We were sitting with Abu Musa Al-Ash'sari, and as there were ties of friendship and mutual favors between us and his tribe. His meal was presented before him and there was chicken meat in it. Among those who were present there was a man from Bani Taimillah having a red complexion as a non-Arab freed slave, and that man did not approach the meal. Abu Musa said to him, "Come along! I have seen Allah's Apostle eating of that (i.e., chicken)." The man said, "I have seen it (chickens) eating something I regarded as dirty, and so I have taken an oath that I shall not eat (its meat) chicken." Abu Musa said, "Come along! I will inform you about it (i.e., your oath).
Once we went to Allah's Apostle in company with a group of Ash'airiyin, asking him for mounts while he was distributing some camels from the camels of Zakat. (Aiyub said, "I think he said that the Prophet was in an angry mood at the time)." The Prophet said, 'By Allah! I will not give you mounts, and I have nothing to mount you on.' After we had left, some camels of booty were brought to Allah's Apostle and he said, 'Where are those Ash'ariyin? Where are those Ash'ariyin?' So we went (to him) and he gave us five very fat good-looking camels. We mounted them and went away, and then I said to my companions, 'We went to Allah's Apostle to give us mounts, but he took an oath that he would not give us mounts, and then later on he sent for us and gave us mounts, perhaps Allah's Apostle forgot his oath. By Allah, we will never be successful, for we have taken advantage of the fact that Allah's Apostle forgot to fulfill his oath. So let us return to Allah's Apostle to remind him of his oath.' We returned and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! We came to you and asked you for mounts, but you took an oath that you would not give us mounts) but later on you gave us mounts, and we thought or considered that you have forgotten your oath.' The Prophet said, 'Depart, for Allah has given you Mounts. By Allah, Allah willing, if I take an oath and then later find another thing better than that, I do what is better, and make expiation for the oath.' "
'Imran bin Hussain said, "The Prophet said, 'The best of you (people) are my generation, and the second best will be those who will follow them, and then those who will follow the second generation." Imran added, "I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three (generations) after his generation." He added, "Then will come some people who will make vows but will not fulfill them; and they will be dishonest and will not be trustworthy, and they will give their witness without being asked to give their witness, and fatness will appear among them."
'Imran bin Husain said: The Prophet said, "The best people are my contemporaries (i.e., the present (my) generation) and then those who come after them (i.e., the next generation)." Imran added: I am not sure whether the Prophet repeated the statement twice after his first saying. The Prophet added, "And after them there will come people who will bear witness, though they will not be asked to give their witness; and they will be treacherous and nobody will trust them, and they will make vows, but will not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them."
I heard Imran bin Husain saying, "The Prophet said, 'The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation).' " Imran said "I do not know whether the Prophet mentioned two or three generations after your present generation. The Prophet added, 'There will be some people after you, who will be dishonest and will not be trustworthy and will give witness (evidences) without being asked to give witness, and will vow but will not fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."
(who was one of those who had witnessed (the Pledge of allegiance beneath) the Tree) While I was making fire beneath the cooking pots containing donkey's meat, the announcer of Allah's Apostle announced, "Allah's Apostle forbids you to eat donkey's meat."
The same narration was told by Majzaa from a man called Uhban bin Aus who was one of those who had witnessed (the Pledge of allegiance beneath) the Tree., and who had some trouble in his knee so that while doing prostrations, he used to put a pillow underneath his knee.
Same as above (Hadith 397).
Many scholars hold it to be permissible for one to set a condition when entering the state of ihram that one will be relieved of it if one fell ill. Muslim has reported from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) told Daba'ah, "Perform Hajj but set a condition that you shall be relieved of the ihram whenever you are prevented (due to illness, etc.,)."
ln such a case if a pilgrim is prevented from performing Hajj or 'Umrah for any reason, illness or something else, he may terminate his state of ihram and not be required to slaughter any animal, or fast in atonement.
In the pre-lslamic period the Arabs used to cover the Ka'bah with a cloth covering. When Islam prevailed it retained this tradition. Al-Waqidi has stated that Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Abu Habibah reported from his father that in the Days of Ignorance the Ka'bah was covered with rugs made of red skin. Later on the Prophet (peace be upon him) covered it with Yemeni cloth, while 'Umar and 'Uthman covered it with an Egyptian white cloth, Qabati. Hajjaj covered it with silk brocade. The first one to cover it was a man from Tubba' of Yemen called As'ad al-Himairi.
