I offered the funeral prayer behind Ibn Abbas and he recited Al-Fatiha and said, "You should know that it (i.e. recitation of Al-Fatiha) is the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad."
It is Islamic etiquette to visit a sick Muslim, to provide him moral support, and to make sure that he or she is well taken care of.
Ibn 'Abbas said: "The first visit to a sick person is sunnah, while any subsequent visit is a voluntary act (a good deed)." Abu Musa reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Feed the hungry, visit the sick, and free the captives."
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "A Muslim has six obligations to another Muslim." "What are these?" they asked. He replied: "To greet another Muslim when you meet him; to respond when he invites you; to give him your (sincerest) advice when he seeks it; to say 'may Allah have mercy upon you' when he sneezes and says ' may Allah be praised '; to visit him when he falls ill; and when he dies, to attend his funeral."
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: "A caller from heaven calls out to the person who visits a sick person, 'You are good and your path is good. May you enter your residence in Paradise'."
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: "Verily, Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, will say on the Day of Judgement: 'O Son of Adam! I fell ill, but you did not visit Me.' The human will ask, 'O my Sustainer! How could I visit You when You are the Sustainer of the Worlds? And how can You fall sick?' He, the Almighty, will say, 'Did you not know that such and such a servant of Mine was sick. But you did not visit him. Did you not know that, had you visited him, you would have found Me by his side? O Son of Adam! I asked you for food, but you fed Me not?' The man will say, 'O my Sustainer! How could I feed You when You are the Sustainer of the Worlds? And You are free from hunger?' He, the Almighty, will say: 'Such and such a servant of Mine asked you for food, but you refused to give him any. Did you not know that, had you fed him, you would have found it recorded here with Me? O Son of Adam! I asked you for a drink, but you did not give Me any.' The man will say, 'O my Sustainer! How could I give You a drink while You are the Sustainer of the Worlds and are free from thirst?' He, the Almighty will say, ' Such and such a servant of Mine asked you for a drink, but you did not give him any. Had you given him a drink, you would have surely found that recorded with Me."'
Thawban reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Verily, when a Muslim visits his sick Muslim brother, he is, as it were, in one of the gardens of Paradise (enjoying its ripe fruits) until he returns to his home."
Ali said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, saying: 'When a Muslim visits a sick Muslim in the morning, seventy thousand angels pray for him, and they continue praying for him until that evening. When one visits the sick in the evening, the angels pray for him and continue praying for him until the next morning. Moreover, he will be rewarded with the choicest fruits of Paradise."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man questioned al-Qasim ibn Muhammad saying, "My imagination works in the prayer, and it happens to me a lot." Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, "Go on with your prayer, for it will not goaway from you until you goaway saying, 'I have not completed my prayer.' "
I asked Abdullah bin Abu Aufa "Did the Prophet make a will?" He replied, "No," I asked him, "How is it then that the making of a will has been enjoined on people, (or that they are ordered to make a will)?" He replied, "The Prophet bequeathed Allah's Book (i.e. Quran)."
Wiping over the socks is part of the sunnah. An-Nawawi states, "All those who qualify for ijma' (consensus) agree that it is allowed to wipe over the socks--during travelling or at home, if needed or not--even a woman who stays at home or a handicapped person who cannot walk can do so. The Shi'ah and Khawarij reject it, but their rejection is not valid. Says Ibn Hajr in Fath al-Bari, "All of the preservers (of hadith) are of the opinion that wiping over the socks has come through a continuous transmission. Some have collected all of its narrations (from among the companions), and its number exceeds eighty. This includes hadith from the ten pepole who were promised Paradise." The strongest hadith on this point has been related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi on the authority of Hammam anNakha'i who said, "Jarir ibn 'Abdullah urinated, performed ablution and wiped over his socks." It was said to him, "You do that and you have urinated?" He said, "Yes, I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, urinate and then do likewise." Said Ibrahim, "They were amazed at that hadith, because Jarir had embraced Islam after surah al-Ma'idah was revealed (10 AH). One of its verses calls for washing one's feet. This hadith helps us understand the verse by confining it to one who is not wearing socks. This constitutes a particular case, and the person who wears socks can just wipe over them.
