Ma'mar sent his slave with a sa' of wheat and said to him: Sell it, and then buy with it barley. The slave went away and he got a sa' (of barley) and a part of sa' over and above that. When he came to Ma'mar he informed him about that, whereupon Ma'mar said to him: Why did you do that? Go back and return that, and do not accept but weight, for weight, for I used to hear from Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) as saying: Wheat for wheat and like for like. He (one of the narrators) said: Our food in those days consisted of barley. It was said to him (Ma'mar) that (wheat) is not like that (barley). He replied: I am afraid these may not be similar.
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: He who hoards is a sinner. It was said to Sa'id (bin al-Musayyib): You also hoard. Sa'id said: Ma'mar who narrated this hadith also hoarded.
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has forbidden us to face the two qiblahs at the time of urination or excretion.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Recite Surah Ya-Sin over your dying men. This is the version of Ibn al-Ala'
Al-Hasan reported that Umar asked: Which of your knows what share the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) had given to the grandfather from the estate? Ma'qil ibn Yasar said: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) gave him a sixth. He asked: Along with whom? He replied: I do not know. He said: You do not know; what is the use then?
A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: I have found a woman of rank and beauty, but she does not give birth to children. Should I marry her? He said: No. He came again to him, but he prohibited him. He came to him third time, and he (the Prophet) said: Marry women who are loving and very prolific, for I shall outnumber the peoples by you.
The Prophet said, "If anyone says three times in the morning, 'I seek refuge in Allah, the Hearer and Knower, from the accursed devil', and recites three verses at the end of surat al-Hashr, Allah will put in charge of him seventy thousand angels who will invoke blessings on him till the evening, and if he dies that day he will die as a martyr. If anyone says them in the evening he will be in that rank."
Tirmidhi and Darimi transmitted it, Tirmidhi saying this is a gharib tradition.
I remember being present on the Day of the Tree, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) was taking the oath of the people and I was holding a twig of the tree over his head. We were fourteen hundred (in number). We did not take oath to the death, but to the effect that we would not run away from the battlefield.
Allah's Apostle (peace be upon him) said: Worshipping during the period of widespread turmoil is like emigration towards me.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "If anyone recites Ya-Sin out of a desire for Allah's favour, his past sins will be forgiven him; so recite it over those of you who are dying."
Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu'ab al-Iman.
We, i.e., some people from Basra gathered and went to Anas bin Malik, and we went in company with Thabit Al-Bunnani so that he might ask him about the Hadith of Intercession on our behalf. Behold, Anas was in his palace, and our arrival coincided with his Duha prayer. We asked permission to enter and he admitted us while he was sitting on his bed. We said to Thabit, "Do not ask him about anything else first but the Hadith of Intercession." He said, "O Abu Hamza! There are your brethren from Basra coming to ask you about the Hadith of Intercession." Anas then said, "Muhammad talked to us saying, 'On the Day of Resurrection the people will surge with each other like waves, and then they will come to Adam and say, 'Please intercede for us with your Lord.' He will say, 'I am not fit for that but you'd better go to Abraham as he is the Khalil of the Beneficent.' They will go to Abraham and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Moses as he is the one to whom Allah spoke directly.' So they will go to Moses and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Jesus as he is a soul created by Allah and His Word.' (Be: And it was.) They will go to Jesus and he will say, 'I am not fit for that, but you'd better go to Muhammad.'