Ibn 'Umar used to choose the best and most expensive Qabati, Egyptian cloth, and send it as covering for the Ka'bah. This is reported by Malik.
Al-Waqidi has also reported from Ishaq bin Abu Abd bin Abu Ja'far Mohammad bin Ali that he said, "The people used to send cloth coverings for the Ka'bah, and likewise they sent to it sacrificial camels loaded with Yemeni cloth."
Yazid bin Mu'awiyah covered it in silk brocade, and so did Ibn Az-Zubair afterwards. He used to delegate Mus'ab bin Az-Zubair to send a covering for the Ka'bah which was changed on 'Ashura (the 10th of Muharram).
Sa'id bin Mansur has reported that "Umar bin Al-Khattab used to take down the old cover of Ka'bah, every year, cut it into pieces, and distribute them among the pilgrims who used them as shelter from the heat of Makkah.
The Ansar said, "O Allah's Apostle! Every prophet has his own followers and we have followed you. So will you invoke Allah to let our followers be considered from us (as Ansar too)?" So he invoked Allah accordingly.
In the lifetime of the Prophet we used to speak while praying, and one of us would tell his needs to his companions, till the verse, 'Guard strictly your prayers '(2.238) was revealed. After that we were ordered to remain silent while praying.
The Prophet fought nineteen Ghazwas and performed only one Hajj after he migrated (to Medina), and did not perform another Hajj after it, and that was Hajj-ul-Wada'. Abu Ishaq said, "He performed when he was in Mecca."
We used to speak while in prayer. One of us used to speak to his brother (while in prayer) about his need, till the Verse was revealed:
"Guard strictly the (five obligatory) prayers, especially the middle (the Best) (Asr) Prayer and stand before Allah with obedience (and not to speak to others during the prayers)." Then we were ordered not to speak in the prayers.
While I was taking part in a Ghazwa, I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Abi Salul) saying, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away from him. If we return (to Medina), surely, the more honorable will expel the meaner amongst them." I reported that (saying) to my uncle or to 'Umar who, in his turn, informed the Prophet of it. The Prophet called me and I narrated to him the whole story. Then Allah's Apostle sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions, and they took an oath that they did not say that. So Allah's Apostle disbelieved my saying and believed his. I was distressed as I never was before. I stayed at home and my uncle said to me, "You just wanted Allah's Apostle to disbelieve your statement and hate you." So Allah revealed (the Sura beginning with) "When the hypocrites come to you." (63.1) The Prophet then sent for me and recited it and said, "O Zaid! Allah confirmed your statement."
I was with my uncle and I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, saying, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle that they may disperse and go away from him." He also said, "If we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel the meaner." So I informed my uncle of that and then my uncle informed Allah's Apostle thereof. Allah's Apostle sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions. They swore that they did not say anything of that sort. Allah's Apostle deemed their statement true and rejected mine. Thereof I became as distressed as I have never been before, and stayed at home. Then Allah revealed (Surat Al-Munafiqin):
"When the hypocrites come to you..." (63.1) "They are the ones who say: Spend nothing on those who are with Allah's Apostle..." (63.7) Verily the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner..." (63.7-8)
Allah's Apostle sent for me and recited that Sura for me and said, "Allah has confirmed your statement." "That is because they believed, then disbelieved, so a seal was set on their hearts, therefore they understand not." (63.3)
When 'Abdullah bin Ubai said, "Do not spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle," and also said, "If we return to Medina," I informed the Prophet of his saying. The Ansar blamed me for that, and 'Abdullah bin Ubai swore that he did not say. I returned to my house and slept. Allah's Apostle then called me and I went to him. He said, "Allah has confirmed your statement." The Verse: "They are the ones who say: Spend nothing..." (63.7) was revealed.
We went out with the Prophet on a journey and the people suffered from lack of provisions. So 'Abdullah bin Ubai said to his companions, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away from him." He also said, "If we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner. So I went to the Prophet and informed him of that. He sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and asked him, but 'Abdullah bin Ubai swore that he did not say so. The people said, "Zaid told a lie to 'Allah's Apostle." What they said distressed me very much. Later Allah revealed the confirmation of my statement in his saying:
"(When the hypocrites come to you." (63.1) So the Prophet called them that they might ask Allah to forgive them, but they turned their heads aside. (Concerning Allah's saying: "Pieces of wood propped up," Zaid said, "They were the most handsome men.")
