There was an eclipse of the sun in the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). He came out bewildered pulling his garment, and I was in his company at Medina. He prayed two rak'ahs and stood for a long time in them. He then departed and the sun became bright. He then said: There are the signs by means of which Allah, the Exalted, produces dread (in His servants). When you see anything of this nature, then pray as you are praying a fresh obligatory prayer.
When this verse was revealed: "And warn thy nearest kindred," the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) set off towards a rock of the hill and ascended the highest of the rocks and then called: O sons of Abdu Manaf! I am a warner; my similitude and your similitude is like a man who saw the enemy and went to guard his people, but, being afraid they might get there before him, he shouted: Be on your guard!
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If anyone drinks wine, flog him; if he repeats it, flog him, and if he repeats it, flog him. If he does it again a third or a fourth time, kill him. A man who had drunk wine was brought (to him) and he gave him lashes. He was again brought to him, and he flogged him. He was again brought to him and he flogged him. He was again brought to him and he flogged him. The punishment of killing (for drinking) was repealed, and a concession was allowed.
A man asked the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him): Is there any food from which I should keep myself away? I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: Anything which creates doubt should not occur in your mind by which you resemble Christianity.
I was in debt and I came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and begged help from him regarding it. He said: Wait till we receive Sadaqah, so that we order that to be given to you. He again said: Qabisah, begging is not permissible except for one of the three (classes) of people: one who has incurred debt, for him begging is permissible until he pays that off, after which he must stop; a man whose property has been destroyed by a calamity which has smitten him, for him begging is permissible until he receives enough sustenance, or reasonable subsistence; and a person who has been smitten by property, the genuineness of which is confirmed by three intelligent members of his people, for him begging is permissible till he receives that which will support him, or will provide him with subsistence. Qabisah, besides these three (every other reason) for begging is forbidden, and one who engages in such consumes that which is forbidden.
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: After me you will be ruled by rulers who will delay the prayer and it will be to your credit but to their discredit. So pray with them so long as they pray facing the qiblah.
Jarir said, "We were with the Prophet and he looked at the moon--full-moon--and said, 'Certainly you will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So if you can avoid missing (through sleep or business, etc.) a prayer before the sunrise (Fajr) and a prayer before sunset ('Asr), you must do so.' He then recited Allah's statement:
And celebrate the praises Of your Lord before The rising of the sun And before (its) setting." (50.39) Isma'il said, "Offer those prayers and do not miss them."
When Abu Huraira accompanied by his slave set out intending to embrace Islam they lost each other on the way. The slave then came while Abu Huraira was sitting with the Prophet. The Prophet said, "O Abu Huraira! Your slave has come back." Abu Huraira said, "Indeed, I would like you to witness that I have manumitted him." That happened at the time when Abu Huraira recited (the following poetic verse): "What a long tedious tiresome night! Nevertheless, it has delivered us From the land of Kufr (disbelief)."
When Abu Huraira accompanied by his slave came intending to embrace Islam, they lost each other on the way. (When the slave showed up) Abu Huraira said (to the Prophet), "I make you witness that the slave is free for Allah's cause."
Jarir bin Abdullah said to me, "Allah's Apostle said to me, 'Won't you relieve me from Dhul-Khalasa?' Dhul-Khalasa was a house where the tribe of Khatham used to stay, and it used to be called Ka'bat-ul Yamaniya. So I proceeded with one hundred-and-fifty (men) from the tribe of Ahmas who were good cavalry. I informed the Prophet that I could not sit firm on horses, so he stroked me on the chest with his hand and I noticed his finger marks on my chest. He invoked, 'O Allah! Make him firm and a guiding and rightly-guided man." Jarir set out towards that place, dismantled and burnt it, and then sent the good news to Allah's Apostle . The messenger of Jarir said to Allah's Apostle. "O Allah's Apostle! By Him Who has sent you with the Truth, I did not come to you till it (i.e. the house) had been turned (black) like a scabby camel (covered with tar)." So the Prophet invoked Allah to bless the horses of the men of Ahmas five times.
Thus if someone were to walk within the Hijr (Commonly known as Hijr Isma'il, and situated to the north of Ka'bah, it is surrounded by a semicircular wall. Of this, only an area of six cubits (three metres approximately) extending from the Ka'bah is its part) his tawaf will not be valid, because both Hijr and Al-Shazarwan (Al-Shazarwan is the construction contiguous to the Ka'bah to which are fixed the rings holding the Ka'bah cover) are a part of the Ka'bah. Allah has commanded us to circumambulate around the Ka'bah and not inside it, saying: "...and circumambulate the Ancient House.'' (Qur'an 22.29) It is preferable, however, to remain close to the Ka'bah, if one can do so easily.
