The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) announced an expedition, and I was a very old man and I had no servant. I, therefore, sought a hireling who would serve instead of me, and I would give him his portion. So I found a man. When the time of departure arrived, he came to me and said: I do not know what would be the portions, and how much would be my portion. So offer something (as wages) to me, whether there would be any portion or not. I offered three dinars (as his wages) for him. When some booty arrived, I wanted to offer him his portion. But I remembered the dinars, so I went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and mentioned the matter to him. He said: All I can find for him regarding this expedition of his in this world and the next is three dinars which were offered him.
Ya'la told of hearing Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) say, "If anyone seizes land to which he has no right he will be made to carry its earth at the Resurrection."
Ahmad transmitted it.
Ya'la told of hearing Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) say, "If anyone wrongly takes a span of land, Allah, Who is Great and Glorious, will make him dig it till he gets to the end of seven earths, and then he will have it tied round his neck till the Day of Resurrection when men are judged."
Ahmad transmitted it.
When the Prophet saw some khaluq on him (Ya'la) he asked whether he had a wife, and when he replied that he had not he said, "Wash it, then wash it, then wash it, and do not use it again."
Tirmidhi and Nasa'i transmitted it.
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Husayn pertains to me and I to him. May Allah love him who loves Husayn! Husayn is a grandson."
Tirmidhi transmitted it.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Hoarding up food (to sell it at a high price) in the sacred territory is a deviation (from right to wrong).
A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) when he was at al-Ji'ranah. He was wearing perfume or the mark of saffron was on him and he was wearing a tunic. He said: Apostle of Allah, what do you command me to do while performing my Umrah. In the meantime, Allah, the Exalted, sent a revelation to the Prophet (peace be upon him). When he (the Prophet) came to himself gradually, he asked: Where is the man who asking about umrah? (When the man came) he (the Prophet) said: Wash the perfume which is on you, or he said: (Wash) the mark of saffron (the narrator is doubtful), take off the tunic, then do in your umrah as you do in your hajj.
The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said to me: When my messengers come to you, give them thirty coats of mail, and thirty camels. I asked: Apostle of Allah, is it a loan with a guarantee of its return, or a loan to be paid back? He replied : It is a loan to be paid back.
I asked Aba Salama, "Which Sura of the Qur'an was revealed first?" He replied, "O you, wrapped-up' (Al-Muddaththir)." I said, "I have been informed that it was, 'Read, in the Name of your Lord who created...(i.e. Surat Al-Alaq).' "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Amr ibn Yahya al-Mazini from Abu'l-Hubab Said ibn Yasar that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, praying on a donkey while heading towards Khaybar."
Humaid said, "A man peeped into the house of the Prophet and the Prophet aimed an arrow head at him to hit him." I asked, "Who told you that?" He said, "Anas bin Malik" (See Hadith No. 258 and 259, Vol. 8)
A person asked 'Abdullah bin Zaid who was the grandfather of 'Amr bin Yahya, "Can you show me how Allah's Apostle used to perform ablution?" 'Abdullah bin Zaid replied in the affirmative and asked for water. He poured it on his hands and washed them twice, then he rinsed his mouth thrice and washed his nose with water thrice by putting water in it and blowing it out. He washed his face thrice and after that he washed his forearms up to the elbows twice and then passed his wet hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa (beginning from the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck and then brought them to the front again from where he had started) and washed his feet (up to the ankles).
"Some of my companions told me that Hisham had said, 'When the Mu'adhdhin said, "Haiya alas-sala(t) (come for the prayer)." ' Muawiya said, "La hawla wala quwata illa billah (There is neither might nor any power except with Allah)" and added, "We heard your Prophet saying the same."
I asked Aba Salama bin 'Abdur-Rahman about the first Sura revealed of the Qur'an. He replied "O you, wrapped-up (i.e. Al Muddaththir)." I said, "They say it was, 'Read, in the Name of your Lord Who created,' (i.e. Surat Al-'Alaq (the Clot))." On that, Abu Salama said, "I asked Jabir bin 'Abdullah about that, saying the same as you have said, whereupon he said, 'I will not tell you except what Allah's Apostle had told us. Allah's Apostle said, "I was in seclusion in the cave of Hiram', and after I completed the limited period of my seclusion. I came down (from the cave) and heard a voice calling me. I looked to my right, but saw nothing. Then I looked up and saw something. So I went to Khadija (the Prophet's wife) and told her to wrap me up and pour cold water on me. So they wrapped me up and poured cold water on me." Then, 'O you, (Muhammad) wrapped up! Arise and warn,' (Surat Al Muddaththir) was revealed." (74.1)
I heard Anas saying, "We traveled with the Prophet from Medina to Mecca and offered two Rakat (for every prayer) till we returned to Medina." I said, "Did you stay for a while in Mecca?" He replied, "We stayed in Mecca for ten days."
