Then it is for Us to explain it," means, "It is for us to explain it through your tongue." So whenever Gabriel came to Allah's Apostle he would keep quiet (and listen), and when the Angel left, the Prophet would recite that revelation as Allah promised him.
(as regards the explanation of) "Indeed, it (Hell) throws about sparks (huge) as Forts." We used to collect wood in the form of logs, three cubits long or shorter, for heating purposes in winter, and we used to call such wood, the Qasr.
(as regards the Verse): "You shall surely travel from stage to stage (in this life and in the Hereafter)." (It means) from one state to another. That concerns your Prophet.
Abu Jahl said, "If I see Muhammad praying at the Ka'ba, I will tread on his neck." When the Prophet heard of that, he said, "If he does so, the Angels will snatch him away."
'Umar asked the people regarding Allah's Statement:
"When comes the Help of Allah (to you O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest of Mecca." (110.1) They replied, "It indicates the future conquest of towns and palaces (by Muslims)." 'Umar said, "What do you say about it, O Ibn 'Abbas?" I replied, "(This Surat) indicates the termination of the life of Muhammad. Through it he was informed of the nearness of his death."
'Umar used to make me sit with the elderly men who had fought in the Battle of Badr. Some of them felt it (did not like that) and said to 'Umar "Why do you bring in this boy to sit with us while we have sons like him?" 'Umar replied, "Because of what you know of his position (i.e. his religious knowledge.)" One day 'Umar called me and made me sit in the gathering of those people; and I think that he called me just to show them (my religious knowledge). 'Umar then asked them (in my presence). "What do you say about the interpretation of the Statement of Allah:
'When comes Help of Allah (to you O, Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Mecca).' (110.1) Some of them said, "We are ordered to praise Allah and ask for His forgiveness when Allah's Help and the conquest (of Mecca) comes to us." Some others kept quiet and did not say anything. On that, 'Umar asked me, "Do you say the same, O Ibn 'Abbas?" I replied, "No." He said, 'What do you say then?" I replied, "That is the sign of the death of Allah's Apostle which Allah informed him of. Allah said:
'(O Muhammad) When comes the Help of Allah (to you against your enemies) and the conquest (of Mecca) (which is the sign of your death). You should celebrate the praises of your Lord and ask for His Forgiveness, and He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives.' " (110.3) On that 'Umar said, "I do not know anything about it other than what you have said."
When the Verse: "And warn your tribe of near kindred." (26.214) was revealed, Allah's Apostle went out, and when he had ascended As-Safa mountain, he shouted, "O Sabahah!" The people said, "Who is that?" "Then they gathered around him, whereupon he said, "Do you see? If I inform you that cavalrymen are proceeding up the side of this mountain, will you believe me?" They said, "We have never heard you telling a lie." Then he said, "I am a plain warner to you of a coming severe punishment." Abu Lahab said, "May you perish! You gathered us only for this reason?" Then Abu Lahab went away. So the Surat: "Perish the hands of Abu Lahab!" (111.1) was revealed.
The Prophet went out towards Al-Batha' and ascended the mountain and shouted, "O Sabahah!" So the Quraish people gathered around him. He said, "Do you see? If I tell you that an enemy is going to attack you in the morning or in the evening, will you believe me?" They replied, "Yes." He said, "Then I am a plain warner to you of a coming severe punishment." Abu Lahab said, "Is it for this reason that you have gathered us? May you perish!" Then Allah revealed: "Perish the hands of Abu Lahab!"
Abu Lahab said, "May you perish! Is it for this that you have gathered us?" So there was revealed: "Perish the hands of Abu Lahab."
The Prophet was the most generous person, and he used to become more so (generous) particularly in the month of Ramadan because Gabriel used to meet him every night of the month of Ramadan till it elapsed. Allah's Apostle used to recite the Qur'an for him. When Gabriel met him, he used to become more generous than the fast wind in doing good.
Umar said, "Ubai was the best of us in the recitation (of the Qur'an) yet we leave some of what he recites." Ubai says, "I have taken it from the mouth of Allah's Apostle and will not leave for anything whatever." But Allah said, "None of Our Revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten but We substitute something better or similar." 2.106
Regarding His (Allah's) Statement: "Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith." (75.16) And whenever Gabriel descended to Allah's Apostle with the Divine Inspiration, Allah's Apostle used to move his tongue and lips, and that used to be hard for him, and one could easily recognize that he was being inspired Divinely. So Allah revealed the Verse which occurs in the Surah starting with "I do swear by the Day of Resurrection," (75.1) i.e. "Move not your tongue concerning (the Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it (in your mind) (O Muhammad) and give you the ability to recite it by heart," (75.16-17) which means: It is for us to collect it (in your mind) and give you the ability to recite it by heart. "And when We have recited it to you (O Muhammad) through Gabriel then follow you its recital," (75.18) means: When We reveal it (the Qur'an) to you, listen to it, for then: "It is for Us to explain it and make it clear to you," (75.19) i.e., it is up to Us to explain it through your tongue. So, when Gabriel came to him, Allah's Apostle would listen to him attentively, and as soon as Gabriel left, he would recite the Revelations, as Allah had promised him.
It was said to the Prophet, "Won't you marry the daughter of Hamza?" He said, "She is my foster niece (brother's daughter). "
The Prophet got married while he was in the state of Ihram.
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you, when having sexual intercourse with his wife, says: Bismillah, Allahumma jannibni-Sh-Shaitan wa jannib-ish-Shaitan ma razaqtana, and if it is destined that they should have a child, then Satan will never be able to harm him."
I had been eager to ask 'Umar bin Al-Khattab about the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said "If you two (wives of the Prophet namely 'Aisha and Hafsa) turn in repentance to Allah, your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes)," (66.4) till 'Umar performed the Hajj and I too, performed the Hajj along with him. (On the way) 'Umar went aside to answer the call of nature, and I also went aside along with him carrying a tumbler full of water, and when 'Umar had finished answering the call of nature, I poured water over his hands and he performed the ablution. Then I said to him, "O chief of the Believers! Who were the two ladies from among the wives of the Prophet regarding whom Allah said: 'If you two (wives of the Prophet) turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet likes)?' " (66.4) He said, "I am astonished at your question, O Ibn Abbas. They were 'Aisha and Hafsa." Then 'Umar went on narrating the Hadith and said, "I and an Ansari neighbor of mine from Bani Umaiyya bin Zaid who used to live in Awali-al-Medina, used to visit the Prophet in turn. He used to go one day and I another day. When I went, I would bring him the news of what had happened that day regarding the Divine Inspiration and other things, and when he went, he used to do the same for me. We, the people of Quraish used to have the upper hand over our wives, but when we came to the Ansar, we found that their women had the upper hand over their men, so our women also started learning the ways of the Ansari women.
I shouted at my wife and she retorted against me and I disliked that she should answer me back. She said to me, 'Why are you so surprised at my answering you back? By Allah, the wives of the Prophet answer him back and some of them may leave (does not speak to) him throughout the day till the night.' The (talk) scared me and I said to her, 'Whoever has done so will be ruined!' Then I proceeded after dressing myself, and entered upon Hafsa and said to her, 'Does anyone of you keep the Prophet angry till night?' She said, 'Yes.' I said, 'You are a ruined losing person! Don't you fear that Allah may get angry for the anger of Allah's Apostle and thus you will be ruined? So do not ask more from the Prophet and do not answer him back and do not give up talking to him. Ask me whatever you need and do not be tempted to imitate your neighbor (i.e., 'Aisha) in her manners for she is more charming than you and more beloved to the Prophet.' " Umar added, "At that time a talk was circulating among us that (the tribe of) Ghassan were preparing their horses to invade us. My Ansari companion, on the day of his turn, went (to the town) and returned to us at night and knocked at my door violently and asked if I was there. I became horrified and came out to him. He said, 'Today a great thing has happened.' I asked, 'What is it? Have (the people of) Ghassan come?' He said, 'No, but (What has happened) is greater and more horrifying than that: Allah's Apostle has divorced his wives.' "
'Umar added, "The Prophet kept away from his wives and I said 'Hafsa is a ruined loser.' I had already thought that most probably this (divorce) would happen in the near future. So I dressed myself and offered the morning prayer with the Prophet and then the Prophet entered an upper room and stayed there in seclusion. I entered upon Hafsa and saw her weeping. I asked, 'What makes you weep? Did I not warn you about that? Did the Prophet divorce you all?' She said, 'I do not know. There he is retired alone in the upper room.' I came out and sat near the pulpit and saw a group of people sitting around it and some of them were weeping. I sat with them for a while but could not endure the situation, so I went to the upper room where the Prophet was and said to a black slave of his, 'Will you get the permission (of the Prophet ) for 'Umar (to enter)?' The slave went in, talked to the Prophet about it and then returned saying, 'I have spoken to the Prophet and mentioned you but he kept quiet.' Then I returned and sat with the group of people sitting near the pulpit. but I could not bear the situation and once again I said to the slave, 'Will you get the permission for 'Umar?' He went in and returned saying, 'I mentioned you to him but he kept quiet.' So I returned again and sat with the group of people sitting near the pulpit, but I could not bear the situation, and so I went to the slave and said, 'Will you get the permission for 'Umar?' He went in and returned to me saying, 'I mentioned you to him but he kept quiet.' When I was leaving, behold! The slave called me, saying, 'The Prophet has given you permission.'
Then I entered upon Allah's Apostle and saw him lying on a bed made of stalks of date palm leaves and there was no bedding between it and him. The stalks left marks on his side and he was leaning on a leather pillow stuffed with date-palm fires. I greeted him and while still standing I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Have you divorced your wives?' He looked at me and said, 'No.' I said, 'Allahu Akbar!' And then, while still standing, I said chatting, 'Will you heed what I say, O Allah's Apostle? We, the people of Quraish used to have power over our women, but when we arrived at Medina we found that the men (here) were overpowered by their women.' The Prophet smiled and then I said to him, 'Will you heed what I say, O Allah's Apostle?' I entered upon Hafsa and said to her, 'Do not be tempted to imitate your companion ('Aisha), for she is more charming than you and more beloved to the Prophet.' The Prophet smiled for a second time. When I saw him smiling, I sat down. Then I looked around his house, and by Allah, I could not see anything of importance in his house except three hides, so I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah to make your followers rich, for the Persians and the Romans have been made prosperous and they have been given (the pleasures of the world), although they do not worship Allah.' Thereupon the Prophet sat up as he was reclining. and said, 'Are you of such an opinion, O the son of Al-Khattab? These are the people who have received the rewards for their good deeds in this world.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Ask Allah to forgive me.'
Then the Prophet kept away from his wives for twenty-nine days because of the story which Hafsa had disclosed to 'Aisha. The Prophet had said, 'I will not enter upon them (my wives) for one month,' because of his anger towards them, when Allah had admonished him. So, when twenty nine days had passed, the Prophet first entered upon 'Aisha. 'Aisha said to him, 'O Allah's Apostle! You had sworn that you would not enter upon us for one month, but now only twenty-nine days have passed, for I have been counting them one by one.' The Prophet said, 'The (present) month is of twenty nine days.' 'Aisha added, 'Then Allah revealed the Verses of the option. (2) And out of all his wives he asked me first, and I chose him.' Then he gave option to his other wives and they said what 'Aisha had said." (1) The Prophet had decided to abstain from eating a certain kind of food because of a certain event, so Allah blamed him for doing so. Some of his wives were the cause of him taking that decision, therefore he deserted them for one month. See Qur'an: (66.4)
One morning we saw the wives of the Prophet weeping, and everyone of them had her family with her, I went to the mosque and found that it was crowded with people. Then 'Umar bin Al-Khattab came and went up to the Prophet who was in his upper room. He greeted him but nobody answered. He greeted again, but nobody answered. Then the gatekeeper called him and he entered upon the Prophet, and asked, "Have you divorced your wives?" The Prophet, said, "No, but I have taken an oath not to go to them for one month." So the Prophet stayed away (from his wives) for twenty nine days and then entered upon them.
that 'Umar entered upon Hafsa and said, "O my daughter! Do not be misled by the manners of her who is proud of her beauty because of the love of Allah's Apostle for her." By 'her' he meant 'Aisha. 'Umar added, "Then I told that to Allah's Apostle and he smiled (on hearing that)."