While I was with my uncle, I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul saying, "Do not spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away (from him). And if we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner." I mentioned that to my uncle who, in turn, mentioned it to the Prophet. The Prophet called me and I told him about that. Then he sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions, and they swore that they did not say so. The Prophet disbelieved my statement and believed theirs. I was distressed as I have never been before, and I remained in my house. My uncle said to me, "You just wanted the Prophet to consider you a liar and hate you." Then Allah revealed:
"When the hypocrites come to you, they say: 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Apostle of Allah.' " (63.1) So the Prophet sent for me and recited it and said, "Allah has confirmed your statement."
My father said, "Allah's Apostle was proceeding at night on one of his journeys and 'Umar bin Al-Khattab was going along with him. 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked him (about something) but Allah's Apostle did not answer him. 'Umar asked him again, but he did not answer him. He asked him again (for the third time) but he did not answer him. On that Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed himself saying, "May your mother be bereaved of you, O 'Umar, for you have asked Allah's Apostle thrice, yet he has not answered you." 'Umar said, "Then I made my camel run fast and took it in front of the other Muslims, and I was afraid that something might be revealed in my connection. I had hardly waited for a moment when I heard somebody calling me. I said, 'I was afraid that something might have been revealed about me.' Then I came to Allah's Apostle and greeted him. He (i.e. the Prophet) said, 'Tonight there has been revealed to me, a Sura which is dearer to me than (all the world) on which the sun rises,' and then he recited: 'Verily! We have granted you (O Muhammad) A manifest victory.' (48.1)"
As soon as palm trees and grapevines ripen and their produce is ready to be picked, an estimation of their nisab is made without their actual weighing. The process is carried out by a knowledgeable and trustworthy person who estimates the amount of fresh grapes and dates still on the trees for zakah as if they were dry dates and raisins. The arnount of zakah is, however, payable when the fruit becomes dry.
Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi related: "We went on the expedition of Tabuk with the Prophet, upon whom be peace. When we arrived at Wadi al-Qura, we saw a woman in her orchard. The Prophet said: 'Let us estimate [her zakah].' Then the Messenger, upon whom be peace, estimated ten awsuq and told her: '[The amount of zakah] has been calculated on your [orchard's] produce.' " This is narrated by alBukhari.
This is the practice of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and his companions and the scholars observed it.
The Hanafiyyah have different views because they consider conjecture to be uncertain, and therefore, of no use in determining the amount owed. Still, the tradition of the Messenger of Allah is a better guide ('adha) because conjecture is not guessing; it is a diligent attempt to estimate the amount of the produce. It is the same as estimating the amount of the produce lost (because of its being rotten or moth-ridden). The basis for conjecture rests on the custom that people eat fresh fruits, and as such, there is no need for calculating the amount of zakah before it is eaten or plucked. In this way, the owners are allowed to do what they want and, at the same time, to determine the amount of zakah. The appraiser should ignore a third or a fourth of the produce as a reprieve for the property owners since they, their guests, and their neighbors need to eat some of it. Also, the produce is exposed to such perils as birds feeding, passers-by plucking, and wind blowing. Any appraisal of the amount of zakah on all of the produce without excluding a third or a fourth of it (for the preceding reasons) would have militated against the genuine interests of the owners.
Sahl ibn Abu Hathamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whenever you conjecture, estimate the [zakah] and ignore one-third. If you do not, then leave [at least] one-fourth." This is narrated by Ahmad and the authors of Sunan, except for Ibn Majah. It was also reported by al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban, and they both authenticated it. Commenting on the status of the report, atTirmidhi says: "The hadith reported by Sahl is the one enacted or followed by most scholars." Bashir ibn Yassar said: "When 'Umar ibn al-Khattab appointed Abu Hathamah al-Ansari to estimate the property of Muslims, he told him: 'Whenever you see that the people have left some dates unplucked for autumn, leave them for the people to eat, and do not estimate the zakah on them.' "
Makhul said: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, assigned someone to estimate, he would say: 'Be easy on the people, for some of their property [trees] could be barren, some low, and some for [their] eating.' " It was narrated by Abu 'Ubaid, who added: "The low palm tree is called as-sabilah and allows its fruit to be plucked by passers-by. The eating tree (al-akilah) is a palm tree especially designated as an eating tree for the owner's family or for whoever is attached to them."
Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his father said, "We heard the recitation of Umar ibn al-Khattab when we were at the home of Abu Jahmin al-Balat." (Al-Balat was a place in Madina between the mosque and the market.)
I was with Ibn 'Umar on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together. Then he said, "I saw that whenever the Prophet had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together)."
All scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon every sane, adult, healthy Muslim male who is not traveling at that time. As for a woman, she must not be menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding. People who are insane, minors, and those who are traveling, menstruating, or going through post-childbirth bleeding, and the elderly and breast-feeding or pregnant women do not need to observe the fast.
For some, the fast is not obligatory at all, for example, the insane. In the case of young people, their parents or guardians should order them to fast. Some are to break the fast and make up the missed days of fasting at a later date, while others are to break the fast and pay a "ransom" (in which case, they are not obliged to make up the days they missed). We shall discuss each group in more detail.
Fasting is not obligatory for the insane because of their inability to understand what they are doing. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The pen is raised for three groups [of people]--that is, they will not be responsible for their actions: the insane until they become sane, those who are sleeping until they awaken, and the young until they reach puberty." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi.
Though the young are not required to fast, it is proper for their guardians to encourage them to fast so they will become accustomed to it at an early age. They may fast as long as they are able to and then may break it. ArRabi'a bint Mu'awiyyah reported: "The Messenger of Allah sent a man, on the morning of the day of 'Ashurah, to the residences of the Ansar, saying: 'Whoever has spent the morning fasting is to complete his fast. Whoever has not spent this morning fasting should fast for the remainder of the day.' We fasted after that announcement, as did our young children. We would go to the mosque and make toys stuffed with cotton for them to play with. If one of them started crying due to hunger, we would give them a toy to play with until it was time to eat." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Umar said, O Allah! Grant me martyrdom in Your cause, and let my death be in the city of Your Apostle."
Umar said, "But for the future Muslim generations, I would have distributed the land of the villages I conquer among the soldiers as the Prophet distributed the land of Khaibar."
"Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed the Corner (Black Stone) saying, 'By Allah! I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit nor harm. Had I not seen the Prophet touching (and kissing) you, I would never have touched (and kissed) you.' Then he kissed it and said, 'There is no reason for us to do Ramal (in Tawaf) except that we wanted to show off before the pagans, and now Allah has destroyed them.' 'Umar added, '(Nevertheless), the Prophet did that and we do not want to leave it (i.e. Ramal).'
"I saw 'Umar bin Al-Khattab kissing the Black Stone and he then said, (to it) 'Had I not seen Allah's Apostle kissing you, (stone) I would not have kissed you.' "
I went to visit 'Abdullah bin 'Umar at his house which contained many tents made of cotton cloth and these were encircled with Suradik (part of the tent). I asked him from where, should one assume Ihram for Umra. He said, "Allah's Apostle had fixed as Miqat (singular of Mawaqit) Qarn for the people of Najd, Dhul-Hulaifa for the people of Medina, and Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham."
I saw Ibn 'Umar passing by a man who had made his Badana sit to slaughter it. Ibn 'Umar said, "Slaughter it while it is standing with one leg tied up as is the tradition of Muhammad."
I asked 'Uthman bin 'Affan about a person who engaged in intercourse but did no discharge. 'Uthman replied, "He should perform ablution like the one for an ordinary prayer but he must wash his penis." 'Uthman added, "I heard it from Allah's Apostle." I asked 'Ali Az-Zubair, Talha and Ubai bin Ka'b about it and they, too, gave the same reply. (This order was canceled later on and taking a bath became necessary for such cases).
A man came to Allah's Apostle and asked about Al-Luqata (a fallen thing). The Prophet said, "Recognize its container and its tying material and then make a public announcement about it for one year and if its owner shows up, give it to him; otherwise use it as you like." The man said, "What about a lost sheep?" The Prophet said, "It is for you, your brother or the wolf." The man said "What about a lost camel?" The Prophet said, "Why should you take it as it has got its water-container (its stomach) and its hooves and it can reach the places of water and can eat the trees till its owner finds it?"
A man came and asked Allah's Apostle about picking a lost thing. The Prophet said, "Remember the description of its container and the string it is tied with, and make public announcement about it for one year. If the owner shows up, give it to him; otherwise, do whatever you like with it." He then asked, "What about a lost sheep?" The Prophet said, "It is for you, for your brother (i.e. its owner), or for the wolf." He further asked, "What about a lost camel?" The Prophet said, "It is none of your concern. It has its water-container (reservoir) and its feet, and it will reach water and drink it and eat the trees till its owner finds it."
A bedouin asked the Prophet about the Luqata. The Prophet said, "Make public announcement about it for one year and if then somebody comes and describes the container of the Luqata and the string it was tied with, (give it to him); otherwise, spend it." He then asked the Prophet about a lost camel. The face of the Prophet become red and he said, "You have no concern with it as it has its water reservoir and feet and it will reach water and drink and eat trees. Leave it till its owner finds it." He then asked the Prophet about a lost sheep. The Prophet said, "It is for you, for your brother, or for the wolf."