One may choose between praying them all together or to separate them. 'Aishah says: "The Messenger of Allah never prayed more than eleven rak'at, during Ramadan or otherwise. He would pray four rak'at, and don't ask about how excellent they were or how lengthy they were. Then, he would pray four rak'at, and don't ask about how excellent they were or how lengthy they were. Then, he would pray three rak'at. I asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, do you sleep before praying witr?' he replied: 'O 'Aishah, my eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep."' This is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim who also record that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said that he heard 'Aishah say: "The Messenger of Allah's prayer during the night would be ten rak'at and then he would make witr with one rak'ah."
Muslim records that 'Aishah said: "If the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam missed the late-night prayers due to pain or anything else, he would pray twelve rak'at during the day."
'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever sleeps past his full portion [of the late-night prayers] or part of them, he should pray between the dawn and noon prayers and it would be recorded for him as if he had prayed during the night." This is related by the group except for al-Bukhari.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was invited to eat, and some bread and meat was brought to him. He ate some of it, and then did wudu and prayed. Then more of the same food was brought and he ate some more and then prayed without doing wudu.
I asked 'Amra about taking a bath on Fridays. She replied, "'Aisha said, 'The people used to work (for their livelihood) and whenever they went for the Jumua prayer, they used to go to the mosque in the same shape as they had been in work. So they were asked to take a bath on Friday.' "
Once the Prophet called the Ansar in order to grant them part of the land of Bahrain. On that they said, "No! By Allah, we will not accept it unless you grant a similar thing to our Quraish brothers as well." He said, "That will be theirs if Allah wishes." But when the Ansar persisted in their request, he said, "After me you will see others given preference over you in this respect (in which case) you should be patient till you meet me at the Tank (of Al-Kauthar)."
That he heard Anas bin Malik when he went with him to Al-Walid, saying, -Once the Prophet called the Ansar in order to give them the territory of Bahrain. They said, 'No, unless you give to our emigrant brethren a similar share.' On that he said 'If you do not agree to it, then be patient till you meet me, for after me others will be given preference to you.' "
I learnt from Malik, "...a fruitful property."
I heard the Prophet reciting when on the pulpit: "They will cry, 'O Malik (Keeper of Hell) Let your Lord make an end of us.' " (43.77)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'n Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Ubaydullah, that Abu Murra, the mawla of Aqil ibn Abi Talib, told him that he had heard Umm Hani bint Abi Talib say, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the year of the conquest and found him doing ghusl while his daughter Fatima, was screening him with a garment. I said to him, 'Peace be upon you' and he said, 'Who is that?' I replied, 'Umm Hani bint Abi Talib,' and he said, 'Welcome, Umm Hani!' When he had finished his ghusl, he stood and prayed eight rakas, covering himself with one garment, and then came away. I said, 'Messenger of Allah, the son of my mother, AIi, says that he is determined to kill so-and-so, son of Hubayra, a man I have placed under my protection.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'We give protection to whoever you have given protection to, Umm Hani.' "
Umm Hani related that this incident happened in the morning.
I went out in one of the Ghazwa and a man bit another man and as a result, an incisor tooth of the former was pulled out. The Prophet cancelled the case.
I fought in Jaish-al-Usra (Ghazwa of Tabuk) along with the Prophet and in my opinion that was the best of my deeds. Then I had an employee, who quarrelled with someone and one of the them bit and cut the other's finger and caused his own tooth to fall out. He then went to the Prophet (with a complaint) but the Prophet canceled the suit and said to the complainant, "Did you expect him to let his finger in your mouth so that you might snap and cut it (as does a stallion camel)?"
Narrated Ibn Juraij from Abdullah bin Abu Mulaika from his grandfather a similar story: A man bit the hand of another man and caused his own tooth to fall out, but Abu Bakr judged that he had no right for compensation (for the broken tooth).
We have discussed so far the distribution of zakah and the categories of people eligible to receive it. Now we will talk about those who are forbidden to receive it. They are:
The jurists agree that unbelievers and atheists are not to be given zakah. In the hadith which says: "Zakah is taken from the rich and given back to the poor," "the rich" refers to rich Muslims while "the poor" indicates poor Muslims. Ibn al-Mundhir said that all scholars agree that the free nonMuslim subject (dhimmi) is not entitled to zakah. Exceptions to the rule are those people whose hearts are leaning toward Islam. However, it is permissible to give a dhimmi from the nonobligatory charity (tatawwu'). Alluding to the characteristics of the belivers, the Qur'an says: "And for His love, they feed the indigent, orphan, and captive" (ad-Dahr: 8.. This is also supported by the following hadith: "Be kind to your mother." The woman in this case was an unbeliever.