The Prophet said, "No man should stay with a lady in seclusion except in the presence of a Dhu-Muhram." A man stood up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! My wife has gone out intending to perform the Hajj and I have been enrolled (in the army) for such-and-such campaign." The Prophet said, "Return and perform the Hajj with your wife."
The wife of Thabit bin Qais came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I do not blame Thabit for defects in his character or his religion, but I, being a Muslim, dislike to behave in un-Islamic manner (if I remain with him)." On that Allah's Apostle said (to her), "Will you give back the garden which your husband has given you (as Mahr)?" She said, "Yes." Then the Prophet said to Thabit, "O Thabit! Accept your garden, and divorce her once."
The wife of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I do not blame Thabit for any defects in his character or his religion, but I am afraid that I (being a Muslim) may become unthankful for Allah's Blessings." On that, Allah's Apostle said (to her), 'Will you return his garden to him?" She said, "Yes." So she returned his garden to him and the Prophet told him to divorce her.
I saw him as a slave, (namely, Barira's husband).
That was Mughith, the slave of Bani so-and-so, i.e., Barira's husband as if I am now looking at him following her (Barira) along the streets of Medina.
Barira's husband was a black slave called Mughith, the slave of Bani so-and-so--as if I am seeing him now, walking behind her along the streets of Medina.
Barira's husband was a slave called Mughith, as if I am seeing him now, going behind Barira and weeping with his tears flowing down his beard. The Prophet said to 'Abbas, "O 'Abbas! are you not astonished at the love of Mughith for Barira and the hatred of Barira for Mughith?" The Prophet then said to Barira, "Why don't you return to him?" She said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do you order me to do so?" He said, "No, I only intercede for him." She said, "I am not in need of him."
The pagans were of two kinds as regards their relationship to the Prophet and the Believers. Some of them were those with whom the Prophet was at war and used to fight against, and they used to fight him; the others were those with whom the Prophet made a treaty, and neither did the Prophet fight them, nor did they fight him. If a lady from the first group of pagans emigrated towards the Muslims, her hand would not be asked in marriage unless she got the menses and then became clean. When she became clean, it would be lawful for her to get married, and if her husband emigrated too before she got married, then she would be returned to him. If any slave or female slave emigrated from them to the Muslims, then they would be considered free persons (not slaves) and they would have the same rights as given to other emigrants. The narrator then mentioned about the pagans involved with the Muslims in a treaty, the same as occurs in Mujahid's narration. If a male slave or a female slave emigrated from such pagans as had made a treaty with the Muslims, they would not be returned, but their prices would be paid (to the pagans). Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Qariba, the daughter of Abi Umaiyya, was the wife of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab. 'Umar divorced her and then Mu'awiyya bin Abi Sufyan married her. Similarly, Um Al-Hakam, the daughter of Abi Sufyan was the wife of 'Iyad bin Ghanm Al-Fihri. He divorced her and then 'Abdullah bin 'Uthman Al-Thaqafi married her.
Allah's Apostle performed the Tawaf (around the Ka'ba while riding his camel, and every time he reached the corner (of the Black Stone) he pointed at it with his hand and said, "Allahu Akbar." (Zainab said: The Prophet said, "An opening has been made in the wall of Gog and Magog like this and this," forming the number 90 (with his thumb and index finger).
Hilal bin Umaiyya accused his wife of illegal sexual intercourse and came to the Prophet to bear witness (against her), (taking the oath of Lian). The Prophet was saying, "Allah knows that either of you is a liar. Will anyone of you repent (to Allah)?" Then the lady got up and gave her witness.
Those involved in a case of Lian were mentioned before Allah's Apostle. Asim bin Adi said something about that and then left. Later on a man from his tribe came to him and told him that he had found another man with his wife. On that 'Asim said, "I have not been put to task except for what I have said (about Lian)." 'Asim took the man to Allah's Apostle and he told him of the state in which he found his wife. The man was pale, thin and lank-haired, while the other man whom he had found with his wife was brown, fat with thick calves and curly hair. Allah's Apostle said, "O Allah! Reveal the truth." Then the lady delivered a child resembling the man whom her husband had mentioned he had found with her. So Allah's Apostle ordered them to carry out Lian. A man from that gathering said to Ibn 'Abbas, "Was she the same lady regarding whom Allah's Apostle said, 'If I were to stone to death someone without witnesses, I would have stoned this lady'?" Ibn 'Abbas said, "No, that was another lady who, though being a Muslim, used to arouse suspicion because of her outright misbehavior."
that his aunt, Um Hufaid bint Al-Harith bin Hazn, presented to the Prophet butter, dried yoghurt and mastigures. The Prophet invited the people to those mastigures and they were eaten on his dining sheet, but the Prophet did not eat of it, as if he disliked it. Nevertheless, if it was unlawful to eat that, the people would not have eaten it on the dining sheet of the Prophet nor would he have ordered that they be eaten.
My aunt presented (roasted) mastigures, Iqt and milk to the Prophet. The mastigures were put on his dining sheet, and if it was unlawful to eat, it would not have been put there. The Prophet drank the milk and ate the Iqt only.
The Prophet ate of the meat of a shoulder (by cutting the meat with his teeth), and then got up and offered the prayer without performing the ablution anew. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet took out a bone with meat on it from a cooking pot and ate of it, and then offered the prayer without performing ablution anew.
The Prophet said, "When you eat, do not wipe your hands till you have licked it, or had it licked by somebody else."
The Prophet passed by a dead goat and said, "There is no harm if its owners benefit from its skin."
Allah's Apostle drank milk and then rinsed his mouth and said, "It contains fat." The Prophet added: "I was raised to the Lote Tree and saw four rivers, two of which were coming out and two going in. Those which were coming out were the Nile and the Euphrates, and those which were going in were two rivers in paradise. Then I was given three bowls, one containing milk, and another containing honey, and a third containing wine. I took the bowl containing milk and drank it. It was said to me, "You and your followers will be on the right path (of Islam)."
The Prophet drank Zam-Zam (water) while standing.
The Prophet forbade the drinking of water direct from the mouth of a water-skin.
The Prophet went to visit a sick bedouin. Whenever the Prophet went to a patient, he used to say to him, "Don't worry, if Allah will, it will be expiation (for your sins)." The bedouin said, "You say expiation? No, it is but a fever that is boiling or harassing an old man and will lead him to his grave without his will." The Prophet said, "Then, yes, it is so."
Allah's Apostle entered upon sick man to pay him a visit, and said to him, "Don't worry, Allah willing, (your sickness will be) an expiation for your sins." The man said, "No, it is but a fever that is boiling within an old man and will send him to his grave." On that, the Prophet said, "Then yes, it is so."
When Allah's Apostle was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, the Prophet said, "Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill and you have the Qur'an; so the Book of Allah is enough for us." The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said, "Go near so that the Prophet may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray," while the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet, Allah's Apostle said, "Go away!" Narrated 'Ubaidullah: Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was very unfortunate that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise."
(The Prophet said), "Healing is in three things: A gulp of honey, cupping, and branding with fire (cauterizing). But I forbid my followers to use (cauterization) branding with fire."
The Prophet said, "Healing is in three things: cupping, a gulp of honey or cauterization, (branding with fire) but I forbid my followers to use cauterization (branding with fire)."
The Prophet was cupped and he paid the wages to the one who had cupped him and then took Su'ut (Medicine sniffed by nose).
The Prophet was cupped while he was fasting.
The Prophet was cupped while he was in a state of Ihram.
The Prophet was cupped on his head for an ailment he was suffering from while he was in a state of Ihram, at a water place called Lahl Jamal. Ibn 'Abbas further said: Allah's Apostle was cupped on his head for unilateral headache while he was in a state of Ihram.
Allah's Apostle said, "Nations were displayed before me; one or two prophets would pass by along with a few followers. A prophet would pass by accompanied by nobody. Then a big crowd of people passed in front of me and I asked, 'Who are they? Are they my followers?' It was said, 'No. It is Moses and his followers.' It was said to me, 'Look at the horizon.' Behold! There was a multitude of people filling the horizon. Then it was said to me, 'Look there and there about the stretching sky!' Behold! There was a multitude filling the horizon. It was said to me, 'This is your nation out of whom seventy thousand shall enter Paradise without reckoning.' " Then the Prophet entered his house without telling his companions who they (the 70,000) were. So the people started talking about the issue and said, "It is we who have believed in Allah and followed His Apostle; therefore those people are either ourselves or our children who are born in the Islamic era, for we were born in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance.'' When the Prophet heard of that, he came out and said. "Those people are those who do not treat themselves with Ruqya, nor do they believe in bad or good omen (from birds etc.) nor do they get themselves branded (cauterized), but they put their trust (only) in their Lord." On that 'Ukasha bin Muhsin said, "Am I one of them, O Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet said, "Yes." Then another person got up and said, "Am I one of them?" The Prophet said, "Ukasha has anticipated you."
Some of the companions of the Prophet passed by some people staying at a place where there was water, and one of those people had been stung by a scorpion. A man from those staying near the water, came and said to the companions of the Prophet, "Is there anyone among you who can do Ruqya as near the water there is a person who has been stung by a scorpion." So one of the Prophet's companions went to him and recited Surat-al-Fatiha for a sheep as his fees. The patient got cured and the man brought the sheep to his companions who disliked that and said, "You have taken wages for reciting Allah's Book." When they arrived at Medina, they said, "O Allah's Apostle! (This person) has taken wages for reciting Allah's Book." On that Allah's Apostle said, "You are most entitled to take wages for doing a Ruqya with Allah's Book."
The Prophet once came out to us and said, "Some nations were displayed before me. A prophet would pass in front of me with one man, and another with two men, and another with a group of people. and another with nobody with him. Then I saw a great crowd covering the horizon and I wished that they were my followers, but it was said to me, 'This is Moses and his followers.' Then it was said to me, 'Look.' I looked and saw a big gathering with a large number of people covering the horizon. It was said, 'Look this way and that way.' So I saw a big crowd covering the horizon. Then it was said to me, 'These are your followers, and among them there are 70,000 who will enter Paradise without (being asked about their) accounts.' " Then the people dispersed and the Prophet did not tell who those 70,000 were. So the companions of the Prophet started talking about that and some of them said, "As regards us, we were born in the era of heathenism, but then we believed in Allah and His Apostle. We think however, that these (70,000) are our offspring." That talk reached the Prophet who said, "These (70,000) are the people who do not draw an evil omen from (birds) and do not get treated by branding themselves and do not treat with Ruqya, but put their trust (only) in their Lord." Then 'Ukasha bin Muhsin got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Am I one of those (70,000)?" The Prophet said, "Yes." Then another person got up and said, "Am I one of them?" The Prophet said, " 'Ukasha has anticipated you."
The Prophet said, "Whoever cannot get an Izar, can wear trousers, and whoever cannot wear sandals can wear Khuffs."
