Allah's Apostle ate a piece of cooked mutton from the shoulder region and prayed without repeating ablution.
My father said, "I saw Allah's Apostle taking a piece of (cooked) mutton from the shoulder region and then he was called for prayer. He put his knife down and prayed without repeating ablution."
My father said, "Once I was in the company of the Prophet on a journey and I dashed to take off his Khuffs. He ordered me to leave them as he had put them after performing ablution. So he passed wet hands on them.
Allah's Apostle said, "If anyone of you feels drowsy while praying he should go to bed (sleep) till his slumber is over because in praying while drowsy one does not know whether one is asking for forgiveness or for a bad thing for oneself."
The Prophet said, "If anyone of you feels drowsy while praying, he should sleep till he understands what he is saying (reciting)."
I said to 'Abida, "I have some of the hair of the Prophet which I got from Anas or from his family." 'Abida replied, "No doubt if I had a single hair of that it would have been dearer to me than the whole world and whatever is in it."
When Allah's Apostle got his head shaved, Abu Talha was the first to take some of his hair.
This is proven from the three major sources of Islamic law:
Many hadith state the virtues of ablution. We shall mention just a few:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, travelled by night on the way back from Khaybar.Towards the end of the night he stopped for a rest and told Bilal to stay awake to keep watch for the subh prayer. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his companions slept. Bilal stayed on guard as long as was decreed for him and then he leant against his riding camel facing the direction of the dawn and sleep overcame him and neither he nor the Messenger of Allah nor any of the party woke up until the sun's rays had struck them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was alarmed. Bilal excused himself, saying, "Messenger of Allah! The One who took your self was the One who took myself. "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered the party to move on and so they roused thei r mounts and rode on a short distance. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered Bilal to give the iqama and then led them in the subh prayer. When he had finished he said, "Anyone who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers. Allah theBlessed and Exalted says in His book, 'Establish the prayer to remember Me.'"
Allah's Apostle was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) 'Mubrur, (which is accepted by Allah and is performed with the intention of seeking Allah's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)."
In the year of the conquest of Khaibar I went with Allah's Apostle till we reached Sahba', a place near Khaibar, where Allah's Apostle offered the 'Asr prayer and asked for food. Nothing but Sawrq was brought. He ordered it to be moistened with water. He and all of us ate it and the Prophet got up for the evening prayer (Maghrib prayer), rinsed his mouth with water and we did the same, and he then prayed without repeating the ablution.
The Prophet ate (a piece of) mutton from the shoulder region and then prayed without repeating the ablution.
It is sunnah to sit "spread out" between the two prostrations (to put the left foot down and to sit upon it and to keep the right foot upright with the toes pointing toward the qiblah). 'Aishah reported that the Prophet would lay out his left foot and keep his right foot upright. (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Ibn 'Umar reported that it is from the sunnah to keep the right foot upright, with its toes pointing toward the qiblah, and to sit upon the left foot. (Related by an-Nasa'i.) Reported Nafa', "When Ibn 'Umar prayed, he would face the qiblah, even his shoes." (Reported by al-Athram.) In the hadith of Abu Humaid, in which he described the prayer of the Prophet, he stated, "Then he would lay down his left foot and sit upon it until all of his bones were in place, and then he would go to make the prostration (again)." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi who classified it as sahih.)
It has also been related that ifa'a (laying out both feet and sitting upon one's heels) is a preferred act. Comments Abu 'Ubaidah, "This is the statement of the people of hadith." Abu az-Zubair related that he heard Tawus say, "We asked Ibn 'Abbas about ifa'a, and he said, 'It is sunnah to do so.' We said, 'We think it to be too harsh for the man.' He said, 'It is a sunnah of your Prophet, upon whom be peace." (Related by Muslim.)
Ibn 'Umar reported that when the Prophet rose from the first prostration, he would sit upon his toes. He used to say, "That is from the sunnah." Reported Tawus, "I saw the 'Abdullahs ('Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar and 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubair) sitting with their feet laid flat." The last two reports were related by al-Baihaqi. Talking of its authenticity, Ibn Hajr says, "Its chain is sound."