A short break in between the two, however, may be made. A longer interval because of a genuine excuse will also do no harm and is permissible. The Hanafi and Shafi'i schools hold that such a continuance (of Sa'i immediately after tawaf) is Sunnah of the Prophet.
Similarly there is no harm if one performs tawaf in parts and with long intervals in between, and even if it is done without any genuine reason. Such a person may continue the remaining rounds and complete his tawaf.
Sa'id bin Mansur reported from Humaid bin Zaid that he said: "I saw 'Abdullah bin 'Umar go three or four times around the Ka'bah, and he then sat down for a rest, while his servant fanned him. Then he resumed his Tawaf from where he had left it. Both Shafi'i and Hanafi schools hold that if one's ablution is void during the tawaf; one should redo it and resume the tawaf to complete its remaining rounds, regardless of the length of the interval.
It is reported that once Ibn 'Umar heard the call for prayer while he was performing his tawaf. He interrupted his tawaf and offered the prayers with the congregation. Then he resumed his tawaf from where he had left it.
'Ata is reported to have given a verdict concerning a person who had to interrupt his tawaf in order to participate in a funeral prayer, saying that such a person may resume his tawaf and complete the remaining rounds.
It is Sunnah to perform certain acts in tawaf as given below:
Ibn 'Umar said: "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) faced the Black Stone, touched it, and then placed his lips on it and wept for a long time." 'Umar also wept for a long time. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'O 'Umar, this is the place where one should shed tears.''' (Reported by Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith with a sound chain of authorities)
It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar bent down towards the Black Stone and said: "By Allah! I know that you are a mere stone, and if I had not seen my beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you and touching you I would have never done so." The Qur'an says: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."' (Qur'an 33.32) This was reported by Ahmad and others in slightly different words.
Nafi' said, "I have seen Ibn 'Umar touching the Black Stone with his hand, and then kissing his hand and saying: 'Ever since I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing this, I have never failed to do that.''' (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)
Sowayd bin Ghaflah said: "I have seen 'Umar kissing the Black Stone and touching it." He further said: "I know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was especially very particular about it.'' (Muslim) Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) used to come to Ka'bah, touch the Black Stone and then say: Bismillahi wallahu akbar (In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest.)" (Ahmad) Muslim has reported on the authority of Abu Tufail that he said: "I have seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) making tawaf around the Ka'bah and touching it with a stick and then kissing the stick."
Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported that 'Umar approached the Black Stone and kissed it. Then he said: "I know that you are a mere stone that can neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you, I would have never kissed you."
Al-Khatabi said: "This shows that abiding by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is binding, regardless of whether or not we understand its reason or the wisdom behind it."
Such information devolves obligation on all those whom it reaches, even if they may not fully comprehend its significance. It is known, however, that kissing the Black Stone signifies respect for it, recognition of our obligation toward it, and using it as a means of seeking Allah's blessings. Indeed Allah has preferred some stones over others, as He preferred some countries and cities, days and nights, and months over others. The underlying spirit of all this is unquestioning submission to Allah.
In some ahadith which say that "the Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth," we do find, however, a plausible rationale and justification for this statement. In other words whosoever touches the Black Stone he pledges allegiance to Allah, as it were, by giving his hand into the hand of Allah, just as some followers do pledge their fealty to their kings and masters, by kissing and shaking hands with them.
Al-Muhallib said: "The hadith of 'Umar refutes the assertions of those who say that 'The Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth wherewith He shakes the hands of His slaves."' God forbid that we should ascribe any physical organs to Allah. The commandment to kiss the Black Stone is meant to test and to demonstrate palpably as to who obeys and submits. It may be compared with the command to Iblis to bow to Adam.
We have no definite evidence, however, to believe that any of the stones used in building the Ka'bah originally (by Ibrahim and Isma'il), is still in existence today excepting the Black Stone.
I heard Sad saying, "I was the first amongst the Arabs who shot an arrow for Allah's Cause. We used to fight along with the Prophets, while we had nothing to eat except the leaves of trees so that one's excrete would look like the excrete balls of camel or a sheep, containing nothing to mix them together. Today Banu Asad tribe blame me for not having understood Islam. I would be a loser if my deeds were in vain." Those people complained about Sad to 'Umar, claiming that he did not offer his prayers perfectly.