For one year I wanted to ask 'Umar about the two women who helped each other against the Prophet but I was afraid of him. One day he dismounted his riding animal and went among the trees of Arak to answer the call of nature, and when he returned, I asked him and he said, "(They were) 'Aisha and Hafsa." Then he added, "We never used to give significance to ladies in the days of the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, but when Islam came and Allah mentioned their rights, we used to give them their rights but did not allow them to interfere in our affairs. Once there was some dispute between me and my wife and she answered me back in a loud voice. I said to her, 'Strange! You can retort in this way?' She said, 'Yes. Do you say this to me while your daughter troubles Allah's Apostle?' So I went to Hafsa and said to her, 'I warn you not to disobey Allah and His Apostle.' I first went to Hafsa and then to Um Salama and told her the same. She said to me, 'O 'Umar! It surprises me that you interfere in our affairs so much that you would poke your nose even into the affairs of Allah's Apostle and his wives.' So she rejected my advice. There was an Ansari man; whenever he was absent from Allah's Apostle and I was present there, I used to convey to him what had happened (on that day), and when I was absent and he was present there, he used to convey to me what had happened as regards news from Allah's Apostle. During that time all the rulers of the nearby lands had surrendered to Allah's Apostle except the king of Ghassan in Sham, and we were afraid that he might attack us. All of a sudden the Ansari came and said, 'A great event has happened!' I asked him, 'What is it? Has the Ghassani (king) come?' He said, 'Greater than that! Allah's Apostle has divorced his wives! I went to them and found all of them weeping in their dwellings, and the Prophet had ascended to an upper room of his. At the door of the room there was a slave to whom I went and said, 'Ask the permission for me to enter.' He admitted me and I entered to see the Prophet lying on a mat that had left its imprint on his side. Under his head there was a leather pillow stuffed with palm fires. Behold! There were some hides hanging there and some grass for tanning. Then I mentioned what I had said to Hafsa and Um Salama and what reply Um Salama had given me. Allah's Apostle smiled and stayed there for twenty nine days and then came down." (See Hadith No. 648, Vol. 3 for details)
The Prophet said, "Whoever has no Izar (waist sheet), can wear trousers; and whoever has no sandals, can wear Khuffs." (but cut them short below the ankles),
I offered the 'Id prayer with the Prophet and he offered prayer before the Khutba (sermon). Ibn 'Abbas added: After the prayer the Prophet came towards (the rows of) the women and ordered them to give alms, and the women started putting their big and small rings in the garment of Bilal.
The Prophet came out on the day of 'Id and offered a two-Rak'at prayer, and he did not pray any Rak'a before it, nor after it. Then he went towards the women and ordered them to give alms. The women started donating their earring and necklaces.
The Prophet offered a two-Rak'at prayer on 'Id day and he did not offer any (Nawafil prayer) before or after it. He then went towards the women, and Bilal was accompanying him, and ordered them to give alms. And so the women started giving their earrings (etc.)."
Allah's Apostle cursed those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of women and those women who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of men.
The Prophet cursed effeminate men (those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners of women) and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn them out of your houses." The Prophet turned out such-and-such man, and 'Umar turned out such-and-such woman.
The Prophet used to copy the people of the Scriptures in matters in which there was no order from Allah. The people of the Scripture used to let their hair hang down while the pagans used to part their hair. So the Prophet let his hair hang down first, but later on he parted it.
Once I stayed overnight in the house of my aunt Maimuna bint Al-Harith and Allah's Apostle was with her as it was her turn. Allah's Apostle got up to offer the night prayer. I stood on his left but he took hold of my two locks of hair and made me stand on his right.
I heard Muhammad saying, "Whoever makes a picture in this world will be asked to put life into it on the Day of Resurrection, but he will not be able to do so."
When the Prophet arrived at Mecca, the children of Bani 'Abdul Muttalib received him. He then mounted one of them in front of him and the other behind him.
Allah's Apostle passed by two graves and said, "Both of them (persons in the grave) are being tortured, and they are not being tortured for a major sin. This one used not to save himself from being soiled with his urine, and the other used to go about with calumnies (among the people to rouse hostilities, e.g., one goes to a person and tells him that so-and-so says about him such-and-such evil things). The Prophet then asked for a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into two pieces and planted one on each grave and said, "It is hoped that their punishment may be abated till those two pieces of the leaf get dried." (See Hadith No 215, Vol 1).
Once the Prophet went through the graveyards of Medina and heard the voices of two humans who were being tortured in their graves. The Prophet said, "They are being punished, but they are not being punished because of a major sin, yet their sins are great. One of them used not to save himself from (being soiled with) the urine, and the other used to go about with calumnies (Namima)." Then the Prophet asked for a green palm tree leaf and split it into two pieces and placed one piece on each grave, saying, "I hope that their punishment may be abated as long as these pieces of the leaf are not dried."
Allah's Apostle said to Ibn Saiyad "I have hidden something for you in my mind; What is it?" He said, "Ad-Dukh." The Prophet said, "Ikhsa."
When the delegation of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet, he said, "Welcome, O the delegation who have come! Neither you will have disgrace, nor you will regret." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are a group from the tribe of Ar-Rabi'a, and between you and us there is the tribe of Mudar and we cannot come to you except in the sacred months. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) so that we may enter Paradise by doing that, and also that we may order our people who are behind us (whom we have left behind at home) to follow it." He said, "Four and four: offer prayers perfectly, pay the Zakat (obligatory charity), fast the month of Ramadan, and give one-fifth of the war booty (in Allah's cause), and do not drink in (containers called) Ad-Duba,' Al-Hantam, An-Naqir and Al-Muzaffat."
Once I stayed overnight at the house of Maimuna and the Prophet was there with her. When it was the last third of the night, or some part of the night, the Prophet got up looking towards the sky and recited: "Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of Night and Day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding." (3.190)
I have not seen a thing resembling 'lamam' (minor sins) than what Abu Huraira narrated from the Prophet who said "Allah has written for Adam's son his share of adultery which he commits inevitably. The adultery of the eyes is the sight (to gaze at a forbidden thing), the adultery of the tongue is the talk, and the inner self wishes and desires and the private parts testify all this or deny it."
One night I slept at the house of Maimuna. The Prophet woke up, answered the call of nature, washed his face and hands, and then slept. He got up (late at night), went to a water skin, opened the mouth thereof and performed ablution not using much water, yet he washed all the parts properly and then offered the prayer. I got up and straightened my back in order that the Prophet might not feel that I was watching him, and then I performed the ablution, and when he got up to offer the prayer, stood on his left. He caught hold of my ear and brought me over to his right side. He offered thirteen Rak'at in all and then lay down and slept till he started blowing out his breath as he used to do when he slept. In the meantime Bilal informed the Prophet of the approaching time for the (Fajr) prayer, and the Prophet offered the Fajr (Morning) prayer without performing new ablution. He used to say in his invocation, "Allaihumma ij'al fi qalbi nuran wa fi basari nuran, wa fi sam'i nuran, wa'an yamini nuran, wa'an yasari nuran, wa fawqi nuran, wa tahti nuran, wa amami nuran, wa khalfi nuran, waj'al li nuran." Kuraib (a sub narrator) said, "I have forgotten seven other words, (which the Prophet mentioned in this invocation). I met a man from the offspring of Al-'Abbas and he narrated those seven things to me, mentioning, '(Let there be light in) my nerves, my flesh, my blood, my hair and my body,' and he also mentioned two other things."
When the Prophet got up at night to offer the night prayer, he used to say: "Allahumma laka-l-hamdu; Anta nuras-samawati wal ardi wa man fihinna. Wa laka-l-hamdu; Anta qaiyim as-samawati wal ardi wa man flhinna. Wa lakaI-hamdu; Anta-l-,haqqun, wa wa'daka haqqun, wa qauluka haqqun, wa liqauka haqqun, wal-jannatu haqqun, wannaru haqqun, was-sa atu haqqun, wan-nabiyyuna huqqun, Mahammadun haqqun, Allahumma laka aslamtu, wa Alaika tawakkaltu, wa bika amantu, wa ilaika anabtu, wa bika Khasamtu, wa ilaika hakamtu, faghfirli ma qaddamtu wa ma akh-khartu, wa ma asrartu, wa ma a'lantu. Anta al-muqaddimu, wa anta al-mu-'akhkhiru. La ilaha il-la anta (or La ilaha ghairuka)."
The Prophet used to invoke Allah at the time of distress, saying, "La ilaha illal-lahu al-'Azim, al-Halim, La ilaha illal-lahu Rabbu-s-samawati wal-ard wa Rabbu-l-arsh il-azim."
Allah's Apostle used to say at a time of distress, "La ilaha illal-lahu Rabbul-l-'arsh il-'azim, La ilaha illallahu Rabbu-s-samawati wa Rabbu-l-ard, Rabbu-l-'arsh-il-Karim."
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you, when intending to have a sexual intercourse with his wife, says: 'Bismillah, Allahumma jannibna-sh-shaitan, wa jannibi-sh-shaitan ma razaqtana,' and if the couple are destined to have a child (out of that very sexual relation), then Satan will never be able to harm that child."
The Prophet said, "There are two blessings which many people lose: (They are) health and free time for doing good."
I brought water to Uthman bin 'Affan to perform the ablution while he was sitting on his seat. He performed the ablution in a perfect way and said, "I saw the Prophet performing the ablution in this place and he performed it in a perfect way and said, 'Whoever performs the ablution as I have done this time and then proceeds to the mosque and offers a two-Rak'at prayer and then sits there (waiting for the compulsory congregational prayers), then all his past sins will be forgiven.' The Prophet further added, 'Do not be conceited (thinking that your sins will be forgiven because of your prayer).' "
I heard the Prophet saying, "If the son of Adam (the human being) had two valleys of money, he would wish for a third, for nothing can fill the belly of Adam's son except dust, and Allah forgives him who repents to Him."
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "If the son of Adam had money equal to a valley, then he will wish for another similar to it, for nothing can satisfy the eye of Adam's son except dust. And Allah forgives him who repents to Him." Ibn 'Abbas said: I do not know whether this saying was quoted from the Qur'an or not. 'Ata' said, "I heard Ibn Az-Zubair saying this narration while he was on the pulpit."
Allah's Apostle said, "Seventy thousand people of my followers will enter Paradise without accounts, and they are those who do not practice Ar-Ruqya and do not see an evil omen in things, and put their trust in their Lord."
The Prophet narrating about his Lord and, "Allah ordered (the appointed angels over you) that the good and the bad deeds be written, and He then showed (the way) how (to write). If somebody intends to do a good deed and he does not do it, then Allah will write for him a full good deed (in his account with Him); and if he intends to do a good deed and actually did it, then Allah will write for him (in his account) with Him (its reward equal) from ten to seven hundred times to many more times: and if somebody intended to do a bad deed and he does not do it, then Allah will write a full good deed (in his account) with Him, and if he intended to do it (a bad deed) and actually did it, then Allah will write one bad deed (in his account)."
The Prophet said, "You will meet Allah barefooted, naked, walking on feet, and uncircumcised."
I heard Allah's Apostle while he was delivering a sermon on a pulpit, saying, "You will meet Allah barefooted, naked, and uncircumcised."
The Prophet stood up among us and addressed (saying) "You will be gathered, barefooted, naked, and uncircumcised (as Allah says): 'As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it...' (21.104) And the first human being to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection will be (the Prophet) Abraham Al-Khalil. Then will be brought some men of my followers who will be taken towards the left (i.e., to the Fire), and I will say: 'O Lord! My companions!' Whereupon Allah will say: 'You do not know what they did after you left them.' I will then say as the pious slave, Jesus said, 'And I was witness over them while I dwelt amongst them...(up to)...the All-Wise.' (5.117-118). The narrator added: Then it will be said that those people (relegated from Islam, that is) kept on turning on their heels (deserted Islam)."
