We were sitting with Abu Musa Al-Ash'sari, and as there were ties of friendship and mutual favors between us and his tribe. His meal was presented before him and there was chicken meat in it. Among those who were present there was a man from Bani Taimillah having a red complexion as a non-Arab freed slave, and that man did not approach the meal. Abu Musa said to him, "Come along! I have seen Allah's Apostle eating of that (i.e., chicken)." The man said, "I have seen it (chickens) eating something I regarded as dirty, and so I have taken an oath that I shall not eat (its meat) chicken." Abu Musa said, "Come along! I will inform you about it (i.e., your oath).
Once we went to Allah's Apostle in company with a group of Ash'airiyin, asking him for mounts while he was distributing some camels from the camels of Zakat. (Aiyub said, "I think he said that the Prophet was in an angry mood at the time)." The Prophet said, 'By Allah! I will not give you mounts, and I have nothing to mount you on.' After we had left, some camels of booty were brought to Allah's Apostle and he said, 'Where are those Ash'ariyin? Where are those Ash'ariyin?' So we went (to him) and he gave us five very fat good-looking camels. We mounted them and went away, and then I said to my companions, 'We went to Allah's Apostle to give us mounts, but he took an oath that he would not give us mounts, and then later on he sent for us and gave us mounts, perhaps Allah's Apostle forgot his oath. By Allah, we will never be successful, for we have taken advantage of the fact that Allah's Apostle forgot to fulfill his oath. So let us return to Allah's Apostle to remind him of his oath.' We returned and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! We came to you and asked you for mounts, but you took an oath that you would not give us mounts) but later on you gave us mounts, and we thought or considered that you have forgotten your oath.' The Prophet said, 'Depart, for Allah has given you Mounts. By Allah, Allah willing, if I take an oath and then later find another thing better than that, I do what is better, and make expiation for the oath.' "
'Imran bin Hussain said, "The Prophet said, 'The best of you (people) are my generation, and the second best will be those who will follow them, and then those who will follow the second generation." Imran added, "I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three (generations) after his generation." He added, "Then will come some people who will make vows but will not fulfill them; and they will be dishonest and will not be trustworthy, and they will give their witness without being asked to give their witness, and fatness will appear among them."
'Imran bin Husain said: The Prophet said, "The best people are my contemporaries (i.e., the present (my) generation) and then those who come after them (i.e., the next generation)." Imran added: I am not sure whether the Prophet repeated the statement twice after his first saying. The Prophet added, "And after them there will come people who will bear witness, though they will not be asked to give their witness; and they will be treacherous and nobody will trust them, and they will make vows, but will not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them."
I heard Imran bin Husain saying, "The Prophet said, 'The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation).' " Imran said "I do not know whether the Prophet mentioned two or three generations after your present generation. The Prophet added, 'There will be some people after you, who will be dishonest and will not be trustworthy and will give witness (evidences) without being asked to give witness, and will vow but will not fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."
(who was one of those who had witnessed (the Pledge of allegiance beneath) the Tree) While I was making fire beneath the cooking pots containing donkey's meat, the announcer of Allah's Apostle announced, "Allah's Apostle forbids you to eat donkey's meat."
The same narration was told by Majzaa from a man called Uhban bin Aus who was one of those who had witnessed (the Pledge of allegiance beneath) the Tree., and who had some trouble in his knee so that while doing prostrations, he used to put a pillow underneath his knee.
Same as above (Hadith 397).
Many scholars hold it to be permissible for one to set a condition when entering the state of ihram that one will be relieved of it if one fell ill. Muslim has reported from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) told Daba'ah, "Perform Hajj but set a condition that you shall be relieved of the ihram whenever you are prevented (due to illness, etc.,)."
ln such a case if a pilgrim is prevented from performing Hajj or 'Umrah for any reason, illness or something else, he may terminate his state of ihram and not be required to slaughter any animal, or fast in atonement.
In the pre-lslamic period the Arabs used to cover the Ka'bah with a cloth covering. When Islam prevailed it retained this tradition. Al-Waqidi has stated that Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Abu Habibah reported from his father that in the Days of Ignorance the Ka'bah was covered with rugs made of red skin. Later on the Prophet (peace be upon him) covered it with Yemeni cloth, while 'Umar and 'Uthman covered it with an Egyptian white cloth, Qabati. Hajjaj covered it with silk brocade. The first one to cover it was a man from Tubba' of Yemen called As'ad al-Himairi.
Ibn 'Umar used to choose the best and most expensive Qabati, Egyptian cloth, and send it as covering for the Ka'bah. This is reported by Malik.
Al-Waqidi has also reported from Ishaq bin Abu Abd bin Abu Ja'far Mohammad bin Ali that he said, "The people used to send cloth coverings for the Ka'bah, and likewise they sent to it sacrificial camels loaded with Yemeni cloth."
Yazid bin Mu'awiyah covered it in silk brocade, and so did Ibn Az-Zubair afterwards. He used to delegate Mus'ab bin Az-Zubair to send a covering for the Ka'bah which was changed on 'Ashura (the 10th of Muharram).