Allah's Apostle ordered that an unmarried man who committed illegal sexual intercourse be scourged one hundred lashes and sent into exile for one year.
Allah's Apostle said, " He who prepares a ghazi going in Allah's cause is given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi; and he who looks after properly the dependents of a ghazi going in Allah's cause is (given a reward equal to that of) ghazi."
We went out with Allah's Apostle in the year of Al-Hudaibiya. One night it rained and Allah's Apostle led us in the Fajr prayer and (after finishing it), turned to us and said, " Do you know what your Lord has said?" We replied, "Allah and His Apostle know it better." He said, "Allah said:-- '(Some of) My slaves got up believing in Me, And (some of them) disbelieving in Me. The one who said: We have been given Rain through Allah's Mercy and Allah's Blessing and Allah's Bounty, Then he is a believer in Me, and is a Disbeliever in the star. And whoever said: We have been given rain because of such-and-such star, Then he is a believer in the star, and is a disbeliever in Me.' "
It rained (because of the Prophet's invocation for rain) and the Prophet said, "Allah said, 'Some of My slaves have become disbelievers in Me, and some others, believers in Me.' "
I heard the Prophet ordering that an unmarried person guilty of illegal sexual intercourse be flogged one-hundred stripes and be exiled for one year. Umar bin Al-Khattab also exiled such a person, and this tradition is still valid.
The Hanifiyyah are of the opinion that prayer during such times is not valid, regardless of whether the prayer was obligatory or voluntary, or if one was making up a prayer or fulfilling a requirement. But, they make an exception for the afternoon prayer of that particular day and the funeral prayer (if the funeral is at any of these times, the funeral prayer is still to be made). They also permit the prostration in response to Qur'anic recitation if the respective verses were recited at such times. Abu Yusuf also makes an exception for voluntary prayers on Friday while the sun is at its meridian. The Shariyyah say that voluntary prayers which are not offered for a particular reason are disliked at such times. Obligatory prayers, voluntary prayers because of some occasion, voluntary prayers on Friday when the sun is at its meridian and the prayer of the circumambulation of the Ka'bah are all permissible at such times without any disliked aspects. The Malikiyyah say that voluntary prayers during sunrise and sunset are forbidden, even if there is some occasion for them. The same applies to a prayer that was vowed, prostration owing to Qur'anic recitation, and the funeral prayer (unless they fear some decay or alteration in the deceased). But they always allow prayer, voluntary or obligatory, at the time when the sun is at its meridian. Al-Baji wrote in his commentary to alMuwatta, "In al-Mubsut it is related from Ibn Wahb that Malik was asked about praying at mid-day and he said, 'I found the people praying at mid-day of Friday. Some hadith do not consider it desirable (to pray at such times), but I do not stop the people from praying. I do not like to pray at that time because it is not desirable to do so." The Hanbaliyyah say that no voluntary prayers should be made during such times, regardless of whether or not there is a reason for such prayers, and regardless of whether it is Friday or not, save for the prayer of salutations to the mosque on Friday (they allow this without any disike for it while the sun is at its meridian or while the imam is making his address). They also say that the funeral prayer is forbidden at that time, unless there is a fear of alteration or decay in the corpse. They allow the making up of missed prayers, the vowed prayers and the prayer of the circumabulation of the Ka'bah (even if it is voluntary) at any of these three times.
A man asked the Prophet about the picking up of a "Luqata" (fallen lost thing). The Prophet replied, "Recognize and remember its tying material and its container, and make public announcement (about it) for one year, then utilize it but give it to its owner if he comes." Then the person asked about the lost camel. On that, the Prophet got angry and his cheeks or his face became red and he said, "You have no concern with it as it has its water container, and its feet and it will reach water, and eat (the leaves) of trees till its owner finds it." The man then asked about the lost sheep. The Prophet replied, "It is either for you, for your brother (another person) or for the wolf."
I asked 'Uthman bin 'Affan about a man who engaged in the sexual intercourse with his wife but did not discharge. 'Uthman replied, "He should perform ablution like that for the prayer after washing his private parts." 'Uthman added, "I heard that from Allah's Apostle." I asked 'Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam, Talha bin 'Ubaidullah and Ubai bin Ka'b and a gave the same reply. (Abu Aiyub said that he had heard that from Allah's Apostle.) (This order was canceled later on so one has to take a bath. See, Hadith No. 180).