Concerning iqa'a--sitting with the buttocks on the ground and with the thighs straight on the ground--it is disliked by all scholars. Said Abu Hurairah, "The Prophet prohibited us from three things: pecking like a rooster (making the prostration very quickly), sitting like a dog (iqa 'a), and not turning one's whole head like a fox." This is related by Ahmad, al-Baihaqi, at-Tabarani and Abu Tala with a hassan chain. It is preferred for the one who is sitting between the two prostrations to put his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh with the fingers stretched out and directed toward the qiblah. The fingers should be slightly separated and should not go beyond the knees.
Whenever Allah's Apostle went to answer the call of nature, I along with another boy used to carry a tumbler full of water (for cleaning the private parts) and an 'Anza (spearheaded stuck).
The Prophet said, "Whoever performs ablution should clean his nose with water by putting the water in it and then blowing it out, and whoever cleans his private parts with stones should do it with odd number of stones."
Allah's Apostle said, "If anyone of you performs ablution he should put water in his nose and then blow it out and whoever cleans his private parts with stones should do so with odd numbers. And whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands before putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were during sleep."
When Abu Humaid described the prayer of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, he said, "When he sat after two rak'ah, he would sit upon his left leg and keep his right foot upright. When he sat for the last rak'ah, he would pull over his left foot and put his right foot upright (over the left foot) and sit upon his entire posterior." (Related by al-Bukhari.)
Most scholars say that the first tashahud is sunnah
This is based on the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Buhainah who reported that once the Prophet stood during the noon prayer when he should have sat ( for the first tashahud). When he finished the prayer, he made two prostrations. He made a takbir for each prostration (and it was) while he was sitting before he made the tasleem. He made those two prostrations because he had forgotten to sit (for the first tashahud). (Related by "the group.")
In Subul as-Salaam, it is stated that this hadith proves that one who forgets the first tashah ud must make the prostrations of forgetfulness. The Prophet is, however, reported to have said, "Pray as you have seen me pray." This would point to the first tashahud being obligatory, and one would have to do some act to make up for it. But, this also proves that it is not obligatory, for if one misses an act that is obligatory, the two prostrations of foregetfulness are not sufficient to make up for it. That is what Ibn Hajr says in Fath al-Bari.
Says Ibn Batal, "The proof is that the two prostrations due to forgetfulness cannot replace something that is obligatory. If one forgets the opening takbir, they will not replace it. In the case of the tashahud, it is a remembrance that is not said aloud and it is not obligatory." Some say otherwise, because the Prophet used to perform it and, as such, he let others follow him in performing it after he found out that they were leaving it intentionally. But there is some doubt about this argument. Those who say that it is obligatory include al-Laith Ibn Sa'd, Ishaq, ash-Shaf'i and the Hanafiyyah. At-Tabari argues that it is obligatory because originally only two rak'ah and the tashahud were obligatory. When they were made longer, the original obligations were not done away with. Therefore, it is still obligatory.
It is preferred to make the first tashahud quickly
Reported Ibn Mas'ud, "When the Prophet sat after the first two rak'ah, it seemed as if he was (sitting) on hot stones." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi grades it as hassan and says, 'Ubaidah (ibn 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud) did not hear (hadith) from his father. He also says, "The scholars act according to this hadith. They prefer that one should not sit too long after the first two rak'ah, and that he should not add anything to the tashahud."
Says Ibn al-Qayyim, "It is not reported from the Prophet that he would say prayers upon himself or his family during the first tashahud. Nor would he seek refuge from the torment of the grave or the Hell-fire, or from the test of life, death and of the false Messiah. Those who say such supplications are deducing their arguments from the general application (of the supplications and the word tashahud), but the correct position is that their proper place is in the last tashahud.
The Prophet went out to answer the call of nature and asked me to bring three stones. I found two stones and searched for the third but could not find it. So took a dried piece of dung and brought it to him. He took the two stones and threw away the dung and said, "This is a filthy thing."
One should sit for the tashahud and place his hands in the following manner:
The preceding three hadith are all authentic, and one may act by any of them.
One should point with one's right index finger, bending it a little, until one says the salaams at the end of the prayer. Reported Numair al-Khaza'i, "I saw the Messenger of Allah sitting in the prayer with his forearm along his right thigh. His index finger was raised, curved (or bent) a little, and he was supplicating." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Ibn Khuzaimah with a good chain.
Said Anas ibn Malik, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by Sa'd while he was making supplications (and using) two fingers. The Prophet said to him, 'Just one, Sa'd"' This is related by Ahmed, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and al-Hakim.