Sa'id bin Mansur has reported that "Umar bin Al-Khattab used to take down the old cover of Ka'bah, every year, cut it into pieces, and distribute them among the pilgrims who used them as shelter from the heat of Makkah.
The Ansar said, "O Allah's Apostle! Every prophet has his own followers and we have followed you. So will you invoke Allah to let our followers be considered from us (as Ansar too)?" So he invoked Allah accordingly.
In the lifetime of the Prophet we used to speak while praying, and one of us would tell his needs to his companions, till the verse, 'Guard strictly your prayers '(2.238) was revealed. After that we were ordered to remain silent while praying.
The Prophet fought nineteen Ghazwas and performed only one Hajj after he migrated (to Medina), and did not perform another Hajj after it, and that was Hajj-ul-Wada'. Abu Ishaq said, "He performed when he was in Mecca."
We used to speak while in prayer. One of us used to speak to his brother (while in prayer) about his need, till the Verse was revealed:
"Guard strictly the (five obligatory) prayers, especially the middle (the Best) (Asr) Prayer and stand before Allah with obedience (and not to speak to others during the prayers)." Then we were ordered not to speak in the prayers.
While I was taking part in a Ghazwa, I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Abi Salul) saying, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away from him. If we return (to Medina), surely, the more honorable will expel the meaner amongst them." I reported that (saying) to my uncle or to 'Umar who, in his turn, informed the Prophet of it. The Prophet called me and I narrated to him the whole story. Then Allah's Apostle sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions, and they took an oath that they did not say that. So Allah's Apostle disbelieved my saying and believed his. I was distressed as I never was before. I stayed at home and my uncle said to me, "You just wanted Allah's Apostle to disbelieve your statement and hate you." So Allah revealed (the Sura beginning with) "When the hypocrites come to you." (63.1) The Prophet then sent for me and recited it and said, "O Zaid! Allah confirmed your statement."
I was with my uncle and I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, saying, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle that they may disperse and go away from him." He also said, "If we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel the meaner." So I informed my uncle of that and then my uncle informed Allah's Apostle thereof. Allah's Apostle sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions. They swore that they did not say anything of that sort. Allah's Apostle deemed their statement true and rejected mine. Thereof I became as distressed as I have never been before, and stayed at home. Then Allah revealed (Surat Al-Munafiqin):
"When the hypocrites come to you..." (63.1) "They are the ones who say: Spend nothing on those who are with Allah's Apostle..." (63.7) Verily the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner..." (63.7-8)
Allah's Apostle sent for me and recited that Sura for me and said, "Allah has confirmed your statement." "That is because they believed, then disbelieved, so a seal was set on their hearts, therefore they understand not." (63.3)
When 'Abdullah bin Ubai said, "Do not spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle," and also said, "If we return to Medina," I informed the Prophet of his saying. The Ansar blamed me for that, and 'Abdullah bin Ubai swore that he did not say. I returned to my house and slept. Allah's Apostle then called me and I went to him. He said, "Allah has confirmed your statement." The Verse: "They are the ones who say: Spend nothing..." (63.7) was revealed.
We went out with the Prophet on a journey and the people suffered from lack of provisions. So 'Abdullah bin Ubai said to his companions, "Don't spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away from him." He also said, "If we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner. So I went to the Prophet and informed him of that. He sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and asked him, but 'Abdullah bin Ubai swore that he did not say so. The people said, "Zaid told a lie to 'Allah's Apostle." What they said distressed me very much. Later Allah revealed the confirmation of my statement in his saying:
"(When the hypocrites come to you." (63.1) So the Prophet called them that they might ask Allah to forgive them, but they turned their heads aside. (Concerning Allah's saying: "Pieces of wood propped up," Zaid said, "They were the most handsome men.")
While I was with my uncle, I heard 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul saying, "Do not spend on those who are with Allah's Apostle, that they may disperse and go away (from him). And if we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner." I mentioned that to my uncle who, in turn, mentioned it to the Prophet. The Prophet called me and I told him about that. Then he sent for 'Abdullah bin Ubai and his companions, and they swore that they did not say so. The Prophet disbelieved my statement and believed theirs. I was distressed as I have never been before, and I remained in my house. My uncle said to me, "You just wanted the Prophet to consider you a liar and hate you." Then Allah revealed:
"When the hypocrites come to you, they say: 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Apostle of Allah.' " (63.1) So the Prophet sent for me and recited it and said, "Allah has confirmed your statement."