It is allowed to wipe over slippers, as this has been related from many companions. Says Abu Dawud, "Wiping over sandals (has been done by) 'Ali ibn Abu Talib, Ibn Mas'ud, al-Barra' ibn 'Aazib, Anas ibn Malik, Abu Umamah, Sahl ibn Sa'd and 'Amr ibn Hareeth. It has also been related from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and Ibn 'Abbas." 'Ammar, Bilal ibn 'Abdullah ibn Abu Aufi and Ibn 'Umar also have hadith on this subejct. In Ibn alQayyim's Tahdhib as-Sunan, he relates from Ibn al-Mundhir, "Ahmad made a statement about the permissibility of wiping over slippers because of his fairness and justice. Nevertheless, the basis of this permissibility is the practice of the companions and a manifest analogy. There is no real difference between socks and slippers. It is correct that they take the same ruling. Most scholars say that one can wipe over either one." Those who permit it include Sufyan al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak, 'Ata, al-Hasan and Sa'eed ibn alMusayyab. Commenting on this subject, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said, "It is allowed to wipe over them if they are thick and completely hide what they cover."
Abu Hanifah did not approve of wiping over thick slippers, but he changed his mind three or seven days before his death. He wiped over his slippers during his illness and said to his visitors, "I did what I used to tell people not to do." Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, made ablution and wiped over his socks and slippers. This is related by Ahmad, at-Tahawi, Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi, who called it hassan sahih. Abu Dawud graded it weak.2
As it is permissible to wipe over socks so is it permissible to wipe over any foot covering, which has been used to avoid the cold or protect the wound, and so on. Of its permissibility, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is all right to wipe over foot covering because it takes precedence over wiping socks or slippers, for usually a foot covering is used for some need and to protect the feet from some harm. If wiping over the socks and slippers is allowed, then wiping over any foot covering should come first. Whoever claims that there is a consensus on the inadmissibility of wiping over foot coverings does so with a lack of knowledge. Not to speak of a consensus, he cannot prove its forbiddance even from the works of ten famous scholars." He goes on to say, "Whoever ponders over the words of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and gives analogy its proper place, will know that the license from him was spacious on this subject and in accord with the beauty of Islamic law and the monotheistic magnanimity with which the Prophet had been sent." Even if there are some holes or cuts in the socks, it is permissible to wipe over them, as long as the person has only such socks to wear. Says al-Thauri, "The slippers of the emigrants and helpers were not free of cuts or holes, like the slippers of the people (in general). If this were a matter of concern, it would have been mentioned and related by them."
A man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islam. Allah's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers perfectly five times in a day and night (24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawafil prayers (you can)." Allah's Apostle further said to him: "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." The man asked, "Is there any more fasting?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to observe the Nawafil fasts (you can.)" Then Allah's Apostle further said to him, "You have to pay the Zakat (obligatory charity)." The man asked, "Is there any thing other than the Zakat for me to pay?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, unless you want to give alms of your own." And then that man retreated saying, "By Allah! I will neither do less nor more than this." Allah's Apostle said, "If what he said is true, then he will be successful (i.e. he will be granted Paradise)."
Elderly men and women are permitted to break their fasts, as are the chronically ill, and those who have to perform difficult jobs under harsh circumstances and who could not find any other way to support themselves. All of these people are allowed to break their fast, because such a practice would place too much hardship on them during any part of the year. They are obliged to feed one poor person [miskin] a day (for every day of fasting that they do not perform). The scholars differ over how much food is to be supplied, for example, a sa', half a sa', or a madd. There is nothing in the sunnah that mentions exactly how much is to be given.
Ibn 'Abbas said: "An elderly man is permitted to break his fast, but he must feed a poor person daily. If he does this, he does not have to make up the days that he did not fast. This is related by ad-Daraqutni and by al-Hakim, who said it is sahih. Al-Bukhari recorded that 'Ata heard Ibn 'Abbas recite the 'ayah: "And for those who can fast [but do not], there is a "ransom': the feeding of a person in need" [al-Baqarah 185]. Then Ibn 'Abbas continued: "It has not been abrogated. [Its ruling applies] to elderly men and women who are not able to fast. Instead, they must feed one poor person on a daily basis."
The same is true for one who is chronically ill and as such cannot fast, and for one who is forced to work under harsh circumstances and as such cannot endure the additional burden of fasting. Both groups must also feed one poor person daily.