They would come to me and I would say, 'I am for that.' Then I will ask for my Lord's permission, and it will be given, and then He will inspire me to praise Him with such praises as I do not know now. So I will praise Him with those praises and will fall down, prostrate before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for your will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, my followers! My followers!' And then it will be said, 'Go and take out of Hell (Fire) all those who have faith in their hearts, equal to the weight of a barley grain.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down (prostrate) before Him. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, my followers! My followers!' It will be said, 'Go and take out of it all those who have faith in their hearts equal to the weight of a small ant or a mustard seed.' I will go and do so and return to praise Him with the same praises, and fall down in prostration before Him. It will be said, 'O, Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, my followers!' Then He will say, 'Go and take out (all those) in whose hearts there is faith even to the lightest, lightest mustard seed. (Take them) out of the Fire.' I will go and do so.(
When we left Anas, I said to some of my companions, "Let's pass by Al-Hasan who is hiding himself in the house of Abi Khalifa and request him to tell us what Anas bin Malik has told us." So we went to him and we greeted him and he admitted us. We said to him, "O Abu Said! We came to you from your brother Anas Bin Malik and he related to us a Hadith about the intercession the like of which I have never heard." He said, "What is that?" Then we told him of the Hadith and said, "He stopped at this point (of the Hadith)." He said, "What then?" We said, "He did not add anything to that." He said, Anas related the Hadith to me twenty years ago when he was a young fellow. I don't know whether he forgot or if he did not like to let you depend on what he might have said." We said, "O Abu Said ! Let us know that." He smiled and said, "Man was created hasty. I did not mention that, but that I wanted to inform you of it. Anas told me the same as he told you and said that the Prophet added, 'I then return for a fourth time and praise Him similarly and prostrate before Him and it will be said, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.' I will say, 'O Lord, allow me to intercede for whoever said, 'None has the right to be worshiped except Allah.' Then Allah will say, 'By my Power, and my Majesty, and by My Supremacy, and by My Greatness, I will take out of Hell (Fire) whoever said: 'None has the right to be worshipped except Allah.' "
I remember Allah's Apostle and also the mouthful of water which he took from a bucket in our house and ejected (on me). I heard from Itban bin Malik Al-Ansari, who was one from Bani Salim, saying, "I used to lead my tribe of Bani Salim in prayer. Once I went to the Prophet and said to him, 'I have weak eyesight and at times the rainwater flood intervenes between me and the mosque of my tribe and I wish that you would come to my house and pray at some place so that I could take that place as a place for praying (mosque). He said, 'Allah willing, I shall do that.' Next day Allah's Apostle along with Abu Bakr, came to my house after the sun had risen high and he asked permission to enter. I gave him permission, but he didn't sit till he said to me, 'Where do you want me to pray in your house?' I pointed to a place in the house where I wanted him to pray. So he stood up for the prayer and we aligned behind him. He completed the prayer with Taslim and we did the same simultaneously."
That 'Itban bin Malik who was one of the companions of the Prophet and one of the warriors of Badr, came to Allah's Apostle.
On whose face Allah's Apostle had thrown water from his mouth, the water having been taken from their well while he was still a young boy (who has not yet attained the age of puberty).
that he remembered Allah's Apostle and he also remembered a mouthful of water which he had thrown on his face, after taking it from a well that was in their house. Mahmud said that he had heard Itban bin Malik, who was present with Allah's Apostle in the battle of Badr saying, "I used to lead my people at Bani Salim in the prayer and there was a valley between me and those people. Whenever it rained it used to be difficult for me to cross it to go to their mosque. So I went to Allah's Apostle and said, 'I have weak eyesight and the valley between me and my people flows during the rainy season and it becomes difficult for me to cross it; I wish you would come to my house and pray at a place so that I could take that place as a praying place.' Allah's Apostle said, 'I will do so.' So Allah's Apostle and Abu Bakr came to my house in the (next) morning after the sun had risen high. Allah's Apostle asked my permission to let him in and I admitted him. He did not sit before saying, 'Where do you want us to offer the prayer in your house?' I pointed to the place where I wanted him to pray. So Allah's Apostle stood up for the prayer and started the prayer with Takbir and we aligned in rows behind him; and he offered two Rakat, and finished them with Taslim, and we also performed Taslim with him. I detained him for a meal called "Khazir" which I had prepared for him. ("Khazir" is a special type of dish prepared from barley flour and meat soup).