This hadith was narrated about the sons-in-law of the Prophet and one of them is Abu Al-'As bin Ar-Rabi'.
It is confirmed that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not fast on the Day of Arafah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Verily the Day of Arafah, the Day of Sacrifice (Yaum al-Nahr), and Ayam Tashriq (the 10th, 11th and 12th of Dhul-Hijjah) are our days of festivities. These are the days of eating and drinking." It is also established that the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade fasting on the Day of Arafah while at Arafah (for pilgrimage).
This has led most of the scholars to conclude that in fact not fasting on the Day of Arafah is desirable, so that a pilgrim should be strong enough to devote himself wholeheartedly to worship and supplications.
Some of the ahadith that encourage fasting on the Day of Arafah concern the persons who are not staying at Arafah as pilgrims performing Hajj.
According to the authentic ahadith the Prophet (peace be upon him) combined Zuhr and 'Asr prayers while at Arafah. For this, adhan - call for the prayer - was given, then iqamah - the second call for prayer - was made. Then he offered Zuhr. After this, another iqamah was made and he offered 'Asr prayer.
Al-Aswad and 'Alqamah said: "For the completion of Hajj, Zuhr and 'Asr prayers must be offered at Arafah in congregation behind an imam."
Ibn Al-Mundhir said: "There is consensus among the scholars that the imam must combine Zuhr and 'Asr prayers at Arafah, and so should any one offering prayer with the imam." And in case one cannot combine these and pray behind an imam, one should combine them while praying alone.
It is reported that Ibn 'Umar used to reside at Makkah, but when he went to Mina he would shorten his prayers. 'Amr bin Dinar reported that Jabil bin Zaid told him: "Shorten your prayers at Arafah." This is reported hv Sa+id bin Mansur.
According to sunnah, pilgrims should leave Arafah quietly and peacefully after sunset. The Prophet (peace be upon him) left Arafah very peacefully and quietly, holding the reins of his she camel so tightly that its head touched its back, while he said to the people, "O people, walk calmly; rushing or making haste is not a virtue." This is reported by Bukhari and Muslim. They also reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) let his she camel go at normal pace, but when he found ample space in front of him he urged it to go faster." He did this out of compassion and consideration for the people.
It is desirable for pilgrims to utter talbiyah and make remembrance of Allah as much as possible. The Prophet (peace be upon him) repeated talbiyah right until he threw pebbles at Jamarah Al-'Aqabah. Ash'ath bin Sulaim reported from his father that he said, "I went with Ibn 'Umar from Arafah to Muzdalifah. He did not stop making remembrance of Allah and declaring His Oneness until we reached Muzdalifah." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud.
Bilal said to Abu Bakr, "If you have bought me for yourself then keep me (for yourself), but if you have bought me for Allah's sake, then leave me for Allah's work."
I heard Said bin Zaid bin 'Amr bin Nufail saying in the mosque of Al-Kufa. "By Allah, I have seen myself tied and forced by 'Umar to leave Islam before 'Umar himself embraced Islam. And if the mountain of Uhud could move from its place for the evil which you people have done to 'Uthman, then it would have the right to move from its place."
I heard Said bin Zaid saying to the people, "If you but saw me and 'Umar's sister tied and forced by 'Umar to leave Islam while he was not yet a Muslim. And if the mountain of Uhud could move from its place for the evil which you people have done to Uthman, it would have the right to do that."
I heard Abu Dhar swearing that the following Holy Verse: "These two opponents (believers and disbelievers) disputing with each other about their Lord," (22.19) was revealed concerning those men who fought on the day of Badr, namely, Hamza, 'Ali, Ubaida bin Al-Harith, Utba and Shaiba--the two sons of Rabi'a--and Al-Walid bin 'Utba.
The Badr warriors were given five thousand (Dirhams) each, yearly. 'Umar said, "I will surely give them more than what I will give to others."
I saw Talha's paralyzed hand with which he had protected the Prophet on the day of Uhud.