This includes the families of 'Ali, Ja'far, al'Abbas, and al-Harith. Ibn Qudamah says there are no two opinions on the ineligibility of Banu Hashim to receive zakah. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, declared: "Indeed, sadaqah ought not to be given to the family of Muhammad ..." Muslim related it. Abu Hurairah reported that when al-Hasan took one date from the sadaqah dates, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said to him: "Nay, spit it out! Don't you know that we cannot eat from charity?" Scholars agree on the authenticity of this hadith. As to the eligibility of Banu al-Muttalib for zakah, the scholars differ.
Ash-Shaf'i holds that like Banu Hashim they are disallowed to take zakah. Ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, and al-Bukhari relate from Jubair ibn Mut'im who said: "At the battle of Khaibar, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, set aside the share of the relatives of the families of Banu Hashim and Banu al-Muttalib and left out the shares of Banu Nawfal and Banu 'Abd Shams. I and 'Uthman ibn 'Affan came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and said to him: 'O Messenger of Allah! Do not deny Banu Hashim the grace of their position because Allah placed you among them. How about our brothers Banu al-Muttalib? You gave them and left us out? Isn't our relationship one and the same?' The Prophet, upon whom be peace, answered: 'I and Banu al-Muttalib are not to be separated either during jahiliyyah or Islam. We and they are one.' Then he joined his fingers [in demonstrating the close relationship]." Reason dictates that one should not differentiate between them (the two families) in any matter of law because they are one according to the saying of the Prophet. It is evident that they are the family of Muhammad, and therefore, sadaqat are forbidden to them. Abu Hanifah holds that the family of Banu al-Muttalib may take from zakah. Both these reports are related by Ahmad. Just as the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, made charity unlawful for the family of Banu Hashim, he also made it unlawful for their proteges (mawla). Abu Rafi', a protege of the Prophet, said that the latter appointed a man from the family of Banu Makhzum to collect sadaqat. This man said to Abu Rafi': "Accompany me so that you may get some of it." He said: "No, until I meet the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and ask him." He left and asked him. The Prophet answered: "Sadaqah is not lawful for us--and the proteges of a certain tribe are like [the members of the tribe] themselves." Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi related it. The latter grades it good (hassan) and sound (sahih).
Whether nonobligatory charity (tatawwu') is lawful for the family of the Prophet or not, scholars differ. Ash-Shaukani, having summarized the views on the issue, says: "The apparent meaning of the Prophet's hadith, 'Sadaqah is unlawful for us,' is the unlawfulness of the obligatory as well as nonobligatory sadaqat." A group of scholars, including al-Khattabi, says that its prohibition for the Prophet, upon whom be peace, carries consensus. Based on ashShaf'i's report, many others have ruled that the prohibition of zakah to the Prophet does not include the nonobligatory charity. A report from Ahmad equally says so but Ibn Qudamah rejects all these reports for lack of clear evidence.
As for the family of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, the vast majority of the Hanafiyyah, the Shaf'iyyah, the Hanbaliyyah, and the majority of the Zaidiyyah hold that nonobligatory sadaqah is permissible for them but not the obligatory one, since to them the latter is nothing but filth that comes out from people's holdings. This is understood to mean that the (prescribed) zakah and not the nonobligatory sadaqat, are forbidden to them. It is said in alBahr that nonobligatory sadaqah is restricted by being confined to a donation, gift, or endowment. Abu Yusuf and Abu al-'Abbas maintain that it is unlawful for them, as is the prescribed charity, because there is no evidence of the contrary.
Malik related to me from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wore a fine striped garment f rom Syria, and then gave it to Abu Jahm and took a plain, rough, garment in return. Abu Jahm asked, "Messenger of Allah! Why?" He said, "I looked at its stripes in the prayer."
While I was with Allah's Apostle there came to him a man wearing a cloak having a trace of yellowish perfume or a similar thing on it. 'Umar used to say to me, "Would you like to see the Prophet at the time when he is inspired divinely?" So, it happened that he was inspired (then) and when the inspiration was over the Prophet said (to that man), "Do in your 'Umra the same as you do in your Hajj." A man bit the hand of another man but in that process the latter broke one incisor tooth of the former, and the Prophet forgave the latter.
I participated in the Ghazwa of Tabuk along with Allah's Apostle and I gave a young camel to be ridden in Jihad and that was, to me, one of my best deeds. Then I employed a laborer who quarrelled with another person. One of them bit the hand of the other and the latter drew his hand from the mouth of the former pulling out his front tooth. Then the former instituted a suit against the latter before the Prophet who rejected that suit saying, "Do you expect him to put out his hand for you to snap as a male camel snaps (vegetation)?"