When the neighbors got the news that Allah's Apostle was in my house, they poured it till there were a great number of men in the house. One of them said, 'What is wrong with Malik, for I do not see him?' One of them replied, 'He is a hypocrite and does not love Allah and His Apostle.' On that Allah's Apostle said, 'Don't say this. Haven't you seen that he said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah for Allah's sake only.' The man replied, 'Allah and His Apostle know better; but by Allah, we never saw him but helping and talking with the hypocrites.' Allah's Apostle replied, 'No doubt, whoever says, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and by that he wants the pleasures of Allah, then Allah will save him from Hell.' " Mahmud added, "I told the above narration to some people, one of whom was Abu Aiyub, the companion of Allah's Apostle in the battle in which he (Abu Aiyub) died and Yazid bin Mu'awiya was their leader in Roman Territory. Abu Aiyub denounced the narration and said, 'I doubt that Allah's Apostle ever said what you have said.' I felt that too much, and I vowed to Allah that if I remained alive in that holy battle, I would (go to Medina and) ask Itban bin Malik if he was still living in the mosque of his people. So when he returned, I assumed Ihram for Hajj or 'Umra and then I proceeded on till I reached Medina. I went to Bani Salim and Itban bin Malik, who was by then an old blind man, was leading his people in the prayer. When he finished the prayer, I greeted him and introduced myself to him and then asked him about that narration. He told that narration again in the same manner as he had narrated it the first time."
Prayer is one of the most important acts in Islam, and thus it requires a special guidance
Ibrahim asked his Lord to give him descendants who abided by their prayers: "My Lord! Cause me and (some) of my offspring to remain constant in prayer. And O our Lord! Accept my supplication" (Ibrahim 40).
Not praying and denying its obligation is seen as disbelief and places the person outside the religion of Islam. All scholars agree on this piont. They base their opinion on several hadith, some of which are:
Jabir reports that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Between a person and disbelief is discarding prayer." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.)
Buraidah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The pact between us and them is prayer. Whoever abandons it is a disbeliever." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, anNasa'i and Ibn Majah.)
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, one day mentioned the prayer and said, "Whoever guards and observes his prayer, they will be a light and a proof and a savior for him on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever does not guard and obvserve them, they will not be a light or a proof or a savior for him. On the Day of Resurrection, he will be with Qarun, Fir'aun, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalf." (Related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani and Ibn Hibban. Its chain is excellent.)
That one who does not pray will be with the leaders of the unbelievers in the Hereafter makes it evident that such a person is an unbeliever. Says Ibn al-Qayyim, "The one who does not pray may be preoccupied with his wealth, kingdom, position or business. If one is kept away from his prayers by his wealth, he will be with Qarun. One whose kingdom keeps him away from the prayers will be with Haman, and one whose business keeps him away from the prayers will be with Ubayy ibn Khalf."
Says 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq al-'Aqeely, "The companions of Muhammad, peace be upon him, did not consider the abandonment of any act, with the exception of prayer, as being disbelief." (Related by at-Tirmidhi and al-Hakim, who said it met al-Bukahri's and Muslim's conditions.)
Says Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Mirwazi, "I heard Ishaq say, 'It is authentic (that) the Prophet (said or ruled): One who does not pray is an unbeliever." It is from the Prophet himself that one who intentionally does not pray until the time for the prayer is over is an unbeliever."
Says Ibn Hazm, "It has come from 'Umar, 'Abdurahman ibn 'Auf, Mu'adh ibn Jabal, Abu Hurairah and other companions that anyone who skips one obligatory prayer until its time has finished becomes an apostate. We find no difference of opinion among them on this point." This was mentioned by al-Mundhiri in at-Targheeb wa atTarheeb. Then he comments, "A group of companions and those who came after them believed that an intentional decision to skip one prayer until its time is completely finished makes one an unbeliever. The people of this opinion incude 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, Mu'adh ibn Jabal, Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu ad-Darda'. Among the non-companions who shared this view were Ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahwaih, 'Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak, an-Nakha'i, al-Hakim ibn 'Utaibah, Abu Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani, Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi, Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaibah, Zuhair ibn Harb, and others.