Jarir said to me, "The Prophet said to me, 'Won't you relieve me from Dhu-l-Khalasa?' And that was a house (in Yemen) belonging to the (tribe of) Khatham called Al-Kaba Al Yamaniya. I proceeded with one-hundred and-fifty cavalry from Ahmas (tribe) who were horse riders. I used not to sit firm on horses, so the Prophet stroke me over my chest till I saw the mark of his fingers over my chest, and then he said, 'O Allah! Make him (i.e. Jarir) firm and one who guides others and is guided on the right path.' " So Jarir proceeded to it, dismantled and burnt it, and then sent a messenger to Allah's Apostle. The messenger of Jarir said (to the Prophet), "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I did not leave that place till it was like a scabby camel." The Prophet blessed the horses of Ahmas and their men five times.
Jarir said "Allah's Apostle said to me, 'Won't you relieve me from Dhul-Khalasa?' I replied, 'Yes, (I will relieve you).' So I proceeded along with one hundred and fifty cavalry from Ahmas tribe who were skillful in riding horses. I used not to sit firm over horses, so I informed the Prophet of that, and he stroked my chest with his hand till I saw the marks of his hand over my chest and he said, 'O Allah! Make him firm and one who guides others and is guided (on the right path).' Since then I have never fallen from a horse. Dhul-l-Khulasa was a house in Yemen belonging to the tribe of Khatham and Bajaila, and in it there were idols which were worshipped, and it was called Al-Ka'ba." Jarir went there, burnt it with fire and dismantled it. When Jarir reached Yemen, there was a man who used to foretell and give good omens by casting arrows of divination. Someone said to him, "The messenger of Allah's Apostle is present here and if he should get hold of you, he would chop off your neck." One day while he was using them (i.e. arrows of divination), Jarir stopped there and said to him, "Break them (i.e. the arrows) and testify that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, or else I will chop off your neck." So the man broke those arrows and testified that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah. Then Jarir sent a man called Abu Artata from the tribe of Ahmas to the Prophet to convey the good news (of destroying Dhu-l-Khalasa). So when the messenger reached the Prophet, he said, "O Allah's Apostle! By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I did not leave it till it was like a scabby camel." Then the Prophet blessed the horses of Ahmas and their men five times.
I came to Khabbab who had been branded with seven brands(1) and he said, "Had Allah's Apostle not forbidden us to invoke (Allah) for death, I would have invoked (Allah) for it."
I came to Khabbab who had been branded with seven brands over his abdomen, and I heard him saying, "If the Prophet had not forbidden us to invoke (Allah) for death, I would have invoked Allah for it."
I heard Khabbab, who had branded his abdomen with seven brands, saying, "Had Allah's Apostle not forbidden us to invoke Allah for death, I would have invoked Allah for death. The companions of Muhammad have left this world without taking anything of their reward in it (i.e., they will have perfect reward in the Hereafter), but we have collected of the worldly wealth what we cannot spend but on earth (i.e. on building houses)."
I came to Khabbab while he was building a wall, and he (Khabbab) said, "Our companions who have left this world, did not enjoy anything of their reward therein, while we have collected after them, much wealth that we cannot spend but on earth (i.e., on building)."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from an-Numan ibn Murra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,"What about drunkenness, stealing and adultery? "That was before anything had been revealed about them. They said, "Allah and His Messenger know best." He said, "They are excesses and in them is a punishment. And the worst of thieves is the one who steals his prayer." They said, "How does he steal his prayer, Messenger of Allah?" He replied, "He does not do ruku or sajda properly."
I heard Sa'id bin Zaid saying, "I have seen myself tied and forced by 'Umar to leave Islam (Before 'Umar himself embraced Islam). And if the mountain of Uhud were to collapse for the evil which you people had done to 'Uthman, then Uhud would have the right to do so." (See Hadith No. 202, Vol. 5)
We went to pay a visit to Khabbab bin Al-Art and he had got himself branded at seven spots over his body. He said, "If Allah's Apostle had not forbidden us to invoke Allah for death, I would have invoked for it."
I saw Talha's paralyzed hand with which he had protected the Prophet (from an arrow).
Abu Bakr went to a lady from the Ahmas tribe called Zainab bint Al-Muhajir and found that she refused to speak. He asked, "Why does she not speak?" The people said, "She has intended to perform Hajj without speaking." He said to her, "Speak, for it is illegal not to speak, as it is an action of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. So she spoke and said, "Who are you?" He said, "A man from the emigrants." She asked, "Which emigrants?" He replied, "From Quraish." She asked, "From what branch of Quraish are you?" He said, "You ask too many questions; I am Abu Bakr." She said, "How long shall we enjoy this good order (i.e. Islamic religion) which Allah has brought after the period of ignorance?" He said, "You will enjoy it as long as your Imams keep on abiding by its rules and regulations." She asked, "What are the Imams?" He said, "Were there not heads and chiefs of your nation who used to order the people and they used to obey them?" She said, "Yes." He said, "So they (i.e. the Imams) are those whom I meant."