The Prophet said, "The people were displayed in front of me and I saw one prophet passing by with a large group of his followers, and another prophet passing by with only a small group of people, and another prophet passing by with only ten (persons), and another prophet passing by with only five (persons), and another prophet passed by alone. And then I looked and saw a large multitude of people, so I asked Gabriel, 'Are these people my followers?' He said, 'No, but look towards the horizon.' I looked and saw a very large multitude of people. Gabriel said. 'Those are your followers, and those are seventy thousand (persons) in front of them who will neither have any reckoning of their accounts nor will receive any punishment.' I asked, 'Why?' He said, 'For they used not to treat themselves with branding (cauterization) nor with Ruqya (get oneself treated by the recitation of some Verses of the Qur'an) and not to see evil omen in things, and they used to put their trust (only) in their Lord.' " On hearing that, 'Ukasha bin Mihsan got up and said (to the Prophet), "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet said, "O Allah, make him one of them." Then another man got up and said (to the Prophet), "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet said, "Ukasha has preceded you."
The word 'Al-Kauthar' means the abundant good which Allah gave to him (the Prophet Muhammad). Abu Bishr said: I said to Said, "Some people claim that it (Al-Kauthar) is a river in Paradise." Said replied, "The river which is in Paradise is one item of that good which Allah has bestowed upon him (Muhammad)."
The Prophet was asked about the offspring of the pagans. He said, "Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live)."
I did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet, who said, "Allah has written for the son of Adam his inevitable share of adultery whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the inner self wishes and longs for (adultery) and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation."
(regarding the Verse) "And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens "Miraj") which We showed you (O Muhammad as an actual eye witness) but as a trial for mankind." (17.60): Allah's Apostle actually saw with his own eyes the vision (all the things which were shown to him) on the night of his Night Journey to Jerusalem (and then to the heavens). The cursed tree which is mentioned in the Qur'an is the tree of Az-Zaqqum.
A man said to the Prophet (while he was delivering a sermon on the Day of Nahr), "I have performed the Tawaf round the Ka'ba before the Rami (throwing pebbles) at the Jamra." The Prophet said, "There is no harm (therein)." Another man said, "I had my head shaved before slaughtering (the sacrifice)." The Prophet said, "There is no harm." A third said, "I have slaughtered (the sacrifice) before the Rami (throwing pebbles) at the Jamra." The Prophet said, "There is no harm."
A man came to the Prophet and said to him, "My sister vowed to perform the Hajj, but she died (before fulfilling it)." The Prophet said, "Would you not have paid her debts if she had any?" The man said, "Yes." The Prophet said, "So pay Allah's Rights, as He is more entitled to receive His rights."
The Prophet saw a man performing Tawaf around the Ka'ba, tied with a rope or something else (while another person was holding him). The Prophet cut that rope off.
While performing the Tawaf around the Ka'ba, the Prophet passed by a person leading another person by a hair-rope nose-ring in his nose. The Prophet cut the hair-rope nose-ring off with his hand and ordered the man to lead him by the hand.
While the Prophet was delivering a sermon, he saw a man standing, so he asked about that man. They (the people) said, "It is Abu Israil who has vowed that he will stand and never sit down, and he will never come in the shade, nor speak to anybody, and will fast." The Prophet said, "Order him to speak and let him come in the shade, and make him sit down, but let him complete his fast."
The Prophet said, "Give the Fara'id (the shares of the inheritance that are prescribed in the Qur'an) to those who are entitled to receive it. Then whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased."
Allah's Apostle said, "Give the Fara'id (shares prescribed in the Qur'an) to those who are entitled to receive it; and whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased."
The Prophet said, "Give the Fara'id, (the shares prescribed in the Qur'an) to those who are entitled to receive it, and then whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased."
The person about whom Allah's Apostle said, "If I were to take a Khalil from this nation (my followers), then I would have taken him (i.e., Abu Bakr), but the Islamic Brotherhood is superior (or better)," regarded a grandfather as the father himself (in inheritance).
(During the early days of Islam), the inheritance used to be given to one's offspring and legacy used to be bequeathed to the parents, then Allah cancelled what He wished from that order and decreed that the male should be given the equivalent of the portion of two females, and for the parents one-sixth for each of them, and for one's wife one-eighth (if the deceased has children) and one-fourth (if he has no children), for one's husband one-half (if the deceased has no children) and one-fourth (if she has children).
The Prophet said, "Give the Fara'id (the shares of the inheritance that are prescribed in the Qur'an) to those who are entitled to receive it; and whatever is left should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased."
Regarding the Holy Verse: "And to everyone, We have appointed heirs..." (4.33) And: "To those also to Whom your right hands have pledged." (4.33)
When the emigrants came to Medina, the Ansar used to be the heir of the emigrants (and vice versa) instead of their own kindred by blood (Dhawl-l-arham), and that was because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet had established between them, i.e. the Ansar and the emigrants. But when the Divine Verse:
"And to everyone We have appointed heirs," (4.33) was revealed, it cancelled the other order, i.e. "To those also, to whom Your right hands have pledged."
The Prophet said, "When (a person) an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse then he is not a believer at the time he is doing it; and when somebody steals, then he is not a believer at the time he is stealing."
When Ma'iz bin Malik came to the Prophet (in order to confess), the Prophet said to him, "Probably you have only kissed (the lady), or winked, or looked at her?" He said, "No, O Allah's Apostle!" The Prophet said, using no euphemism, "Did you have sexual intercourse with her?" The narrator added: At that, (i.e. after his confession) the Prophet ordered that he be stoned (to death).
'Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, 'We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book,' and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession." Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." 'Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him."
I used to teach (the Qur'an to) some people of the Muhajirin (emigrants), among whom there was 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf. While I was in his house at Mina, and he was with 'Umar bin Al-Khattab during 'Umar's last Hajj, Abdur-Rahman came to me and said, "Would that you had seen the man who came today to the Chief of the Believers ('Umar), saying, 'O Chief of the Believers! What do you think about so-and-so who says, 'If 'Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such-and-such person, as by Allah, the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr was nothing but a prompt sudden action which got established afterwards.' 'Umar became angry and then said, 'Allah willing, I will stand before the people tonight and warn them against those people who want to deprive the others of their rights (the question of rulership).' "
'Abdur-Rahman said, "I said, 'O Chief of the believers! Do not do that, for the season of Hajj gathers the riff-raff and the rubble, and it will be they who will gather around you when you stand to address the people. And I am afraid that you will get up and say something, and some people will spread your statement and may not say what you have actually said and may not understand its meaning, and may interpret it incorrectly, so you should wait till you reach Medina, as it is the place of emigration and the place of Prophet's Traditions, and there you can come in touch with the learned and noble people, and tell them your ideas with confidence; and the learned people will understand your statement and put it in its proper place.' On that, 'Umar said, 'By Allah! Allah willing, I will do this in the first speech I will deliver before the people in Medina.' "
Ibn Abbas added: We reached Medina by the end of the month of Dhul-Hijja, and when it was Friday, we went quickly (to the mosque) as soon as the sun had declined, and I saw Sa'id bin Zaid bin 'Amr bin Nufail sitting at the corner of the pulpit, and I too sat close to him so that my knee was touching his knee, and after a short while 'Umar bin Al-Khattab came out, and when I saw him coming towards us, I said to Said bin Zaid bin 'Amr bin Nufail, "Today 'Umar will say such a thing as he has never said since he was chosen as Caliph." Said denied my statement with astonishment and said, "What thing do you expect 'Umar to say the like of which he has never said before?"
In the meantime, 'Umar sat on the pulpit and when the callmakers for the prayer had finished their call, 'Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam the stoning of married person (male &
I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,' and thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male &
And no doubt after the death of the Prophet we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr. I said to Abu Bakr, 'Let's go to these Ansari brothers of ours.' So we set out seeking them, and when we approached them, two pious men of theirs met us and informed us of the final decision of the Ansar, and said, 'O group of Muhajirin (emigrants)! Where are you going?' We replied, 'We are going to these Ansari brothers of ours.' They said to us, 'You shouldn't go near them. Carry out whatever we have already decided.' I said, 'By Allah, we will go to them.' And so we proceeded until we reached them at the shed of Bani Sa'da. Behold! There was a man sitting amongst them and wrapped in something. I asked, 'Who is that man?' They said, 'He is Sa'd bin 'Ubada.' I asked, 'What is wrong with him?' They said, 'He is sick.' After we sat for a while, the Ansar's speaker said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,' and praising Allah as He deserved, he added, 'To proceed, we are Allah's Ansar (helpers) and the majority of the Muslim army, while you, the emigrants, are a small group and some people among you came with the intention of preventing us from practicing this matter (of caliphate) and depriving us of it.'
When the speaker had finished, I intended to speak as I had prepared a speech which I liked and which I wanted to deliver in the presence of Abu Bakr, and I used to avoid provoking him. So, when I wanted to speak, Abu Bakr said, 'Wait a while.' I disliked to make him angry. So Abu Bakr himself gave a speech, and he was wiser and more patient than I. By Allah, he never missed a sentence that I liked in my own prepared speech, but he said the like of it or better than it spontaneously. After a pause he said, 'O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities) that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of Caliphate) is only for the Quraish as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish. And then Abu Bakr held my hand and Abu Ubada bin Abdullah's hand who was sitting amongst us. I hated nothing of what he had said except that proposal, for by Allah, I would rather have my neck chopped off as expiator for a sin than become the ruler of a nation, one of whose members is Abu Bakr, unless at the time of my death my own self suggests something I don't feel at present.'
And then one of the Ansar said, 'I am the pillar on which the camel with a skin disease (eczema) rubs itself to satisfy the itching (i.e., I am a noble), and I am as a high class palm tree! O Quraish. There should be one ruler from us and one from you.'
Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, 'O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the Pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa'd bin Ubada (whom Al-Ansar wanted to make a ruler). One of the Ansar said, 'You have killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' I replied, 'Allah has killed Sa'd bin Ubada.' Umar added, "By Allah, apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the Pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble. So if any person gives the Pledge of allegiance to somebody (to become a Caliph) without consulting the other Muslims, then the one he has selected should not be granted allegiance, lest both of them should be killed."
The Prophet cursed the effeminate men and those women who assume the similitude (manners) of men. He also said, "Turn them out of your houses." He turned such-and-such person out, and 'Umar also turned out such-and-such person.
Lian was mentioned in the presence of the Prophet, Asim bin Adi said a statement about it, and when he left, a man from his tribe came to him complaining that he had seen a man with his wife. Asim said, "I have been put to trial only because of my statement." So he took the man to the Prophet and the man told him about the incident. The man (husband) was of yellow complexion, thin, and of lank hair, while the man whom he had accused of having been with his wife, was reddish brown with fat thick legs and fat body. The Prophet said, "O Allah! Reveal the truth." Later on the lady delivered a child resembling the man whom the husband had accused of having been with her. So the Prophet made them take the oath of Lian. A man said to Ibn Abbas in the gathering, "Was that the same lady about whom the Prophet said, "If I were to stone any lady (for committing illegal sexual intercourse) to death without witnesses, I would have stoned that lade to death?" Ibn Abbas said, "No, that was another lady who used to behave in such a suspicious way among the Muslims that one might accuse her of committing illegal sexual intercourse."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ata al-Khurasani that he heard Said ibn al Musayyab say, "A traveller who has decided to remain somewhere for four nights does the prayer in full."
Malik said, "That is what I prefer most out of what I have heard."
Malik when asked about the prayer of a prisoner, said, "It is the same as the prayer of a person who remains in one place, except if he is travelling."