Some hadith make it clear that such a person should be killed. For example:
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The ties of Islam and the principles of the religion are three, and whoever leaves one of them becomes an unbeliever, and his blood becomes lawful: testifying that there is no god except Allah, the obligatory prayers, and the fast of Ramadan." (Related by Abu Ya'la with a hassan chain.) Another narration states, "If anyone leaves one of them, by Allah he becomes an unbeliever and no voluntary deeds or recompense will be accepted from him, and his blood and wealth become lawful." This is a clear indication that such a person is to be killed.
Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "I have been ordered to kill the people until they testify that there is no god except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer and pay the zakah. If they do that, their blood and wealth are protected from me save by the rights of Islam. Their reckoning will be with Allah." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Umm Salamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "There will be rulers over you who will do good and evil things. Whoever hates these (latter) acts will be innocent of them. Whoever denies them will be safe, but (not) one who accepts and follows them." They asked, "Should we kill them?" He said, "Not if they pray." (Related by Muslim.) Therefore, he made it unlawful to kill even an unjust ruler who observes his prayers.
Abu Sa'eed reported that 'Ali, while he was in Yemen, sent the Prophet some gold, which he then divided among four people. A man said, "O Messenger of Allah, beware of Allah." The Prophet said, "Woe to you. Of all the people of the earth, am I not the most dutiful in being aware of Allah?" Khalid ibn al-Walid said, "O Messenger of Allah, shall I kill him?" He said, "Perhaps he is one of those who pray." Khalid said, "How many people say with their tongues what is not in their hearts?" The Prophet said, "I have not been ordered to look into the hearts of people, nor to rip open their bellies." (Abridged from al-Bukhari and Muslim.) In this hadith also, prayer is given as the reason for not killing a person. It is understood, therefore, that not praying would have resulted in the person's killing.
Even though the preceding hadith clearly rule that one who discards salah becomes an unbeliever and should be killed, many early and later scholars (excluding Abu Hanifah, Malik and ash-Shafi) believe that such people become evildoers who must repent. If such a person does not repent, he is to be killed, that being the prescribed punishment, according to Malik, ash-Shai'i and others. Abu Hanifah maintains that such a person is not to be killed, but must be given a minor punishment and confined until he prays. They say the hadith that calls such people unbelievers refer to those who deny the prayers, and so on. They say that any other interpretation is contradicted by other texts. For example, Allah says, "Lo! Allah does not pardon one who gives Him partners. He pardons all save whom He wills" (an-Nisa' 116). There is also a hadith related by Abu Hurairah and recorded by Ahmad and Muslim in which the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Every prophet has a special supplication that is answered. Every prophet hastened to make his supplication, but I concealed mine and will use it for my nation on the Day of Resurrection. It will be granted--Allah willing--to whoever dies without associating any partners with Allah." Al-Bukhari also recorded that Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The person who will be the happiest due to my intercession is the one who says, 'There is no god but Allah' sincerely from his heart."
Says ash-Shaukani, "The truth of the matter is that he becomes an unbeliever who is to be killed for his unbelief. The hadith authenticates that Islamic law calls one who does not pray an unbeliever. It has also put the performance as the barrier between a believer and an unbeliever. Abandoning prayer means he may be called an unbeliever. We need not concern ourselves with arguments presented by those of the opposing opinion. We can say to them: It is not impossible that some types of unbelievers may obtain forgiveness or may have a right to intercession, such as the unbelief of those who pray to ( our) qiblah. Nevertheless, the fact remains that they commit some sins which the Islamic law views as unbelief. To turn to the other narrow interpretations is just redundant."
When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet took water from a bucket (used for getting water out of a well) with his mouth and threw it on my face.
When Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) was informed about a man who had divorced his wife, declaring it three times without any interval between them, he arose in anger and said, "Is sport being made of the Book of Allah Who is Great and Glorious, while I am among you?" As a result a man got up and said, "Messenger of Allah, shall I kill him?"
Nasa'i transmitted it.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The thing I fear most for you is the lesser polytheism." He was asked what the lesser polytheism was and replied that it was hypocrisy.
Ahmad transmitted it, and Bayhaqi added in Shu'ab al-Iman that on the day when men are rewarded for their deeds Allah will say to them, "Depart to those towards whom you were hypocritical in the world and see whether you can find any reward or any good with them."