I heard the Prophet reciting the following verse on the pulpit: "They will call: O Mali..." and Sufyan said that 'Abdullah recited it: "They will call: O Mali..." (43.77).
That he heard the Prophet on the pulpit reciting:
"They will cry: 'O Malik!' " (43.77) (Malik is the gate-keeper (angel) of the (Hell) Fire.)
(as above, Hadith 224) using the words: "will make his brain boil."
(the Maula of Munba'ith) The Prophet was asked regarding the case of a lost sheep. He said, "You should take it, because it is for you, or for your brother, or for the wolf." Then he was asked about a lost camel. He got angry and his face became red and he said (to the questioner), "You have nothing to do with it; it has its feet and its water container with it; it can go on drinking water and eating trees till its owner meets it." And then the Prophet was asked about a Luqata (money found by somebody). He said, "Remember and recognize its tying material and its container, and make public announcement about it for one year. If somebody comes and identifies it (then give it to him), otherwise add it to your property."
I said to Salama, "For what did you give the Pledge of allegiance to the Prophet on the Day of Hudaibiya?" He replied, "For death."
I said to Salama bin Al-Akwa, "For what did you give the Pledge of allegiance to Allah's Apostle on the day of Al-Hudaibiya?" He replied, "For death (in the Cause of Islam)."
I saw the trace of a wound in Salama's leg. I said to him, "O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?" He said, "This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, 'Salama has been wounded.' Then I went to the Prophet and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice, and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour."
Salama bin Al-Akwa' said, "I fought in seven Ghazwat along with the Prophet." He then mentioned Khaibar, Al-Hudaibiya, the day (i.e. battle) of Hunain and the day of Al-Qurad. I forgot the names of the other Ghazwat.
I used to accompany Salama bin Al-Akwa' and he used to pray behind the pillar which was near the place where the Qur'an's were kept I said, "O Abu Muslim! I see you always seeking to pray behind this pillar." He replied, "I saw Allah's Apostle always seeking to pray near that pillar."
'Aisha said that the Prophet said to her, "O Aisha! Were your nation not close to the pre-Islamic period of Ignorance, I would have had the Ka'ba demolished and would have included in it the portion which had been left, and would have made it at a level with the ground and would have made two doors for it, one towards the east and the other towards the west, and then by doing this it would have been built on the foundations laid by Abraham." That was what urged Ibn-Az-Zubair to demolish the Ka'ba. Jazz said, "I saw Ibn-Az-Zubair when he demolished and rebuilt the Ka'ba and included in it a portion of Al-Hijr (the unroofed portion of Ka'ba which is at present in the form of a compound towards the northwest of the Ka'ba). I saw the original foundations of Abraham which were of stones resembling the humps of camels." So Jarir asked Yazid, "Where was the place of those stones?" Jazz said, "I will just now show it to you." So Jarir accompanied Yazid and entered Al-Hijr, and Jazz pointed to a place and said, "Here it is." Jarir said, "It appeared to me about six cubits from Al-Hijr or so."
Salama said, "I gave the pledge of allegiance (Al-Ridwan) to Allah's Apostle and then I moved to the shade of a tree. When the number of people around the Prophet diminished, he said, O Ibn Al-Akwa! Will you not give to me the pledge of allegiance?' I replied, 'O Allah's Apostle! I have already given to you the pledge of allegiance.' He said, 'Do it again.' So I gave the pledge of allegiance for the second time." I asked 'O Abu Muslim! For what did you give he pledge of allegiance on that day?" He replied, "We gave the pledge of allegiance for death."
We were at Mirbad. A man with dishevelled hair and holding a piece of red skin in his hand came. We said: You appear to be a bedouin. He said: Yes. We said: Give us this piece of skin in your hand. He then gave it to us and we read it. It contained the text: "From Muhammad, Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him), to Banu Zuhayr ibn Uqaysh. If you bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, offer prayer, pay zakat, pay the fifth from the booty, and the portion of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his special portion (safi), you will be under by the protection of Allah and His Apostle." We then asked: Who wrote this document for you? He replied: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him).
Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al-Aswad reported on the authority of his father: I prayed behind the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). When he finished the prayer, he would turn (his face from the direction of the Ka'bah).
Yazid prayed along with the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) when he was a young boy. When he (the Prophet) had prayed there were two persons (sitting) in the corner of the mosque; they did not pray (along with the Prophet). He called for them. They were brought trembling (before him). He asked: What prevented you from praying along with us? They replied: We have already prayed in our houses. He said: Do not do so. If any of you prays in his house and finds that the imam has not prayed, he should pray along with him; and that will be a supererogatory prayer for him.