For the children of Israel the punishment for crime was Al-Qisas only (i.e., the law of equality in punishment) and the payment of Blood money was not permitted as an alternate. But Allah said to this nation (Muslims): "O you who believe! Qisas is prescribed for you in case of murder...(up to)...end of the Verse." (2.178)
Ibn 'Abbas added: Remission (forgiveness) in this Verse, means to accept the Blood-money in an intentional murder. Ibn 'Abbas added: The Verse: "Then the relatives should demand Blood-money in a reasonable manner." (2.178) means that the demand should be reasonable and it is to be compensated with handsome gratitude.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn Abdullah from his father that Umar ibn al-Khattab, when he went to Makka, used to lead them in prayer and do two rakas and then say, "People of Makka,complete the prayer, we are a group travelling."
Yahya related the same as that to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father from Umar ibn al-Khattab.
The Prophet said, "The most hated persons to Allah are three: (1) A person who deviates from the right conduct, i.e., an evil doer, in the Haram (sanctuaries of Mecca and Medina); (2) a person who seeks that the traditions of the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance, should remain in Islam (3) and a person who seeks to shed somebody's blood without any right."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from A'isha that she used to pray duha with eight rakas, and she would say, "I would never stop doing them even if my parents were to be brought back to life."
The Prophet said, "This and this are the same." He meant the little finger and the thumb.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha from Anas ibn Malik that his grandmother, Mulayka, invited the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for food and he ate some of it. Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Get up and I will lead you in prayer."
Anas said, "I stood up and took a woven mat belonging to us that had become black through long use and sprinkled it with water, and the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stood on it. The orphan and I formed a row behind him, and the old woman stood behind us. He prayed two rakas with us and then left."
I heard the Prophet (saying the same as above Hadith 34).
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban that his paternal uncle Wasi ibn Habban said, "I was praying, and Abdullah ibn Umar was resting his back on the wall of the qibla. When I had finished the prayer I turned towards him on my left hand side. Abdullah ibn Umar said, 'What stopped you from turning away to your right?' I replied, 'I saw you and turned towards you.' Abdullah said, 'You have spoken correctly. People say that you should turn away to your right, but when you pray, you can turn whichever way you wish. If you like, to your right, and if you like, to your left.' "
Regarding the Qur'anic Verse: "O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will." (4.19) The custom (in the Pre-Islamic Period) was that if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife, and if one of them wished, he could marry her, or they could marry her to somebody else, or prevent her from marrying if they wished, for they had more right to dispose of her than her own relatives. Therefore this Verse was revealed concerning this matter.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abbad ibn Tamim from his paternal uncle that he saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, lying down in the mosque with one foot on top of the other.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ihn al-Musayyab that Umar ibn al Khattab and Uthman ibn Affan, may Allah be pleased with them, used to do the same.
Sa'd bin 'Ubada Al-Ansari sought the verdict of Allah's Apostle regarding a vow made by his mother who had died before fulfilling it. Allah's Apostle said, "Fulfill it on her behalf." Some people said, "If the number of camels reaches twenty, then their owner has to pay four sheep as Zakat; and if their owner gives them as a gift or sells them in order to escape the payment of Zakat cunningly before the completion of a year, then he is not to pay anything, and if he slaughters them and then dies, then no Zakat is to be taken from his property."
Nafi narrated to me that 'Abdullah said that Allah's Apostle forbade the Shighar. I asked Nafi', "What is the Shighar?" He said, "It is to marry the daughter of a man and marry one's daughter to that man (at the same time) without Mahr (in both cases); or to marry the sister of a man and marry one's own sister to that man without Mahr." Some people said, "If one, by a trick, marries on the basis of Shighar, the marriage is valid but its condition is illegal." The same scholar said regarding Al-Mut'a, "The marriage is invalid and its condition is illegal." Some others said, "The Mut'a and the Shighar are permissible but the condition is illegal."
The Prophet said, "The one who takes back his gift is like a dog swallowing its own vomit, and we (believers) should not act according to this bad example."
About a man who came to Allah's Apostle and said, "I was shown in a dream last night..." Then Ibn 'Abbas mentioned the narration.
The Prophet said, "Whoever claims to have seen a dream which he did not see, will be ordered to make a knot between two barley grains which he will not be able to do; and if somebody listens to the talk of some people who do not like him (to listen) or they run away from him, then molten lead will be poured into his ears on the Day of Resurrection; and whoever makes a picture, will be punished on the Day of Resurrection and will be ordered to put a soul in that picture, which he will not be able to do."
as above, 165.
A man came to Allah's Apostle and said, "I saw in a dream, a cloud having shade. Butter and honey were dropping from it and I saw the people gathering it in their hands, some gathering much and some a little. And behold, there was a rope extending from the earth to the sky, and I saw that you (the Prophet) held it and went up, and then another man held it and went up and (after that) another (third) held it and went up, and then after another (fourth) man held it, but it broke and then got connected again." Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Allow me to interpret this dream." The Prophet said to him, "Interpret it." Abu Bakr said, "The cloud with shade symbolizes Islam, and the butter and honey dropping from it, symbolizes the Qur'an, its sweetness dropping and some people learning much of the Qur'an and some a little. The rope which is extended from the sky to the earth is the Truth which you (the Prophet) are following. You follow it and Allah will raise you high with it, and then another man will follow it and will rise up with it and another person will follow it and then another man will follow it but it will break and then it will be connected for him and he will rise up with it. O Allah's Apostle! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Am I right or wrong?" The Prophet replied, "You are right in some of it and wrong in some." Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Prophet! By Allah, you must tell me in what I was wrong." The Prophet said, "Do not swear."
The Prophet said, "Whoever disapproves of something done by his ruler then he should be patient, for whoever disobeys the ruler even a little (little = a span) will die as those who died in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance." (i.e. as rebellious sinners).
The Prophet said, "Whoever notices something which he dislikes done by his ruler, then he should be patient, for whoever becomes separate from the company of the Muslims even for a span and then dies, he will die as those who died in the Pre-Islamic period of Ignorance (as rebellious sinners)." (Fateh-Al-Bari page 112, Vol. 16)
The Prophet said, "Beware! Do not renegade as (disbelievers) after me by striking (cutting) the necks of one another."
The Prophet said, "If somebody sees his Muslim ruler doing something he disapproves of, he should be patient, for whoever becomes separate from the Muslim group even for a span and then dies, he will die as those who died in the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance (as rebellious sinners)." (See Hadith No. 176 and 177)
When the delegate of 'Abd Al-Qais came to Allah's Apostle, he said, "Who are the delegate?" They said, "The delegate are from the tribe of Rabi'a." The Prophet said, "Welcome, O the delegate, and welcome! O people! Neither you will have any disgrace nor will you regret." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! Between you and us there are the infidels of the tribe of Mudar, so please order us to do something good (religious deeds) that by acting on them we may enter Paradise, and that we may inform (our people) whom we have left behind, about it." They also asked (the Prophet) about drinks. He forbade them from four things and ordered them to do four things. He ordered them to believe in Allah, and asked them, "Do you know what is meant by belief in Allah?" They said, "Allah and His Apostle know best." He said, "To testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, the One, Who has no partners with Him, and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle; and to offer prayers perfectly and to pay Zakat," (the narrator thinks that fasting in Ramadan is included), "and to give one-fifth of the war booty (to the state)." Then he forbade four (drinking utensils): Ad-Duba', Al-Hantam, Al-Mazaffat and An-Naqir, or probably, Al-Muqaiyar. And then the Prophet said, "Remember all these things by heart and preach it to those whom you have left behind."
The Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Teach him (the knowledge of) the Book (Qur'an)."
A woman came to the Prophet and said, "My mother vowed to perform the Hajj but she died before performing it. Should I perform the Hajj on her behalf?" He said, "Yes! Perform the Hajj on her behalf. See, if your mother had been in debt, would you have paid her debt?" She said, "Yes." He said, "So you should pay what is for Him as Allah has more right that one should fulfill one's obligations to Him."
A bedouin gave the Pledge of allegiance for embracing Islam to Allah's Apostle, and then he got an attack of fever in Medina and came to Allah's Apostle: and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Cancel my pledge." Allah's Apostle refused to do so. The bedouin came to him again and said, "Cancel my pledge," but he refused again, and then again, the bedouin came to him and said, "Cancel my pledge," and Allah's Apostle refused. The bedouin finally went away, and Allah's Apostle said, "Medina is like a pair of bellows (furnace), it expels its impurities while it brightens and clears its good."
I used to teach Qur'an to 'Abdur-Rahman bin Auf. When Umar performed his last Hajj, 'Abdur-Rahman said (to me) at Mina, "Would that you had seen Chief of the believers today! A man came to him and said, 'So-and-so has said, "If Chief of the Believers died, we will give the oath of allegiance to such-and-such person,' 'Umar said, "I will get up tonight and warn those who want to usurp the people's rights." I said, "Do not do so, for the season (of Hajj) gathers the riffraff mob who will form the majority of your audience, and I am afraid that they will not understand (the meaning of) your saying properly and may spread (an incorrect statement) everywhere. You should wait till we reach Medina, the place of migration and the place of the Sunna (the Prophet's Traditions). There you will meet the companions of Allah's Apostle from the Muhajirin and the Ansar who will understand your statement and place it in its proper position." 'Umar said, "By Allah, I shall do so the first time I stand (to address the people) in Medina." When we reached Medina, 'Umar (in a Friday Khutba-sermon) said, "No doubt, Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed to him the Book (Qur'an), and among what was revealed, was the Verse of Ar-Rajm (stoning adulterers to death)." (See Hadith No. 817,Vol. 8)
Um Hufaid bint Al-Harith bin Hazn presented the Prophet with some butter, dried yoghurt (curd milk) and mastigures as a gift. The Prophet then asked for a meal (mastigures etc. to be put) and it was eaten over his table cloth, but the Prophet did not eat of it, as he had aversion to it. But if it had been illegal to eat, it would not have been eaten over his table cloth nor would he have ordered that (mastigures meat) to be eaten.
When the time of the death of the Prophet approached while there were some men in the house, and among them was 'Umar bin Al-Khatttab; the Prophet said, "Come near, let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray." 'Umar said, "The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Quran, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us." The people in the house differed and disputed. Some of them said, "Come near so that Allah's Apostle may write for you a writing after which you will not go astray," while some of them said what 'Umar said. When they made much noise and differed greatly before the Prophet, he said to them, "Go away and leave me." Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was a great disaster that their difference and noise prevented Allah's Apostle from writing that writing for them."
When the Prophet sent Muadh to Yemen, he said to him, "You are going to a nation from the people of the Scripture, so let the first thing to which you will invite them, be the Tauhid of Allah. If they learn that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers to be offered in one day and one night. And if they pray, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor. And if they agree to that, then take from them Zakat but avoid the best property of the people."
The Prophet used to say, "I seek refuge (with You) by Your 'Izzat, None has the right to be worshipped but You Who does not die while the Jinns and the human beings die."
The Prophet used to invoke Allah at night, saying, "O Allah: All the Praises are for You: You are the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth. All the Praises are for You; You are the Maintainer of the Heaven and the Earth and whatever is in them. All the Praises are for You; You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. Your Word is the Truth, and Your Promise is the Truth, and the Meeting with You is the Truth, and Paradise is the Truth, and the (Hell) Fire is the Truth, and the Hour is the Truth. O Allah! I surrender myself to You, and I believe in You and I depend upon You, and I repent to You and with You (Your evidences) I stand against my opponents, and to You I leave the judgment (for those who refuse my message). O Allah! Forgive me my sins that I did in the past or will do in the future, and also the sins I did in secret or in public. You are my only God (Whom I worship) and there is no other God for me (i.e. I worship none but You)."