The Prophet led us in the Fajr prayer at Hudaibiya after a rainy night. On completion of the prayer, he faced the people and said, "Do you know what your Lord has said (revealed)?" The people replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He said, "Allah has said, 'In this morning some of my slaves remained as true believers and some became non-believers; whoever said that the rain was due to the Blessings and the Mercy of Allah had belief in Me and he disbelieves in the stars, and whoever said that it rained because of a particular star had no belief in Me but believes in that star.' "
Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.
Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet led them in salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and adh-Dhahabi asserts: "This hadith is rejected."
Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul 'idain. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.
Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids. This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.
Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day of breaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation.
Jabir reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet would take different routes." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he would return through a different route." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi .
It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on 'idul adha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.
Allah's Apostle led the morning prayer in Al-Hudaibiya and it had rained the previous night. When the Prophet (p.b.u.h) had finished the prayer he faced the people and said, "Do you know what your Lord has said?" They replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." (The Prophet said), "Allah says, 'In this morning some of My worshipers remained as true believers and some became non-believers; he who said that it had rained with the blessing and mercy of Allah is the one who believes in Me and does not believe in star, but he who said it had rained because of such and such (star) is a disbeliever in Me and is a believer in star.' "
A bedouin went to the Prophet and asked him about picking up a lost thing. The Prophet said, "Make public announcement about it for one year. Remember the description of its container and the string with which it is tied; and if somebody comes and claims it and describes it correctly, (give it to him); otherwise, utilize it." He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What about a lost sheep?" The Prophet said, "It is for you, for your brother (i.e. its owner), or for the wolf." He further asked, "What about a lost camel?" On that the face of the Prophet became red (with anger) and said, "You have nothing to do with it, as it has its feet, its water reserve and can reach places of water and drink, and eat trees."
A man asked Allah's Apostle about the Luqata. He said, "Make public announcement of it for one year, then remember the description of its container and the string it is tied with, utilize the money, and if its owner comes back after that, give it to him." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What about a lost sheep?" Allah's Apostle said, "Take it, for it is for you, for your brother, or for the wolf." The man asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What about a lost camel?" Allah's Apostle got angry and his cheeks or face became red, and said, "You have no concern with it as it has its feet, and its water-container, till its owner finds it."
A man asked Allah's Apostle about "Al-Luqata" (a lost fallen purse or a thing picked up by somebody). The Prophet said, "You should announce it publicly for one year, and then remember and recognize the tying material of its container, and then you can spend it. If its owner came to you, then you should pay him its equivalent." The man said, "O Allah's Apostle! What about a lost sheep?" The Prophet said, "Take it because it is for you, for your brother, or for the wolf." The man again said, "O Allah's Apostle! What about a lost camel?" Allah's Apostle became very angry and furious and his cheeks became red (or his face became red), and he said, "You have nothing to do with it (the camel) for it has its food and its water container with it till it meets its owner."
that Allah's Apostle was asked about an unmarried slave-girl who committed illegal sexual intercourse. They heard him saying, "Flog her, and if she commits illegal sexual intercourse after that, flog her again, and on the third (or the fourth) offense, sell her."
The Prophet said, "O Unais! Go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses (that she has committed illegal sexual intercourse), then stone her to death."
Allah's Apostle made a small room in the month of Ramadan (Sa'id said, "I think that Zaid bin Thabit said that it was made of a mat") and he prayed there for a few nights, and so some of his companions prayed behind him. When he came to know about it, he kept on sitting. In the morning, he went out to them and said, "I have seen and understood what you did. You should pray in your houses, for the best prayer of a person is that which he prays in his house except the compulsory prayers."
I recited An-Najm before the Prophet, yet he did not perform a prostration.
There are two types of fasting: obligatory and voluntary. Obligatory can be further subdivided into the fast of Ramadan, the fast of expiation and the fast of fulfilling a vow. Here we shall discuss the Ramadan and voluntary fasts.
The fast of Ramadan, according to the Qur'an, sunnah and consensus, is obligatory.
The evidence from the Qur'an consists of the following two verses: "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for the people before you in order for you to gain God consciousness, and, "...The month of Ramadan, during which the Qur'an was revealed, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance and the criterion; and whoever of you is resident, let him fast the month" [al-Baqarah 185].