We went to pay a visit to Khabbab (who was sick) and he had been branded (cauterized) at seven places in his body. He said, "Our companions who died (during the lifetime of the Prophet) left (this world) without having their rewards reduced through enjoying the pleasures of this life, but we have got (so much) wealth that we find no way to spend it except on the construction of buildings. Had the Prophet not forbidden us to wish for death, I would have wished for it." We visited him for the second time while he was building a wall. He said, "A Muslim is rewarded (in the Hereafter) for whatever he spends except for something that he spends on building."
While I was sitting in the mosque of Medina, there entered a man (Abdullah bin Salam) with signs of solemnity over his face. The people said, "He is one of the people of Paradise." He prayed two light Rakat and then left. I followed him and said, "When you entered the mosque, the people said, 'He is one of the people of Paradise.' " He said, "By Allah, one ought not say what he does not know; and I will tell you why. In the lifetime of the Prophet I had a dream which I narrated to him. I saw as if I were in a garden." He then described its extension and greenery. He added: "In its center there was an iron pillar whose lower end was fixed in the earth and the upper end was in the sky, and at its upper end there was a (ring-shaped) hand-hold. I was told to climb it. I said, 'I can't.' Then a servant came to me and lifted my clothes from behind and I climbed till I reached the top (of the pillar). Then I got hold of the hand-hold, and I was told to hold it tightly, then I woke up and (the effect of) the hand-hold was in my hand. I narrated al I that to the Prophet who said, 'The garden is Islam, and the hand-hold is the Most Truthworthy Hand-Hold. So you will remain as a Muslim till you die.' " The narrator added: "The man was 'Abdullah bin Salam."
I heard Abu Dhar swearing that these Holy Verses were revealed in connection with those six persons on the day of Badr.
Abu Dharr used to take an oath confirming that the Verse:
"These two opponents (believers, and disbelievers) dispute with each other about their Lord." (22.19) was Revealed in connection with Hamza and his two companions and 'Utbah and his two companions on the day when they ease out of the battle of Badr.
'Ali said, "I will be the first to kneel before the Beneficent on the Day of Resurrection because of the dispute." Qais said, "This Verse:
'These two opponents (believers and disbelievers) dispute with each other about their Lord,' (22.19) was revealed in connection with those who came out for the Battle of Badr, i.e. 'Ali, Hamza, 'Ubaida, Shaiba bin Rabi'a, 'Utba bin Rabi'a and Al-Walid bin Utba."
I was sitting in a gathering in which there was Sa'd bin Malik and Ibn 'Umar. 'Abdullah bin Salam passed in front of them and they said, "This man is from the people of Paradise." I said to 'Abdullah bin Salam, "They said so-and-so." He replied, "Subhan Allah! They ought not to have said things of which they have no knowledge, but I saw (in a dream) that a post was fixed in a green garden. At the top of the post there was a handhold and below it there was a servant. I was asked to climb (the post). So I climbed it till I got hold of the handhold." Then I narrated this dream to Allah's Apostle. Allah's Apostle said, " 'Abdullah will die while still holding the firm reliable handhold (i.e., Islam)."
Ursa said to 'Aisha, "Do you know so-and-so, the daughter of Al-Hakam? Her husband divorced her irrevocably and she left (her husband's house)." 'Aisha said, "What a bad thing she has done!" 'Ursa said (to 'Aisha), "Haven't you heard the statement of Fatima?" 'Aisha replied, "It is not in her favor to mention." 'Ursa added, 'Aisha reproached (Fatima) severely and said, "Fatima was in a lonely place, and she was proned to danger, so the Prophet allowed her (to go out of her husband's house)."