Commenting on al-Baqarah's 'ayah, Sheikh Muhammad 'Abduh says: "What is meant by those who can fast' [(but do not) in the Qur'anic verse] is the weak elderly people, the chronically ill, and so on, and similarly, those workers who are working under severe conditions, such as coal miners. The same applies to criminals who are sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor. They have to pay the 'ransom' if they have the means to do so."
Pregnant and breast-feeding women, if they fear for themselves or for the baby, can break the fast and pay the "ransom." They do not have to make up the days missed. Abu Dawud related from 'Ikrimah that Ibn 'Abbas said concerning the 'ayah "And for those who can fast [but do not],": "This is a concession for the elderly, as they can fast. They are to break the fast and feed one poor person a day. Pregnant or breast-feeding women, if they fear for the child, can do likewise." This is related by al-Bazzar. At the end of the report, there is the addition: "Ibn 'Abbas used to say to his wives who were pregnant: 'You are in the same situation as those who can fast [but do not]. You are to pay the "ransom" and do not have to make up the days later.' " Of its chain, ad-Daraqutni says it is sahih.
Nafi' reported that Ibn 'Umar was asked about a pregnant woman who feared for her unborn baby. He replied: "She is to break the fast and to feed one poor person a day one madd of barley."
There is also a hadith that states: "Allah has relieved the travelers of fasting and half of the prayer, and the pregnant and the breast-feeding women of the fast."According to the Hanafiyyah, Abu Ubaid, and Abu Thaur, such women are only to make up the missed days of fasting, and they are not supposed to feed one poor person a day. According to Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i, if such women fear only for the baby, they must pay the "ransom" and make up the days later. If they fear only for themselves or for themselves and the baby, then they are only to make up the missed days at a later date.
A bedouin with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Inform me what Allah has made compulsory for me as regards the prayers." He replied: "You have to offer perfectly the five compulsory prayers in a day and night (24 hours), unless you want to pray Nawafil." The bedouin further asked, "Inform me what Allah has made compulsory for me as regards fasting." He replied, "You have to fast during the whole month of Ramadan, unless you want to fast more as Nawafil." The bedouin further asked, "Tell me how much Zakat Allah has enjoined on me." Thus, Allah's Apostle informed him about all the rules (i.e. fundamentals) of Islam. The bedouin then said, "By Him Who has honored you, I will neither perform any Nawafil nor will I decrease what Allah has enjoined on me. Allah's Apostle said, "If he is saying the truth, he will succeed (or he will be granted Paradise)."
A man came to Allah's Apostle asking him about Islam, Allah's Apostle said, "You have to offer five compulsory prayers in a day and a night (24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more compulsory prayers for me?" Allah's Apostle said, "No, unless you like to offer Nawafil (i.e. optional prayers)." Allah's Apostle then added, "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." The man said, "Am I to fast any other days?' Allah's Apostle said, "No, unless you wish to observe the optional fast voluntarily." Then Allah's Apostle told him about the compulsory Zakat. The man asked, "Do I have to give anything besides?" Allah's Apostle said, "No, unless you wish to give in charity voluntarily." So, the man departed saying, "By Allah, I will neither do more nor less than that." Allah's Apostle said, "If he has said the truth he will be successful."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped. The anger on those who took the graves of their Prophets as places of prostration was terrible."
A bedouin with unkempt hair came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Tell me what Allah has enjoined on me as regards prayers." The Prophet said, "You have to offer perfectly the five (compulsory) prayers in a day and a night (24 hrs.), except if you want to perform some extra optional prayers." The bedouin said, "Tell me what Allah has enjoined on me as regards fasting." The Prophet said, "You have to observe fast during the month of Ramadan except if you fast some extra optional fast." The bedouin said, "Tell me what Allah has enjoined on me as regards Zakat." The Prophet then told him the Islamic laws and regulations whereupon the bedouin said, "By Him Who has honored you, I will not perform any optional deeds of worship and I will not leave anything of what Allah has enjoined on me." Allah's Apostle said, "He will be successful if he has told the truth (or he will enter Paradise if he said the truth)." And some people said, "The Zakat for one-hundred and twenty camels is two Hiqqas, and if the Zakat payer slaughters the camels intentionally or gives them as a present or plays some other trick in order to avoid the Zakat, then there is no harm (in it) for him."