My father said, "Allah's Apostle was proceeding at night on one of his journeys and 'Umar bin Al-Khattab was going along with him. 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked him (about something) but Allah's Apostle did not answer him. 'Umar asked him again, but he did not answer him. He asked him again (for the third time) but he did not answer him. On that Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed himself saying, "May your mother be bereaved of you, O 'Umar, for you have asked Allah's Apostle thrice, yet he has not answered you." 'Umar said, "Then I made my camel run fast and took it in front of the other Muslims, and I was afraid that something might be revealed in my connection. I had hardly waited for a moment when I heard somebody calling me. I said, 'I was afraid that something might have been revealed about me.' Then I came to Allah's Apostle and greeted him. He (i.e. the Prophet) said, 'Tonight there has been revealed to me, a Sura which is dearer to me than (all the world) on which the sun rises,' and then he recited: 'Verily! We have granted you (O Muhammad) A manifest victory.' (48.1)"
As soon as palm trees and grapevines ripen and their produce is ready to be picked, an estimation of their nisab is made without their actual weighing. The process is carried out by a knowledgeable and trustworthy person who estimates the amount of fresh grapes and dates still on the trees for zakah as if they were dry dates and raisins. The arnount of zakah is, however, payable when the fruit becomes dry.
Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi related: "We went on the expedition of Tabuk with the Prophet, upon whom be peace. When we arrived at Wadi al-Qura, we saw a woman in her orchard. The Prophet said: 'Let us estimate [her zakah].' Then the Messenger, upon whom be peace, estimated ten awsuq and told her: '[The amount of zakah] has been calculated on your [orchard's] produce.' " This is narrated by alBukhari.
This is the practice of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and his companions and the scholars observed it.
The Hanafiyyah have different views because they consider conjecture to be uncertain, and therefore, of no use in determining the amount owed. Still, the tradition of the Messenger of Allah is a better guide ('adha) because conjecture is not guessing; it is a diligent attempt to estimate the amount of the produce. It is the same as estimating the amount of the produce lost (because of its being rotten or moth-ridden). The basis for conjecture rests on the custom that people eat fresh fruits, and as such, there is no need for calculating the amount of zakah before it is eaten or plucked. In this way, the owners are allowed to do what they want and, at the same time, to determine the amount of zakah. The appraiser should ignore a third or a fourth of the produce as a reprieve for the property owners since they, their guests, and their neighbors need to eat some of it. Also, the produce is exposed to such perils as birds feeding, passers-by plucking, and wind blowing. Any appraisal of the amount of zakah on all of the produce without excluding a third or a fourth of it (for the preceding reasons) would have militated against the genuine interests of the owners.
Sahl ibn Abu Hathamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whenever you conjecture, estimate the [zakah] and ignore one-third. If you do not, then leave [at least] one-fourth." This is narrated by Ahmad and the authors of Sunan, except for Ibn Majah. It was also reported by al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban, and they both authenticated it. Commenting on the status of the report, atTirmidhi says: "The hadith reported by Sahl is the one enacted or followed by most scholars." Bashir ibn Yassar said: "When 'Umar ibn al-Khattab appointed Abu Hathamah al-Ansari to estimate the property of Muslims, he told him: 'Whenever you see that the people have left some dates unplucked for autumn, leave them for the people to eat, and do not estimate the zakah on them.' "
Makhul said: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, assigned someone to estimate, he would say: 'Be easy on the people, for some of their property [trees] could be barren, some low, and some for [their] eating.' " It was narrated by Abu 'Ubaid, who added: "The low palm tree is called as-sabilah and allows its fruit to be plucked by passers-by. The eating tree (al-akilah) is a palm tree especially designated as an eating tree for the owner's family or for whoever is attached to them."
Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his father said, "We heard the recitation of Umar ibn al-Khattab when we were at the home of Abu Jahmin al-Balat." (Al-Balat was a place in Madina between the mosque and the market.)
I was with Ibn 'Umar on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together. Then he said, "I saw that whenever the Prophet had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together)."
All scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon every sane, adult, healthy Muslim male who is not traveling at that time. As for a woman, she must not be menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding. People who are insane, minors, and those who are traveling, menstruating, or going through post-childbirth bleeding, and the elderly and breast-feeding or pregnant women do not need to observe the fast.
For some, the fast is not obligatory at all, for example, the insane. In the case of young people, their parents or guardians should order them to fast. Some are to break the fast and make up the missed days of fasting at a later date, while others are to break the fast and pay a "ransom" (in which case, they are not obliged to make up the days they missed). We shall discuss each group in more detail.
Fasting is not obligatory for the insane because of their inability to understand what they are doing. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The pen is raised for three groups [of people]--that is, they will not be responsible for their actions: the insane until they become sane, those who are sleeping until they awaken, and the young until they reach puberty." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi.
Though the young are not required to fast, it is proper for their guardians to encourage them to fast so they will become accustomed to it at an early age. They may fast as long as they are able to and then may break it. ArRabi'a bint Mu'awiyyah reported: "The Messenger of Allah sent a man, on the morning of the day of 'Ashurah, to the residences of the Ansar, saying: 'Whoever has spent the morning fasting is to complete his fast. Whoever has not spent this morning fasting should fast for the remainder of the day.' We fasted after that announcement, as did our young children. We would go to the mosque and make toys stuffed with cotton for them to play with. If one of them started crying due to hunger, we would give them a toy to play with until it was time to eat." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Umar said, O Allah! Grant me martyrdom in Your cause, and let my death be in the city of Your Apostle."
Umar said, "But for the future Muslim generations, I would have distributed the land of the villages I conquer among the soldiers as the Prophet distributed the land of Khaibar."