Three traditions have been established because of Barira: 'Aisha intended to buy her and set her free, but Barira's masters said, "Her wala' will be for us." 'Aisha mentioned that to Allah's Apostle who said, "You could accept their condition if you wished, for the wala is for the one who manumits the slave." Barira was manumitted, then she was given the choice either to stay with her husband or leave him. One day Allah's Apostle entered 'Aisha's house while there was a cooking pot of food boiling on the fire. The Prophet asked for lunch, and he was presented with bread and some extra food from the home-made Udm (e.g. soup). He asked, "Don't I see meat (being cooked)?" They said, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle! But it is the meat that has been given to Barira in charity and she has given it to us as a present." He said, "For Barira it is alms, but for us it is a present."
that Yahya bin Said bin Al-'As divorced the daughter of 'Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Hakarn. Abdur-Rahman took her to his house. On that 'Aisha sent a message to Marwan bin Al-Hakam who was the ruler of Medina, saying, "Fear Allah, and urge your brother to return her to her house." Marwan (in Sulaiman's version) said, "Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Hakam did not obey me (or had a convincing argument)." (In Al-Qasim's versions Marwan said, "Have you not heard of the case of Fatima bint Qais?" 'Aisha said, "The case of Fatima bint Qais is not in your favor." Marwan bin Al-Hakam said to 'Aisha, "The reason that made Fatima bint Qais go to her father's house is just applicable to the daughter of 'Abdur-Rahman."
Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number." I asked Anas, "Had the Prophet the strength for it?" Anas replied, "We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men)." And Sa'id said on the authority of Qatada that Anas had told him about nine wives only (not eleven).
Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet and Zaid bin Thabit took the 'Suhur' together and after finishing the meal, the Prophet stood up and prayed (Fajr prayer)." I asked Anas, "How long was the interval between finishing their 'Suhur' and starting the prayer?" He replied, "The interval between the two was just sufficient to recite fifty 'Ayat." (Verses of the Qur'an)."
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not committed major sins."
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Anas I said, "While Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) was delivering the Friday Khutba (sermon) a man came and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Rain is scarce; please ask Allah to bless us with rain.' So he invoked Allah for it, and it rained so much that we could hardly reach our homes and it continued raining till the next Friday." Anas further said, "Then the same or some other person stood up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah to withhold the rain.' On that, Allah's Apostle I said, 'O Allah! Round about us and not on us.' " Anas added, "I saw the clouds dispersing right and left and it continued to rain but not over Medina."
Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet (p.b.u.h) and Zaid bin Thabit took their Suhur together. When they finished it, the Prophet stood for the (Fajr) prayer and offered it." We asked Anas, "What was the interval between their finishing the Suhur and the starting of the morning prayer?" Anas replied, "It was equal to the time taken by a person in reciting fifty verses of the Qur'an."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the call to prayer is made Shaytan retreats, passing wind, so that he will not hear the adhan. When the adhan is completed he comes back, until, when the iqama is said, he retreats again. When the iqama is completed, he comes back, until he comes between a man and his self and says, 'Think of such and such, think of such and such,' which he was not thinking about before, until the man does not know how much he has prayed."
I asked Anas how many times the Prophet had performed 'Umra. He replied, "Four times. 1. 'Umra of Hudaibiya in Dhi-l-Qa'da when the pagans hindered him; 2. 'Umra in the following year in Dhi-l-Qa'da after the peace treaty with them (the pagans); 3. 'Umra from Al-Ja'rana where he distributed the war booty." I think he meant the booty (of the battle) of Hunain. I asked, "How many times did he perform Hajj?" He (Anas) replied, "Once. "
As an obligation upon Muslims, zakah is one of the essential requirements of Islam. If somebody disputed its obligation, he would be outside of Islam, and could legally be killed for his unbelief unless he was a new Muslim and could be excused for his ignorance.
As for the one who refrains from paying it without denying its obligation, he would be guilty of committing a sin. Yet, this act does not place him outside of Islam. It is the ruler's duty to take zakah from the defaulter by force and rebuke him, provided he does not collect more than the stipulated amount. However, in the views of Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i (in his earlier opinion) the ruler could take half of the defaulter's money, in addition to the calculated amount of zakah, as a punishment. This view is based on what Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and al-Baihaqi have recorded from Bahz ibn Hakim all the way back to his grandfather who said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say: 'Whether the camels of the zakah payer are grown or baby camels, it makes no difference in his reward if he gave them willingly. (However,) if someone refrains from paying it, it will be taken from him along with half his property, for it is a right of our Lord, the Blessed and the Exalted, not a right of the house of Muhammad.'"
Asked about its chain, Ahmad ruled it good (hassan). Of Bahz, al-Hakim says: "His traditions are authentic." Ash-Shaf'i, as alBaihaqi says, did not include it for fiqhi consideration because . . . "this hadith is not confirmed by the scholars of hadith."