Allah's Apostle said, "If anyone of you, when intending to have a sexual relation (sleep) with his wife, says: Bismillah, Allahumma jannibna ash-Shaitan, wa Jannib ash-Shaitana ma razaqtana, Satan would never harm that child, should it be ordained that they will have one. (Because of that sleep)."
The Prophet used to say at the time of difficulty, 'La ilaha il-lallah Al-'Alimul-Halim. La-ilaha il-lallah Rabul- Arsh-al-Azim, La ilaha-il-lallah Rabus-Samawati Rab-ul-Ard; wa Rab-ul-Arsh Al-Karim.' (See Hadith No. 356 and 357, Vol. 8)
Allah's Apostle used to say at the time of difficulty, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Majestic, the Most Forbearing. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Lord of the Tremendous Throne. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Lord of the Heavens and the Lord of the Honourable Throne." (See Hadith No. 357, Vol. 8)
Whenever the Prophet offered his Tahajjud prayer, he would say, "O Allah, our Lord! All the praises are for You; You are the Keeper (Establisher or the One Who looks after) of the Heavens and the Earth. All the Praises are for You; You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is therein. You are the Truth, and Your saying is the Truth, and Your promise is the Truth, and the meeting with You is the Truth, and Paradise is the Truth, and the (Hell) Fire is the Truth. O Allah! I surrender myself to You, and believe in You, and I put my trust in You (solely depend upon). And to You I complain of my opponents and with Your Evidence I argue. So please forgive the sins which I have done in the past or I will do in the future, and also those (sins) which I did in secret or in public, and that which You know better than I. None has the right to be worshipped but You."
Once I stayed overnight at the house of (my aunt ) Maimuna while the Prophet was with her, to see how was the night prayer of Allah's Apostle. Allah's Apostle talked to his wife for a while and then slept. When it was the last third of the night (or part of it), the Prophet got up and looked towards the sky and recited the Verse: "Verily! In the creation of the Heavens and the Earth...there are indeed signs for the men of understanding." (3.190)
Then He got up and performed the ablution, brushed his teeth and offered eleven Rakat. Then Bilal pronounced the Adhan whereupon the Prophet offered a two-Rak'at (Sunna) prayer and went out to lead the people in Fajr (morning compulsory congregational) prayer.
The Prophet said, "O Gabriel, what prevents you from visiting us more often than you do?" Then this Verse was revealed: "And we angels descend not but by Command of your Lord. To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us..." (19.64) So this was the answer to Muhammad.
The Prophet stood before Musailama (the liar) who was sitting with his companions then, and said to him, "If you ask me for this piece (of palm-leaf stalk), even then I would not give it to you. You cannot avoid what Allah has ordained for you, and if you turn away from Islam, Allah will surely ruin you!"
Allah's Apostle entered upon a sick bedouin whom he went to visit and said to him, "Don't worry, Tahur (i.e., your illness will be a means of cleansing of your sins), if Allah Will." The bedouin said, "Tahur! No, but it is a fever that is burning in the body of an old man and it will make him visit his grave." The Prophet said, "Then it is so."
That he differed with Al-Hurr bin Qais bin Hisn Al-Fazari about the companion of Moses, (i.e., whether he was Khadir or not). Ubai bin Ka'b Al-Ansari passed by them and Ibn 'Abbas called him saying, "My friend (Hur) and I have differed about Moses' Companion whom Moses asked the way to meet. Did you hear Allah's Apostle mentioning anything about him?" Ubai said, "Yes, I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'While Moses was sitting in the company of some Israelites a man came to him and asked, 'Do you know someone who is more learned than you (Moses)?' Moses said, "No." So Allah sent the Divine inspiration to Moses:
'Yes, Our Slave Khadir is more learned than you.' Moses asked Allah how to meet him (Khadir). So Allah made the fish as a sign for him and it was said to him, "When you lose the fish, go back (to the place where you lose it) and you will meet him." So Moses went on looking for the sign of the fish in the sea. The boy servant of Moses (who was accompanying him) said to him, "Do you remember (what happened) when we betook ourselves to the rock? I did indeed forget to tell you (about) the fish. None but Satan made me forget to tell you about it." (18.63) Moses said: "That is what we have been seeking." Sa they went back retracing their footsteps. (18.64). So they both found Kadir (there) and then happened what Allah mentioned about them (in the Quran)!" (See 18.60-82)
(regarding the Verse): "Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a low tone." (17.110) This Verse was revealed while Allah's Apostle was hiding himself in Mecca, and when he raised his voice while reciting the Qur'an, the pagans would hear him and abuse the Qur'an and its Revealer and to the one who brought it. So Allah said:
"Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a low tone." (17.110) That is, "Do not say your prayer so loudly that the pagans can hear you, nor say it in such a low tone that your companions do not hear you." But seek a middle course between those (extremes), i.e., let your companions hear, but do not relate the Qur'an loudly, so that they may learn it from you.
Whenever the Prophet offered the night (Tahajjud) prayer, he used to say, "O Allah! All the Praises are for You; You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. And all the Praises are for You; You are the Keeper of the Heavens and the Earth. All the Praises are for You; You are the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is therein. You are the Truth, and Your Promise is the Truth, and Your Speech is the Truth, and meeting You is the Truth, and Paradise is the Truth and Hell (Fire) is the Truth and all the prophets are the Truth and the Hour is the Truth. O Allah! I surrender to You, and believe in You, and depend upon You, and repent to You, and in Your cause I fight and with Your orders I rule. So please forgive my past and future sins and those sins which I did in secret or in public. It is You Whom I worship, None has the right to be worshipped except You." (See Hadith No. 329,Vol. 8)
regarding the explanation of the Verse: '(O Muhammad!) Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a low tone.' (17.110) This Verse was revealed while Allah's Apostle was hiding himself at Mecca. At that time, when he led his companions in prayer, he used to raise his voice while reciting the Qur'an; and if the pagans heard him, they would abuse the Qur'an, its Revealer, and the one who brought it. So Allah said to His Prophet: "Neither say your prayer aloud. i.e., your recitation (of Qur'an) lest the pagans should hear (it) and abuse the Quran," nor say it in a low tone, "lest your voice should fail to reach your companions, but follow a way between." (17.110)
The Prophet said that his Lord said: "It does not befit a slave that he should say that he is better than Jonah (Yunus) bin Matta."
The Prophet was hiding himself in Mecca and used to recite the (Qur'an) in a loud voice. When the pagans heard him they would abuse the Qur'an and the one who brought it, so Allah said to His Prophet: "Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a low tone." (17.110)
The delegates of 'Abdul Qais came to Allah's Apostle and said, "The pagans of the tribe of Mudar intervene between you and us therefore we cannot come to you except in the Holy months. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) by which we may enter Paradise (by acting on them) and we may inform our people whom we have left behind to observe it." The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things: I order you to believe in Allah. Do you know what is meant by belief in Allah? It is to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, to offer prayers perfectly, to give Zakat, and to give Al-Khumus (one-fifth of the war booty) (in Allah's Cause). And I forbid you four things, (i.e., Do not drink alcoholic drinks) Ad-Dubba, An-Naqir, (pitched water skins), Az-Zuruf, Al-Muzaffat and Al-Hantam (names of utensils used for the preparation of alcoholic drinks)." (See Hadith No. 50, Vol. 1)
Abu Bakr kissed (the forehead of) the Prophet when he was dead. 'Aisha added: We put medicine in one side of his mouth but he started waving us not to insert the medicine into his mouth. We said, "He dislikes the medicine as a patient usually does." But when he came to his senses he said, "Did I not forbid you to put medicine (by force) in the side of my mouth?" We said, "We thought it was just because a patient usually dislikes medicine." He said, "None of those who are in the house but will be forced to take medicine in the side of his mouth while I am watching, except Al-'Abbas, for he had not witnessed your deed."
I proceeded along with the Prophet on the day of 'Arafat (9th Dhul-Hijja). The Prophet heard a great hue and cry and the beating of camels behind him. So he beckoned to the people with his lash, "O people! Be quiet. Hastening is not a sign of righteousness."
"As We sent down (the Scripture) on those who are divided (Jews and Christians)." (15.90) They believed in part of it and disbelieved in the other, are the Jews and the Christians.
We were in the company of Allah's Apostle on a journey. He said to a man, "Get down and mix Sawiq (powdered barley) with water for me." The man said, "The sun (has not set yet), O Allah's Apostle." The Prophet again said to him, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for me." The man again said, "O Allah's Apostle! The sun!" The Prophet said to him (for the third time) "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for me." The man dismounted and mixed Sawiq with water for him. The Prophet drank it and then beckoned with his hand (towards the East) and said, "When you see the night falling from this side, then a fasting person should break his fast."
I was with the Prophet on a journey, and he observed the fast till evening. The Prophet said to a man, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for me." He replied, "Will you wait till it is evening?" The Prophet said, "Get down and mix Sawiq with water for me; when you see night falling from this side, the fasting person should break his fast."
We were afflicted with hunger during the besiege of Khaibar, and when it was the day of (the battle of) Khaibar, we slaughtered the donkeys and when the pots got boiling (with their meat), Allah's Apostle made an announcement that all the pots should be upset and that nobody should eat anything of the meat of the donkeys. We thought that the Prophet prohibited that because the Khumus had not been taken out of the booty (i.e. donkeys); other people said, "He prohibited eating them for ever." The sub-narrator added, "I asked Said bin Jubair who said, 'He has made the eating of donkeys' meat illegal for ever.")
We where afflicted with severe hunger on the day of Khaibar. While the cooking pots were boiling and some of the food was well-cooked, the announcer of the Prophet came to say, "Do not eat anything the donkey-meat and upset the cooking pots." We then thought that the Prophet had prohibited such food because the Khumus had not been taken out of it. Some others said, "He prohibited the meat of donkeys from the point of view of principle, because donkeys used to eat dirty things."
When Allah's Apostle performed the 'Umra (which he performed in the year following the treaty of Al-Hudaibiya) we were screening Allah's Apostle from the infidels and their boys lest they should harm him.
We participated with the Prophet in six or seven Ghazawat, and we used to eat locusts with him.
Whenever a man brought his alms to the Prophet, the Prophet would say, "O Allah! Bestow Your Blessing upon the family of so-and-so." When my father came to him (with his alms), he said, "O Allah! Bestow Your Blessings upon the family of Abi Aufa."
Whenever somebody brought alms to the Prophet the used to say, "Allahumma Salli 'Alaihi (O Allah! Send Your Salat (Grace and Honor) on him)." Once when my father brought his alms to him, he said, "O Allah! Send Your Salat (Grace and Honor) on the family of Abi Aufa."
Allah's Apostle asked for Allah's wrath upon the Ahzab (confederates), saying, "O Allah, the Revealer of the Holy Book, and the One swift at reckoning! Defeat the confederates; defeat them and shake them."
Yazid said, "Kama sallaita ala Ibrahima wa barik 'ala Muhammad in wa all Muhammadin kama barakta 'ala Abrahima wa all Ibrahim."
While Hudhaita was at Mada'in, he asked for water. The chief of the village brought him a silver vessel. Hudhaifa threw it away and said, "I have thrown it away because I told him not to use it, but he has not stopped using it. The Prophet forbade us to wear clothes of silk or Dibaj, and to drink in gold or silver utensils, and said, 'These things are for them (unbelievers) in this world and for you (Muslims) in the Hereafter.' "
While Hudhaifa was at Al-Madain, he asked for water whereupon the chief of the village brought him water in a silver cup. Hudhaifa threw it at him and said, "I have thrown it only because I have forbidden him to use it, but he does not stop using it. Allah's Apostle said, 'Gold, silver, silk and Dibaj (a kind of silk) are for them (unbelievers) in this world and for you (Muslims) in the hereafter.'"