From the sunnah we have the following statements of the Prophet: "Islam is built upon [the following] five pillars: testifying that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, the establishment of the prayer, the giving of zakah, the fast of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Makkah." Talhah ibn 'Ubaidullah reported that a man came to the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of Allah, tell me what Allah requires of me as regards fasting." He answered, "The month of Ramadan." The man asked: "Is there any other [fast]?" The Prophet answered: "No, unless you do so voluntarily."
The whole Muslim nation agrees that the fast of Ramadan is obligatory. It is one of the pillars of Islam, and if one disputes this, he cannot be called a Muslim.l
When the Prophet went out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of his companions (hypocrites) returned (home). A party of the believers remarked that they would kill those (hypocrites) who had returned, but another party said that they would not kill them. So, this Divine Inspiration was revealed: "Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties concerning the hypocrites." (4.88) The Prophet said, "Medina expels the bad persons from it, as fire expels the impurities of iron."
Allah's Apostle allowed the owner of 'Araya to sell the fruits on the trees by means of estimation.
The Prophet permitted selling the dates of the 'Araya for ready dates by estimating the amount of the former (as they are still on the trees).
When we wrote the Holy Qur'an, I missed one of the Verses of Surat-al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting. Then we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. The Verse was:
-Among the Believers are men Who have been true to Their Covenant with Allah, Of them, some have fulfilled Their obligations to Allah (i.e. they have been Killed in Allah's Cause), And some of them are (still) waiting." (33.23) So we wrote this in its place in the Qur'an.
When the Prophet set out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of those who had gone out with him, returned. The companions of the Prophet were divided into two groups. One group said, "We will fight them (i.e. the enemy)," and the other group said, "We will not fight them." So there came the Divine Revelation: "(O Muslims!) Then what is the matter within you that you are divided. Into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) BeCause of what they have earned." (4.88) On that, the Prophet said, "That is Taiba (i.e. the city of Medina) which clears one from one's sins as the fire expels the impurities of silver."
Regarding the Verse: "Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites?" (4.88) Some of the companions of the Prophet returned from the battle of Uhud (i.e. refused to fight) whereupon the Muslims got divided into two parties; one of them was in favor of their execution and the other was not in favour of it. So there was revealed: "Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites?" (4.88). Then the Prophet said "It (i.e. Medina) is a Tayyaboh (good), it expels impurities as the fire expels the impurities of silver."
That the Prophet dictated to him: "Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home) and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah."
Zaid added: Ibn Um Maktum came while the Prophet was dictating to me and said, "O Allah's Apostle! By Allah, if I had the power to fight (in Allah's Cause), I would," and he was a blind man. So Allah revealed to his Apostle while his thigh was on my thigh, and his thigh became so heavy that I was afraid it might fracture my thigh. Then that state of the Prophet passed and Allah revealed: "Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc)."
When we collected the fragramentary manuscripts of the Qur'an into copies, I missed one of the Verses of Surat al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reading. Finally I did not find it with anybody except Khuzaima Al-Ansari, whose witness was considered by Allah's Apostle equal to the witness of two men. (And that Verse was:)
"Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah."
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet's Companions who fought against Musailama). (I went to him) and found 'Umar bin Al-Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), "Umar has come to me and said: 'Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Quran by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." I said to 'Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" 'Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good project." 'Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which 'Umar had realized." Then Abu Bakr said (to me). 'You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, "How will you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Abu Bakr replied, "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat At-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is:
"Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty...(till the end of Surat-Baraa' (At-Tauba). (9.128-129) Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with 'Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of 'Umar.
Abu Bakr sent for me and said, "You used to write the Divine Revelations for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for (the Qur'an and collect) it." I started searching for the Qur'an till I found the last two Verses of Surat At-Tauba with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari and I could not find these Verses with anybody other than him. (They were):
"Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..." (9.128-129)
Allah's Apostle made a small room (with a palm leaf mat). Allah's Apostle came out (of his house) and prayed in it. Some men came and joined him in his prayer. Then again the next night they came for the prayer, but Allah's Apostle delayed and did not come out to them. So they raised their voices and knocked the door with small stones (to draw his attention). He came out to them in a state of anger, saying, "You are still insisting (on your deed, i.e. Tarawih prayer in the mosque) that I thought that this prayer (Tarawih) might become obligatory on you. So you people, offer this prayer at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is the one which he offers at home, except the compulsory (congregational) prayer."