If some people refrain from paying zakah knowing that it is due and that they can afford to pay, they should be fought until they yield and pay. Al-Bukhari and Muslim report that Ibn 'Umar heard the Prophet say: "I have been ordered to fight people until they say that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger, and they uphold the prayers, and pay the zakah. If they do this, their lives and properties will be safe, except for what is due to Islam, and their accounts are with Allah."
Abu Hurairah is reported to have said: "When Allah's Messenger, upon whom be peace, died and Abu Bakr succeeded him as caliph, some Arabs apostasized, causing Abu Bakr to declare war upon them. 'Umar said to him: 'Why must you fight these men?', especially when there is a ruling of the Prophet, upon whom be peace: 'I have been called to fight men until they say that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and whoever said it has saved his life and property from me except when a right is due in them, and his account will be with Allah.' Abu Bakr replied: 'By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between salah and zakah because zakah is the due on property. By Allah! If they withheld even a young she-goat ( 'anaq) that they used to pay at the time of Allah's Messenger, upon whom be peace, I would fight them.' Then 'Umar said: 'By Allah! It was He who gave Abu Bakr the true knowledge to fight, and later I came to know that he was right.' "
The same hadith narrated by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and atTirmidhi has the following variant: "If they witheld the 'iqal, the rope of the camel," instead of "'anaq, young she-goat."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Hazim ibn Dinar that Sahl ibn Sad as-Saidi said, "There are two times when the gates of heaven are opened, and few who make supplication have it returned to them unanswered. They are at the timeof the adhan, and in a rank of people fighting in the way of Allah."
Malik was asked whether the adhan on the day of jumua was called before the time had come for the prayer and he said, "It is not called until after the sun has passed the meridian."
Malik was asked about doubling the adhan and the iqama, and at what point people had to stand when the iqama for the prayer was called. He said, "I have heard nothing about the adhan and iqama except what I have seen people do. As for the iqama, it is not doubled. That is what the people of knowledge in our region continue to do. As for people standing up when the iqama for the prayer is called, I have not heard of any definite point at which it is begun, and I consider it rather to be according to people's (individual) capacity, for some people are heavy and some are light, and they are not able to be as one man ."
Malik was asked about a gathering of people who wished to do the prescribed prayer calling the iqama and not the adhan, and he said, "lt is enough for them. The adhan is only obligatory in mosques where the prayer is said in congregation."
Malik was asked about the muadhdhin saying "Peace be upon you" to the imam and calling him to the prayer, and he was asked who was the first person to whom such a greeting was made. He replied, "I have not heard that this greeting occurred in the first community."
Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a muadhdhin who called the people to prayer and then waited to see if anyone would come and no one did, so he said the iqama and did the prayer by himself and then people came after he had finished, should repeat the prayer with them. Malik said, "He does not repeat the prayer, and whoever comes after he has finished should do the prayer by himself."
Yahya said that Malik was asked about a muadhdhin who called the adhan for a group of people, did voluntary prayers, and then the group of people wanted to do the prayer with some one else saying the iqama. He said, "There is no harm in that. His iqama or somebody else's are the same."
Yahya said that Malik said, "The subh prayer is still called before dawn. As for the other prayers, we believe that they should only be called after the time has started."
I asked Anas (about the Prophet's 'Umra) and he replied, "The Prophet performed 'Umra when the pagans made him return, and Umra of al-Hudaibiya (the next year), and another 'Umra in Dhi-l-Qa'da, and another 'Umra in combination with his Hajj."
Anas went to the Prophet with barley bread having some dissolved fat on it. The Prophet had mortgaged his armor to a Jew in Medina and took from him some barley for his family. Anas heard him saying, "The household of Muhammad did not possess even a single Sa of wheat or food grains for the evening meal, although he has nine wives to look after." (See Hadith No. 685)
I asked Anas, "Did the Prophet use to dye (his) hair?" He said, "No, for there were only a few white hairs on his temples."
Anas said, "The Qur'an was collected in the lifetime of the Prophet by four (men), all of whom were from the Ansar: Ubai, Muadh bin Jabal, Abu Zaid and Zaid bin Thabit." I asked Anas, "Who is Abu Zaid?" He said, "One of my uncles."