'Aisha used to recite this Verse:-- "Ida taliqunahu bi-alsinatikum' (24.15) "(As you tell lie with your tongues.)" and used to say "Al-Walaq" means "telling of a lie." She knew this Verse more than anybody else as it was revealed about her.
Ibn Az-Zubair said to Ibn Ja'far "Do you remember when I, you and Ibn Abbas went out to receive Allah's Apostle?" Ibn Ja'far replied in the affirmative. Ibn Az-Zubair added, "And Allah's Apostle made us (i.e. I and Ibn Abbas) ride along with him and left you."
Spending three nights or two nights, the 11th and 12th of Dhul-Hijjah, at Mina is necessary (wajib), according to the three Imams of the Islamic law. The Hanafi school regards sleeping at Mina as sunnah only.
Ibn 'Abbas said, "After you have thrown the pebbles you may spend the night wherever you wish." This is reported by Ibn Shaibah. Mujahid said, "There is no harm if one spends the first portion of the night at Makkah, and the last one at Mina, or the first portion of the night at Mina and the last one at Makkah." Ibn Hazm said, "A pilgrim who does not spend the night at Mina does wrong, but he does not incur any penalty.
There is consensus that in the case of those who have a genuine excuse, like water carriers, and shepherds, sleeping the night at Mina is not necessary, and if they leave out anything they don't incur any penalty.
The uncle of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Abbas, sought and got permission from the Prophet (peace be upon him) to spend these nights (supposed to be spent in Mina) at Makkah so that he could attend to his functions as provider of drinking water to the pilgrims. This was reported by Bukhari and others.
'Asam bin 'Adi reported that Prophet (peace be upon him) excused the shepherds from sleeping at Mina. This is reported in the Sunan, and Tirmidhi considers it a sound hadith.
The three schools of Islamic law hold that the pilgrims must return from Mina to Makkah before the sunset of the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah after throwing the pebbles.
The Hanafi school, however, is of the opinion that pilgrims may return to Makkah betore the dawn of the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. Leaving after sunset is, however, disliked for it is against the sunnah. but one who does so incurs no penalty.
These are animals brought to the Haram, the Sacred Mosque, seeking the closeness and pleasure of Allah, Who says in the Qur'an (22.36), "The sacrificial camels We have made for you as among the symbols from Allah: in them is (much ) good for you: then pronounce the name of Allah over them as they line up (tor sacrifice) when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat you thereof, and feed such as beg with due humility: thus have We made animals subject to you, that you may be grateful. It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him."
'Umar said, "Sacrifice animals, for Allah loves sacrifice. The Prophet (peace be upon him) offered one hundred camels in sacrifice for the pleasure of Allah." This offering by him was supererogatory.
Somebody said to Ibn 'Abbas, "Can you speak to the chief of the believers Muwaiya, as he does not pray except one Rak'a as Witr?" Ibn 'Abbas replied, "He is a Faqih (i.e. a learned man who can give religious verdicts)."
'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair said that a group of riders belonging to Banu Tamim came to the Prophet, Abu Bakr said (to the Prophet), "Appoint Al-Qa'qa bin Mabad bin Zurara as (their) ruler." 'Umar said (to the Prophet). "No! But appoint Al-Aqra bin Habis." Thereupon Abu Bakr said (to 'Umar). "You just wanted to oppose me." 'Umar replied. "I did not want to oppose you." So both of them argued so much that their voices became louder, and then the following Divine Verses were revealed in that connection: "O you who believe ! Do not be forward in the presence of Allah and His Apostle..." (till the end of Verse)...(49.1)
Ibn Abbas recited: "Except the weak ones among men, women and children," (4.98) and said, "My mother and I were among those whom Allah had excused."
When there happened the disagreement between Ibn Az-Zubair and Ibn 'Abbas, I said (to the latter), "(Why don't you take the oath of allegiance to him as) his father is Az-Zubair, and his mother is Asma,' and his aunt is 'Aisha, and his maternal grandfather is Abu Bakr, and his grandmother is Safiya?"
There was a disagreement between them (i.e. Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubair) so I went to Ibn 'Abbas in the morning and said (to him), "Do you want to fight against Ibn Zubair and thus make lawful what Allah has made unlawful (i.e. fighting in Mecca)?" Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah forbid! Allah ordained that Ibn Zubair and Bani Umaiya would permit (fighting in Mecca), but by Allah, I will never regard it as permissible." Ibn Abbas added. "The people asked me to take the oath of allegiance to Ibn Az-Zubair. I said, 'He is really entitled to assume authority for his father, Az-Zubair was the helper of the Prophet, his (maternal) grandfather, Abu Bakr was (the Prophet's) companion in the cave, his mother, Asma' was 'Dhatun-Nitaq', his aunt, 'Aisha was the mother of the Believers, his paternal aunt, Khadija was the wife of the Prophet , and the paternal aunt of the Prophet was his grandmother. He himself is pious and chaste in Islam, well versed in the Knowledge of the Quran. By Allah! (Really, I left my relatives, Bani Umaiya for his sake though) they are my close relatives, and if they should be my rulers, they are equally apt to be so and are descended from a noble family.' "
We entered upon Ibn 'Abbas and he said "Are you not astonished at Ibn Az-Zubair's assuming the caliphate?" I said (to myself), "I will support him and speak of his good traits as I did not do even for Abu Bakr and 'Umar though they were more entitled to receive all good than he was." I said "He (i.e Ibn Az-Zubair) is the son of the aunt of the Prophet and the son of Az-Zubair, and the grandson of Abu Bakr and the son of Khadija's brother, and the son of 'Aisha's sister." Nevertheless, he considers himself to be superior to me and does not want me to be one of his friends. So I said, "I never expected that he would refuse my offer to support him, and I don't think he intends to do me any good, therefore, if my cousins should inevitably be my rulers, it will be better for me to be ruled by them than by some others."
I heard 'Aisha reciting: "When you invented a lie (and carry it) on your tongues." (24.15)
The two righteous persons were about to be ruined. They were Abu Bakr and 'Umar who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet when a mission from Bani Tamim came to him. One of the two recommended Al-Aqra' bin Habis, the brother of Bani Mujashi (to be their governor) while the other recommended somebody else. (Nafi', the sub-narrator said, I do not remember his name). Abu Bakr said to Umar, "You wanted nothing but to oppose me!" 'Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you." Their voices grew loud in that argument, so Allah revealed:
"O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet." (49.2) Ibn Az-Zubair said, "Since the revelation of this Verse, 'Umar used to speak in such a low tone that the Prophet had to ask him to repeat his statements." But Ibn Az-Zubair did not mention the same about his (maternal) grandfather (i.e. Abu Bakr).
'Aisha said, "The Jews came to the Prophet and said to him, 'As-Samu 'Alaika (i.e., Death be upon you).' He replied, 'The same on you.' " 'Aisha said to them, "Death be upon you, and may Allah curse you and shower His wrath upon you!" Allah's Apostle said, "Be gentle and calm, O 'Aisha! Be gentle and beware of being harsh and of saying evil things." She said, "Didn't you hear what they said?" He said, "Didn't you hear what I replied (to them)? I have returned their statement to them, and my invocation against them will be accepted but theirs against me will not be accepted."
'Aisha said, "The Prophet said, 'Anybody whose account (record) is questioned will surely be punished.' I said, Doesn't Allah say: 'He surely will receive an easy reckoning?' (84.8)
The Prophet replied, 'This means only the presentation of the account.' "
Once the two righteous men, i.e., Abu Bakr and 'Umar were on the verge of destruction (and that was because): When the delegate of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet, one of them (either Abu Bakr or 'Umar) recommended Al-Aqra' bin Habis At-Tamimi Al-Hanzali, the brother of Bani Majashi (to be appointed as their chief), while the other recommended somebody else. Abu Bakr said to 'Umar, "You intended only to oppose me." 'Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you!" Then their voices grew louder in front of the Prophet whereupon there was revealed: "O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet...a great reward." (49.2-3) Ibn Az-Zubair said, "Thence forward when 'Umar talked to the Prophet, he would talk like one who whispered a secret and would even fail to make the Prophet hear him, in which case the Prophet would ask him (to repeat his words)."
as above, mentioning only specific measure.
as above, saying, "He should pay the price in advance for a specified measure and for a specified period."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, told him that she had never seen the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, doing night prayers sitting down until he was getting on in years. He would recite sitting down until when he wanted to go into ruku, he would stand up and recite about thirty or forty ayats and then go into ruku.
I was present when a man asked Ibn 'Umar about the blood of mosquitoes. Ibn Umar said, "From where are you?" The man replied. "From Iraq." Ibn 'Umar said, "Look at that! he is asking me about the blood of Mosquitoes while they (the Iraqis ) have killed the (grand) son of the Prophet. I have heard the Prophet saying, "They (Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet-smelling flowers in this world."
A pilgrim may spend the Day of Arafah anywhere within the bounds of Arafah for all of it is equally good for encamping (on this particular day) except the bottom of the valley called 'Urnah to the west of Arafah. There is consensus that spending the Day of Arafah at ' Urnah is not sufficient to fulfill the condition of staying at Arafah.
Spending time near the rocks or as close to them as possible is commended. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stopped at this place and said, "I have stopped here, but the whole of Arafah is a stopping place (for the Day of Arafah)." (Reported by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud on the authority of Jabir) Climbing the Mountain of Mercy or the belief that standing on it is better than standing in any other place is wrong. Nor does doing so represent a sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
It is desirable that one should take a bath before encamping in Arafah. Ibn 'Umar used to take a bath on the eve of the Day of Arafah, as reported by Malik. Similarly 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) used to take a bath in Arafah while he was in the state of ihram.
One must maintain a complete state of purity. face the direction of Ka'bah, seek forgiveness of Allah as much as possible. glorify Allah, and supplicate for one's well being and well:are in this Iife and in the Hereafter, and for others, with fervor, attention, and with hands raised in supplication.
Osamah bin Zaid reported: "I was riding behind the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Arafah, while he raised his hands in supplications to Allah." (Reported by Nasa'i)
'Amr bin Shu'aib reported from his father and his grandfather, who said that on the Day of Arafah the Prophet (peace be upon him) mostly supplicated in these words: "La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulk wa lahul hamd, biyadihil khair wa huwa 'ala kulli sha'in qadeer (There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah Alone. He has no partners. To Him alone belongs the Kingdom, and all praise. In His hand is all the good, and He has power over all things)."
It is reported by Ahmad and Tirmidhi (and this is the wording of Tirmidhi) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The best supplication is that of the Day of Arafah, and the best thing that I and other Prophets before me said is: 'La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu lahul mulk wa lahul hamd wa huwa 'ala kuli sha'in qadeer."'
Al-Hussain bin Al-Hasan Al-Maruzi reported: "I asked Sufyan bin 'Oyainah, 'What is the best supplication for the Day of Arafah?' He said, 'La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu.' I said, 'But this is glorification of Allah and His praise, and it is not a supplication.' Thereupon Sufyan said, 'Don't you know the hadith of Malik bin Al-Harith which explains it.' I said to him, 'Tell me about it.' He said, 'Mansur narrated from Malik bin Al-Harith that he said "Allah, the Almighty, and the Exalted One, says: 'If a servant of Mine occupies himself in extolling and praising Me instead of asking Me for his needs I give him better than what I give to those who ask for their needs."' Then he added, 'This explains the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him).' He continued and said, "Haven't you heard what Ummaya bin Abi Al-Salt said to Abdullah bin Jad'an when he sought the hand of Na'ilah in marriage?" I said, "No." At this he said, "Ummaya recited (these lines of poetry) to Abdullah bin Jad'an: Do I have to tell you my need, or your modesty is enough (to plead my case), for modesty is your disposition, You are conversant with rights (and obligations) and come of a family polite and respectable, When someone praises you once he need not repeat it again!