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "One of the signs of the approach of the last hour will be the destruction of the Arabs."
Tirmidhi transmitted it.
I saw the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) wiping his head once up to his nape.
Rabi'ah ibn al-Hudayr said: I did not hear Talhah ibn Ubaydullah narrating any tradition from the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) except one tradition. I (Rabi'ah ibn AbuAbdurRahman) asked: What is that? He said: We went out along with the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) who was going to visit the graves of the martyrs. When we ascended Harrah Waqim, and then descended from it, we found there some graves at the turning of the valley. We asked: Apostle of Allah, are these the graves of our brethren? He replied: Graves of our companions. When we came to the graves of martyrs, he said: These are the graves of our brethren.
Salim al-Makki said that a bedouin told him that he brought a milch she-camel in the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). He alighted with Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (and wanted to sell his milch animal to him). He said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade a townsman to sell for a man from the desert. But go to the market and see who buys from you. consult me thereafter, and then I shall ask you (to sell) or forbid you.
On seeing a new moon, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would supplicate: Allah, do Thou cause the appearance of this moon to be a harbinger of peace, faith, security and Islam for us. Thy Lord, O moon, and mine is Allah. May this be a moon presaging guidance and good.
Transmitted by Tirmidhi.
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw the new moon he said, "O Allah, make the new moon rise on us with security, faith, safety and Islam. My Lord and Your Lord is Allah."
Tirmidhi transmitted it, saying this is a hasan gharib tradition.
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When one of you places in front of him something such as the back of a saddle, he should pray without caring who passes on the other side of it.
We used to say prayer and the animals moved in front of us. We mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and he said: If anything equal to the back of a saddle is in front of you, then what walks in front, no harm would come to him. Ibn Numayr said: No harm would come whosoever walks in front.
AbdurRahman ibn Uthman at-Taymi reported on the authority of his father; While we were with Talhah ibn Ubaydullah and were in the state of Ihram we were presented a (cooked) bird. Talhah was sleeping. Some of us ate it and some of us refrained from (eating) it. When Talhah awoke he agreed with him who ate it, and said: We ate it along with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).
I and Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) happened to pass by people near the date-palm trees. He (the Prophet) said: What are these people doing? They said: They are grafting, i.e. they combine the male with the female (tree) and thus they yield more fruit. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: I do not find it to be of any use. The people were informed about it and they abandoned this practice. Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) (was later) on informed (that the yield had dwindled), whereupon he said: If there is any use of it, then they should do it, for it was just a personal opinion of mine, and do not go after my personal opinion, but when I say to you anything on behalf of Allah, then do accept it, for I do not attribute lie to Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Every prophet has a companion, and my companion (i.e. in Paradise) will be Uthman,"
Tirmidhi transmitted it, and Ibn Majah transmitted it on AbuHurayrah's authority. Tirmidhi said this is a gharib tradition whose isnad is not strong, and is broken.
We came upon the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him). A man came to him: he seemed to be a bedouin. He said: Prophet of Allah, what do you think about a man who touches his penis after performing ablution? He (peace be upon him) replied: That is only a part of his body.
Qays ibn Talq said: Talq ibn Ali visited us on a certain day during Ramadan. He remained with us till evening and broke fast with us. He then stood up and led us in the witr prayer. He then went to his mosque and led them in prayer. When the witr remained, he put forward another man and said: Lead your companions in the witr prayer, for I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) as saying: There are no two witrs during one night.
We went as a deputation to Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) and took the oath of allegiance to him, observed prayer with him and informed him that there was a cloister (church) for us in our land. We requested him to confer upon us the water left after his ablution. He called for water, performed ablution, rinsed his mouth, poured the water for us into a second vessel, and then commanded us: Now depart and when you come to your land demolish the cloister, wash its place with this water and use it as a mosque. We said: The land is far off and the heat is scorching, so water will dry up. Whereupon he said: Increase it (by adding to it) more water and it will not add to it but blessings.
Transmitted by Nasa'i.
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "When a man calls his wife to satisfy his desire she must go to him even if she is occupied at the oven."
Tirmidhi transmitted it.
We came to the Prophet (peace be upon him), and a man came and said: Prophet of Allah, what do you say if one prays in a single garment? The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then took off his wrapper and combined it with his sheet, and put it on them. He got up and the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) led us in prayer. When he finished the prayer, he said: Does every one of you have two garments?