We do not know of any tribe amongst the 'Arab tribes who lost more martyrs than Al-Ansar, and they will have superiority on the Day of Resurrection. Anas bin Malik told us that seventy from the Ansar were martyred on the day of Uhud, and seventy on the day (of the battle of) Bir Ma'una, and seventy on the day of Al-Yamama. Anas added, "The battle of Bir Ma'una took place during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and the battle of Al-Yamama, during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, and it was the day when Musailamah Al-Kadhdhab was killed."
I said to Sa'id bin Al-Musaiyab, "I have been informed that Jabir bin 'Abdullah said that the number (of Al-Hudaibiya Muslim warriors) was 1400." Sa'id said to me, "Jabir narrated to me that they were 1500 who gave the Pledge of allegiance to the Prophet on the day of Al-Hudaibiya."
I asked Anas bin Malik: "Who collected the Qur'an at the time of the Prophet ?" He replied, "Four, all of whom were from the Ansar: Ubai bin Ka'b, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit and Abu Zaid."
I asked Anas bin Malik about the recitation of the Prophet. He said, "He used to pray long (certain sounds) very much."
Anas was asked, "How was the recitation (of the Quran) of the Prophet?" He replied, "It was characterized by the prolongation of certain sounds." He then recited: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful," prolonging the pronunciation of "In the Name of Allah," "the most Beneficent," and "the Most Merciful."
We were in the company of Anas whose baker was with him. Anas said, The Prophet did not eat thin bread, or a roasted sheep till he met Allah (died).
We used to visit Anas bin Malik while his baker was standing (and baking). Anas would say, "Eat! I do not know that the Prophet had ever seen well-baked bread till he met Allah, nor had he ever seen a roasted sheep with his own eyes."
I asked Anas, "What kind of clothes was most beloved to the Prophet?" He replied, "The Hibra (a kind of Yemenese cloth)."
I asked Anas bin Malik about the hair of Allah's Apostle. He said, "The hair of Allah's Apostle was neither much straight, nor much curly, and it used to hang down till between the shoulders and tje earlobes.
I asked Anas, "Was it a custom of the companions of the Prophet to shake hands with one another?" He said, "Yes."
We used to go to Anas bin Malik and see his baker standing (preparing the bread). Anas said, "Eat. I have not known that the Prophet ever saw a thin well-baked loaf of bread till he died, and he never saw a roasted sheep with his eyes."
Is one of you helpless to be like AbuDaygham or Damdam (Ibn Ubayd is doubtful) who would say when morning came: O Allah, I gave my honour as alms to Thy servants?
When the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) saw the new moon, he said: "a new moon of good and right guidance; a new moon of good and right guidance; a new moon of good and right guidance. I believe in Him Who created you" three times. He would then say: "Praise be to Allah Who has made such and such a month to pass and has brought such and such a month."
When the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) saw the new moon, he turned away his face from it.
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "When Allah loves a man He protects him from the world just as one of you continue to protect his patient from water."
Ahmad and Tirmidhi transmitted it.
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) used to command us to fast the days of the white (nights): thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of the month. He said: This is like keeping perpetual fast.
Zayd ibn Ilaqah relates on the authority of his uncle, Qatadah ibn Malik, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would supplicate: Allah, I seek Thy protection against undesirable manners, acts and desires.
Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
Abdullah ibn Hasan al-Anbari said: My grandmothers, Safiyyah and Duhaybah, narrated to me, that hey were the daughters of Ulaybah and were nourished by Qaylah, daughter of Makhramah. She was the grandmother of their father. She reported to them, saying: We came upon the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). My companion, Hurayth ibn Hassan, came to him as a delegate from Bakr ibn Wa'il. He took the oath of allegiance of Islam for himself and for his people. He then said: Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him), write a document for us, giving us the land lying between us and Banu Tamim at ad-Dahna' to the effect that not one of them will cross it in our direction except a traveller or a passer-by. He said: Write down ad-Dahna' for them, boy. When I saw that he passed orders to give it to him, I became anxious, for it was my native land and my home. I said: Apostle of Allah, he did not ask you for a true border when he asked you. This land of Dahna' is a place where the camels have their home, and it is a pasture for the sheep. The women of Banu Tamim and their children are beyond it. He said: Stop, boy! A poor woman spoke the truth: a Muslim is a brother of a Muslim. Each one of them may benefit from water and trees, and they should cooperate with each other against Satan.
She saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) sitting with his arms round his legs. She said: When I saw the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) in such humble condition in the sitting position (according to Musa's version), I trembled with fear.