Abu Bakr sent for me owing to the large number of casualties in the battle of Al-Yamama, while 'Umar was sitting with him. Abu Bakr said (to me), 'Umar has come to me and said, 'A great number of Qaris of the Holy Qur'an were killed on the day of the battle of Al-Yamama, and I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Quran may increase on other battlefields whereby a large part of the Quran may be lost. Therefore I consider it advisable that you (Abu Bakr) should have the Qur'an collected.' I said, 'How dare I do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?' 'Umar said, 'By Allah, it is something beneficial.' 'Umar kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chest of 'Umar and I had in that matter, the same opinion as 'Umar had." Abu Bakr then said to me (Zaid), "You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for the fragmentary scripts of the Quran and collect it (in one Book)." Zaid further said: By Allah, if Abu Bakr had ordered me to shift a mountain among the mountains from one place to another it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said (to 'Umar and Abu Bakr), "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, it is something beneficial." Zaid added: So he (Abu Bakr) kept on pressing me for that until Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and I had in that matter, the same opinion as theirs.
So I started compiling the Qur'an by collecting it from the leafless stalks of the date-palm tree and from the pieces of leather and hides and from the stones, and from the chests of men (who had memorized the Quran). I found the last verses of Sirat-at-Tauba: ("Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves..." (9.128-129) ) from Khuzaima or Abi Khuzaima and I added to it the rest of the Sura. The manuscripts of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him. Then it remained with 'Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and then with Hafsa bint 'Umar.
The Prophet took a room made of date palm leaves mats in the mosque. Allah's Apostle prayed in it for a few nights till the people gathered (to pray the night prayer (Tarawih) (behind him.) Then on the 4th night the people did not hear his voice and they thought he had slept, so some of them started humming in order that he might come out. The Prophet then said, "You continued doing what I saw you doing till I was afraid that this (Tarawih prayer) might be enjoined on you, and if it were enjoined on you, you would not continue performing it. Therefore, O people! Perform your prayers at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is what is performed at his home except the compulsory (congregational) prayer." (See Hadith No. 229,Vol. 3) (See Hadith No. 134, Vol. 8)
Abu Bakr sent for me, so I collected the Qur'an till I found the last part of Surat-at-Tauba with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari and did not find it with anybody else. (The Verses are): "Verily, there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves..(till the end of Surat Bara'a) (i.e., At-Tauba)." (9.128-129)
who was one of those who used to write the Divine Revelation: Abu Bakr sent for me after the (heavy) casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of Qurra' were killed). 'Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said, " 'Umar has come to me and said, 'The people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be more casualties among the Qurra' (those who know the Qur'an by heart) at other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost, unless you collect it. And I am of the opinion that you should collect the Qur'an.' " Abu Bakr added, "I said to 'Umar, 'How can I do something which Allah's Apostle has not done?' 'Umar said (to me), 'By Allah, it is (really) a good thing.' So 'Umar kept on pressing, trying to persuade me to accept his proposal, till Allah opened my bosom for it and I had the same opinion as 'Umar." (Zaid bin Thabit added:) 'Umar was sitting with him (Abu Bakr) and was not speaking. Abu Bakr said (to me), "You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or of forgetfulness): and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle. Therefore, look for the Qur'an and collect it (in one manuscript)." By Allah, if he (Abu Bakr) had ordered me to shift one of the mountains (from its place) it would not have been harder for me than what he had ordered me concerning the collection of the Qur'an. I said to both of them, "How dare you do a thing which the Prophet has not done?" Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, it is (really) a good thing." So I kept on arguing with him about it till Allah opened my bosom for that which He had opened the bosoms of Abu Bakr and Umar. So I started locating Qur'anic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leaf-stalks of date palms and from the memories of men (who knew it by heart). I found with Khuzaima two Verses of Surat-at-Tauba which I had not found with anybody else, (and they were):
"Verily there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad) is ardently anxious over you (to be rightly guided)." (9.128)
The manuscript on which the Qur'an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with 'Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa, Umar's daughter.
I passed by a place called Ar-Rabadha and by chance I met Abu Dhar and asked him, "What has brought you to this place?" He said, "I was in Sham and differed with Muawiya on the meaning of (the following verses of the Qur'an): 'They who hoard up gold and silver and spend them not in the way of Allah.' (9.34). Muawiya said, 'This verse is revealed regarding the people of the scriptures.' I said, 'It was revealed regarding us and also the people of the scriptures.' So we had a quarrel and Mu'awiya sent a complaint against me to 'Uthman. 'Uthman wrote to me to come to Medina, and I came to Medina. Many people came to me as if they had not seen me before. So I told this to 'Uthman who said to me, 'You may depart and live nearby if you wish.' That was the reason for my being here for even if an Ethiopian had been nominated as my ruler, I would have obeyed him."