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Eat and drink; let not the white and ascending light prevent you from (eating and drinking); so eat and drink until the red light spreads horizontally.
Tamim asked: Apostle of Allah), what is the sunnah about a man who accepts Islam by advice and persuasion of a Muslim? He replied: He is the nearest to him in life and in death.
Tamim reported this tradition from the Prophet (peace be upon him) as (Hadith No 863). This version adds: Then zakat will be considered in a similar way. Then all the actions will be considered accordingly.
Tamim asked Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) what the sunnah was about a polytheist who accepts Islam by the advice and persuasion of a Muslim, and he replied that he was the nearest to him in life and in death.
Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Darimi transmitted it.
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) observed: Ad-Din is a name of sincerity and well-wishing. Upon this we said: For whom? He replied: for Allah, His Book, His Messenger and for the leaders and the general Muslims.
A man said to his wife: O my younger sister! The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him)said: Is she your sister? He (the Prophet disliked it and prohibited saying so.
I saw Safwan and Jundab and Safwan's companions when Jundab was advising. They said, "Did you hear something from Allah's Apostle?" Jundab said, "I heard him saying, 'Whoever does a good deed in order to show off, Allah will expose his intentions on the Day of Resurrection (before the people), and whoever puts the people into difficulties, Allah will put him into difficulties on the Day of Resurrection.' " The people said (to Jundab), "Advise us." He said, "The first thing of the human body to purify is the abdomen, so he who can eat nothing but good food (Halal and earned lawfully) should do so, and he who does as much as he can that nothing intervene between him and Paradise by not shedding even a handful of blood, (i.e. murdering) should do so."
(The tree where the Ridwan Pledge of allegiance was taken by the Prophet) was mentioned before Said bin Al-Musaiyab. On that he smiled and said, "My father informed me (about it) and he had witnessed it (i.e. the Pledge)."
'Abdullah said, "The best talk is Allah's Book (Qur'an), and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad."
When I set out for Hajj, I passed by some people offering a prayer, I asked, "What is this mosque?" They said, "This is the Tree where Allah's Apostle took the Ar-Ridwan Pledge of allegiance." Then I went to Sa'id bin Musaiyab and informed him about it. Said said, "My father said that he was amongst those who had given the Pledge of allegiance to Allah's Apostle beneath the Tree. He (i.e. my father) said, 'When we set out the following year, we forgot the Tree and were unable to recognize it.' " Then Said said (perhaps ironically), "The companions of the Prophet could not recognize it; nevertheless, you do recognize it; therefore you have a better knowledge."
Some Jews said, "Had this Verse been revealed to us, we would have taken that day as 'Id (festival)." 'Umar said, "What Verse?" They said: "This day I have Perfected your religion for you, Completed My Favor upon you And have chosen for you Islam as your religion" (5.3) 'Umar said, "I know the place where it was revealed; It was revealed while Allah's Apostle was staying at 'Arafat."
The Jews said to 'Umar, "You (i.e. Muslims) recite a Verse, and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken the day of its revelation as a day of celebration." 'Umar said, "I know very well when and where it was revealed, and where Allah's Apostle was when it was revealed. (It was revealed on) the day of Arafat (Hajj Day), and by Allah, I was at Arafat." Sufyan, a sub-narrator said: I am in doubt whether the Verse: "This day I have perfected your religion for you," was revealed on a Friday or not.
Abu Bakr said to the delegate of Buzakha, "Follow the tails of the camels till Allah shows the Caliph (successor) of His Prophet and Al-Muhajirin (emigrants) something because of which you may excuse yourselves."
A Jew said to 'Umar, "O Chief of the Believers, if this verse: 'This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favors upon you, and have chosen for you, Islam as your religion.' (5.3) had been revealed upon us, we would have taken that day as an 'Id (festival) day." 'Umar said, "I know definitely on what day this Verse was revealed; it was revealed on the day of 'Arafat, on a Friday."
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The Friday prayer in congregation is a necessary duty for every Muslim, with four exceptions; a slave, a woman, a boy, and a sick person.
Wa'il said: Tariq ibn Suwayd or Suwayd ibn Tariq asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about wine, but he forbade it. He again asked him, but he forbade him. He said to him: Prophet of Allah, it is a medicine. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: No it is a disease.