Ibn 'Abbas was asked about a man who pointed with his finger while supplicating, and he said, "This is sincere devotion." Says Anas ibn Malik, "That is imploring." Mujahid maintains "Doing this hinders Satan." According to the Shai'iyyah, one points with the finger only once, when saying "except Allah" in the statement bearing witness. The Hanifiyyah raise the finger in the denial part of the statement (there is no god) and put it back down during the confirmation part (except Allah). The Malikiyyah move the finger to the left and right until they finish the prayer. The Hanbaliyyah point with the finger every time they mention Allah, as a reflection of the oneness of Allah, and they do not move it.
I followed the Prophet while he was going out to answer the call of nature. He used not to look this way or that. So, when I approached near him he said to me, "Fetch for me some stones for cleaning the privates parts (or said something similar), and do not bring a bone or a piece of dung." So I brought the stones in the corner of my garment and placed them by his side and I then went away from him. When he finished (from answering the call of nature) he used them.
Allah's Apostle said, "Whenever anyone of you drinks water, he should not breathe in the drinking utensil, and whenever anyone of you goes to a lavatory, he should neither touch his penis nor clean his private parts with his right hand."
(on the authority of his father) 'Abdullah bin Zaid poured water on his hands from a utensil containing water and washed them and then with one handful of water he rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out. He repeated it thrice. He then washed his hands and forearms up to the elbows twice and passed wet hands over his head, both forwards and backwards, and washed his feet up to the ankles and said, "This is the ablution of Allah's Apostle."
Sahl bin Sa'd As-Sa'idi, was asked by the people, "With what was the wound of the Prophet treated? Sahl replied, "None remains among the people living who knows that better than I. 'Ah used to bring water in his shield and Fatima used to wash the blood off his face. Then straw mat was burnt and the wound was filled with it."
I went up to the roof of Hafsa's house for some job and I saw Allah's Apostle answering the call of nature facing Sham (Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon regarded as one country) with his back towards the Qibla. (See Hadith No. 147).
Most scholars prefer that one place his knees on the floor before his hands. Ibn al-Mundhir related this from 'Umar an-Nakha'i, Muslim ibn Yasar, Sufyan al-Thauri, Ahmad, Ishaq and other jurists including Ibn al-Mundhir himself. Abu at-Tayyeb said that most jurists agree with this. Ibn al-Qayyim said, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prayed, he would place his knees (on the floor) before his hands, then his hands, his forehead and nose. This is what is authentic and has been related by Shuraik from 'Asim ibn Kaleeb on the authority of his father from Wa'il ibn Hajr who said, 'I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, while prostrating, placing his knees (on the floor) before his hands. Upon getting up, he would raise his hands before his knees. I never saw him do otherwise." Malik, al-Auza'i, Ibn Hazm and Ahmad maintain that it is preferred to place the hands down first and then the knees. Says al-Auza'i, "I saw the people placing their hands on the floor before their knees." Ibn Abu Dawud comments, "That is the statement of the people of hadith." There is also a difference of opinion concerning how one should stand up from the prostration after the first (or third) rak'ah. Some say one should raise the hands from the floor first while others say that one should raise the knees first.
It is preferred for the one who is prostrating to follow the following points:
One should place one's nose, forehead and hands upon the floor
They should be separated from the sides of the body. Wa'il ibn Hajr reported that when the Messenger of Allah prostrated, he would place his forehead between his palms and separate his arms from the sides of his body. (Related by Abu Dawud.) Abu Humaid reported that when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prostrated, he would place his nose and forehead upon the floor, keep his arms away from his sides, and place his hands parallel to his shoulders. This is related by Ibn Khuzaimah and at-Tirmidhi, who called it hassan sahih.
One should place one's hands parallel to one's ears or shoulders
As both of these acts have been related. Some scholars combine these two acts by placing the ends of the thumbs parallel to the ears and the palms parallel to the shoulders.
One should have one's fingers together and stretched out
AlHakim and Ibn Hibban record that when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, bowed he would have his fingers separated and when he prostrated he would keep his fingers together.
One should have one's fingers facing the qiblah
Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Humaid that when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prostrated, his fingers would be neither spread out nor clasped together, and his toes would be directed toward the qiblah.
Once I went up the roof of our house and saw Allah's Apostle answering the call of nature while sitting over two bricks facing Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem). (See Hadith No. 147).