Then Sufyan added, "O Hussain, you see how the humans are pleased with praise and are ready to grant request without even asking. What about their Creator then?"
Al-Baihaqi reported from Ali (with a weak chain of narrators) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The supplication most frequently used by the Prophets before me and by me on the Day of Arafah is this: 'La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulk wa lahul hamd wa huwa 'ala kuli sha'in qadeer. Allahumma 'ij'al fi basri nuran wa fi sam'i nuran wafi qalbi nuran. Allahumm ashrah li sadri wa yassir li amri. Allahumma 'udhubika min waswasis sadri wa shatatil amr wa sharri fitnatil qabr wa sharri ma yaliju fil lail wa sharri ma yaliju fin naharwa sharri ma tahubu bihi riyah wa sharri bawa'iqid dahr (There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah alone. He has no partners. To Him belongs the kingdom and all praise, and he has power over all things. O Allah! place light (guidance) in my sight, in my ears, and in my heart. O Allah! Open my chest and ease my work. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from evil whispers, from confusion, from the trial of the grave, from the evil that takes place during the day or night, from the evil carried by the winds, and from the afflictions of the world."
Tirmidhi also reported from Ali that the supplication used most of the time by the Prophet (peace be upon him) during his stay in Arafah was: "Allahumma lakal hamdu kalladhi naqulu wa khairam mimma naqulu, Allahumma laka salati wa nusuki wa mahyaya wa mamati wa ilaika ma'abi wa laka rabbi turathi allahumma inni a'udhubika min 'adhabil qabri wa waswasatis sadri wa shatatil amri allahumma inni a'udhubika min sharri ma tahubbu bihi riyhu (All praise belongs to You, O Allah! as we say, and better than what we can say. O Allah! My prayers, my worship, my life and my death are all for You. O Allah! To You is my return, to You belong what I own. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave, the evil whispers, confusion, and from whatever the wind may bring.)
A person asked 'Abdullah bin 'Umar whether a Muslim could kill flies. I heard him saying (in reply). "The people of Iraq are asking about the killing of flies while they themselves murdered the son of the daughter of Allah's Apostle. The Prophet said, 'They (i.e. Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet basils in this world.' "
Narrated the merits of Bilal bin Rabah the freed slave of Abu Bakr. The Prophet said (to Bilal), "I heard the sound of your shoes in Paradise just in front of me."
Abu Al-Khair said, "As-Sanabih, I asked (me), 'When did you migrate?' I (i.e. Abu Al-Khair) said, 'We went out from Yemen as emigrants and arrived at Al-Juhfa, and there came a rider whom I asked about the news. The rider said: "We buried the Prophet five days ago." I asked (As-Sanabihi), "Did you hear anything about the night of Qadr?" He replied, "Bilal, the Mu'adhdhin of the Prophet informed me that it is on one of the seven nights of the last ten days (of Ramadan)." ' "
Only Um Hani told us that she had seen the Prophet (p.b.u.h) offering the Duha (forenoon prayer). She said, "On the day of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet took a bath in my house and offered eight Rakat. I never saw him praying such a light prayer but he performed perfect prostration and bowing." Narrated 'Abdullah bin Amir that his father had told him that he had seen the Prophet (p.b.u.h) praying Nawafil at night on the back of his mount on a journey, facing whatever direction it took.
I was with Buraida on a cloudy day and he said, "Offer the 'Asr prayer earlier as the Prophet said, 'Whoever leaves the 'Asr prayer will have all his (good) deeds annulled.' " (See Hadith No. 527 and 528)
This is so because the caller to prayer takes precedence in making the iqamah. Says Ash-Shaifi, "If a man made the adhan, he should follow it up with the iqamah." Of this, at-Tirmidhi says, "Most of the scholars agree with this opinion."
Malik states in al-Muwatta, "I have not heard anything concerning the specific time to stand for prayer. I have seen some peope lagging and others being quick." Ibn al-Mundhir recorded that Anas would stand when Qad qaamtus-salah was said.
It is not allowed to leave the call unanswered or to leave the mosque after it has been made, unless there is some excuse or one has the intention to return for the prayer. Abu Hurairah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, told them, "If one of you is in the mosque and the call is made, he should not leave the mosque until he prays." (Related by Ahmad with a sahih chain.) It is also related that Abu Hurairah said about a man who left the mosque after the call had been made, "That man has disobeyed Abu al-Qasim (the Prophet, upon whom be peace)." This is related by Muslim and others. Mu'adh at-Jahni related that the Prophet said, "It is the utmost apathy and sign of disbelief and hypocrisy that one who hears the call of Allah to salvation does not respond." (Related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.)
Commenting upon this, at-Tirmidhi says, "It has been related from more than one of the companions that one who hears the call and does not respond will have no prayer. Some said that this is the maximum imposition, which shows that there is no excuse for one who does not attend the congregational prayer without a valid reason."
Whenever 'Aisha (the wife of the Prophet) heard anything which she did not understand, she used to ask again till she understood it completely. Aisha said: "Once the Prophet said, "Whoever will be called to account (about his deeds on the Day of Resurrection) will surely be punished." I said, "Doesn't Allah say: "He surely will receive an easy reckoning." (84.8) The Prophet replied, "This means only the presentation of the accounts but whoever will be argued about his account, will certainly be ruined."
I wrote a letter to Ibn 'Abbas and he wrote to me that the Prophet had given the verdict that the defendant had to take an oath.
Ibn 'Abbas wrote that the Prophet gave his verdict on the basis of the defendant's oath.
'Aisha said, "The Prophet died in my house on the day of my turn while he was leaning on my chest closer to my neck, and Allah made my saliva mix with his saliva." 'Aisha added, "'AbdurRahman came with a siwak and the Prophet was too weak to use it so I took it, chewed it and then (gave it to him and he) cleaned his teeth with it."
It is confirmed that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to begin with the first Jamarah that is near Mina, then he would go to the middle Jamarah further away, and then he would go to the Jamarah Al-Aqabah. Likewise it is proven that he said, -Take your religious rites from me.+
The three of the leading Imams take this as indicating that observing sequence in throwing pebbles at the Jamarahs is a necessary condition and must be adhered to, because this is what the Prophet (peace be upon him) did. The Hanafi school, however, holds that sequence is only sunnah.
Ibn Mas'ud and Ibn 'Umar at the time of throwing pebbles used to say, Allahumma ij'alhu Hajjan mabruran wa dhanban maghfuran "O Allah! Accept this Hajj of ours and pardon our sins".
Ibrahim said, "The Companions of the Prophet loved that while throwing pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah one should supplicate, "O Allah, accept this Hajj of ours and forgive our sins.'' When asked if this supplication should be made at the time of throwing pebbles at each of the other Jamarahs as well he replied in the affirmative.
'Ata said, "When you throw the pebbles you should utter a takbir (Allahu Akbar) with each throw. This is reported by Sa'id bin Mansur. According to the hadith of Jabir, the Prophet (peace be upon him) uttered Allahu Akbar with each pebble that he threw. The author of Al-Fath says: "There is consensus that there is no harm if someone tails to utter a takbir."
Salman bin Al-Ahwas reported from his mother that she said. "I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) riding his mount at Aqabah holding a pebble between his fingers and throwing it, while others were also throwing pebbles with him." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud.
Persons who for a valid reason, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles they may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf. Jabir said, "We performed Hajj with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and we had some women and children with us. We (adults) uttered talbiyah and threw pebbles on behalf of the children." This was reported by Ibn Majah.
Muawiya offered one Rak'a Witr prayer after the 'Isha prayer, and at that time a freed slave of Ibn 'Abbas was present. He (i.e. the slave) went to Ibn 'Abbas (and told him that Muawiya offered one Rak'a Witr prayer). Ibn Abbas said, "Leave him, for he was in the company of Allah's Apostle."
Ibn 'Abbas recited: "(Respite will be granted) until when the Apostles gave up hope (of their people) and thought that they were denied (by their people). There came to them Our Help..." (12.110) reading Kudhibu without doubling the sound 'dh', and that was what he understood of the Verse. Then he went on reciting: "...even the Apostle and those who believed along with him said: When (will come) Allah's Help? Yes, verily, Allah's Help is near." (2.214)
Then I met 'Urwa bin Az-Zubair and I mentioned that to him. He said, " 'Aisha said, 'Allah forbid! By Allah, Allah never promised His Apostle anything but he knew that it would certainly happen before he died. But trials were continuously presented before the Apostles till they were afraid that their followers would accuse them of telling lies. So I used to recite:
'Till they (come to) think that they were treated as liars.' " reading 'Kudh-dhibu with double 'dh.'
Two women were stitching shoes in a house or a room. Then one of them came out with an awl driven into her hand, and she sued the other for it. The case was brought before Ibn 'Abbas. Ibn 'Abbas said, "Allah's Apostle said, 'If people were to be given what they claim (without proving their claim) the life and property of the nation would be lost.' Will you remind her (i.e. the defendant), of Allah and recite before her: 'Verily! Those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah's Covenant and their oaths...' " (3.77)
So they reminded her and she confessed. Ibn 'Abbas then said, "The Prophet said, 'The oath is to be taken by the defendant (in the absence of any proof against him).' "
Ibn 'Abbas asked permission to visit 'Aisha before her death, and at that time she was in a state of agony. She then said. "I am afraid that he will praise me too much." And then it was said to her, "He is the cousin of Allah's Apostle and one of the prominent Muslims." Then she said, "Allow him to enter." (When he entered) he said, "How are you?" She replied, "I am alright if I fear (Allah)." Ibn Abbas said, "Allah willing, you are alright as you are the wife of Allah's Apostle and he did not marry any virgin except you and proof of your innocence was revealed from the Heaven." Later on Ibn Az-Zubair entered after him and 'Aisha said to him, "Ibn 'Abbas came to me and praised me greatly, but I wish that I was a thing forgotten and out of sight."
When AbdurRahman ibn AbuBakr died in al-Hubshi, the name of a place, he was conveyed to Makkah and buried there. When Aisha arrived she went to the grave of AbdurRahman ibn AbuBakr and said: We were like the companions of Jadhimah for a long time, so that people said the two will never be separated. But when we separated it seemed, in spite of long association, as if Malik and I had not spent a single night together. She then said, "I swear by Allah that if I had been present with you, you would have been buried nowhere but where you died, and if I had been with you I should not have visited you."
Tirmidhi transmitted it.
Ubayy ibn Ka'b) said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) read the verse: "Say: In the bounty of Allah and in His mercy--in that let you rejoice: that is better than the wealth you hoard."
If Ali had spoken anything bad about 'Uthman then he would have mentioned the day when some persons came to him and complained about the Zakat officials of 'Uthman. 'Ali then said to me, "Go to 'Uthman and say to him, 'This document contains the regulations of spending the sadaqa of Allah's Apostle so order your Zakat officials to act accordingly." I took the document to 'Uthman. 'Uthman said, "Take it away, for we are not in need of it." I returned to 'Ali with it and informed him of that. He said, "Put it whence you took it."
Narrated Muhammad bin Suqa: I heard Mundhir At-Tuzi reporting Ibn Hanafiya who said, "My father sent me saying, 'Take this letter to 'Uthman for it contains the orders of the Prophet concerning the sadaqa.' "