Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do you see the direction I am facing here? By Allah, neither your concentration nor your ruku is hidden from me. I can see you behind my back."
The Prophet used to invoke Allah in his prayer, "O Allah! Save 'Aiyash bin Abi Rabi'a and Salama bin Hisham and Al-Walid bin Al-Walid; O Allah! Save the weak among the believers; O Allah! Be hard upon the tribe of Mudar and inflict years (of famine) upon them like the (famine) years of Joseph."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that one of the muhajirun in whom he saw no harm asked Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As, "Can I pray in a place where camels are watered?" Abdullah replied, "No, but you can pray in a sheep-pen."
Allah's Apostle said, "(The Prophet) Abraham migrated with his wife Sarah till he reached a town where there was a king or a tyrant who sent a message, to Abraham, ordering him to send Sarah to him. So when Abraham had sent Sarah, the tyrant got up, intending to do evil with her, but she got up and performed ablution and prayed and said, 'O Allah ! If I have believed in You and in Your Apostle, then do not empower this oppressor over me.' So he (the king) had an epileptic fit and started moving his legs violently."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban that his paternal uncle Wasi ibn Habban said, "I was praying, and Abdullah ibn Umar was resting his back on the wall of the qibla. When I had finished the prayer I turned towards him on my left hand side. Abdullah ibn Umar said, 'What stopped you from turning away to your right?' I replied, 'I saw you and turned towards you.' Abdullah said, 'You have spoken correctly. People say that you should turn away to your right, but when you pray, you can turn whichever way you wish. If you like, to your right, and if you like, to your left.' "
Regarding the Qur'anic Verse: "O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will." (4.19) The custom (in the Pre-Islamic Period) was that if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife, and if one of them wished, he could marry her, or they could marry her to somebody else, or prevent her from marrying if they wished, for they had more right to dispose of her than her own relatives. Therefore this Verse was revealed concerning this matter.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman that if Abdullah ibn Umar arrived at the mosque and the people had already prayed, he would begin with the obligatory prayer and not pray anything before it.
That her father gave her in marriage when she was a matron and she disliked that marriage. So she came and (complained) to the Prophet and he declared that marriage invalid. (See Hadith No. 69, Vol. 7)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar passed by a man who was praying and said, "Peace be upon you," and the man replied to him. Abdullah ibn Umar returned to him and said, "When someone says, 'Peace be upon you' to you while you are praying do not reply, but give a signal with your hand."
I asked the Prophet, "O Allah's Apostle! Should the women be asked for their consent to their marriage?" He said, "Yes." I said, "A virgin, if asked, feels shy and keeps quiet." He said, "Her silence means her consent."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go to Quba (to pray), he would walk as well as ride.
Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever possesses the (following) three qualities will have the sweetness of faith (1): The one to whom Allah and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else; (2) Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah's Sake; (3) who hates to revert to atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the Fire."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from an-Numan ibn Murra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,"What about drunkenness, stealing and adultery? "That was before anything had been revealed about them. They said, "Allah and His Messenger know best." He said, "They are excesses and in them is a punishment. And the worst of thieves is the one who steals his prayer." They said, "How does he steal his prayer, Messenger of Allah?" He replied, "He does not do ruku or sajda properly."
I heard Sa'id bin Zaid saying, "I have seen myself tied and forced by 'Umar to leave Islam (Before 'Umar himself embraced Islam). And if the mountain of Uhud were to collapse for the evil which you people had done to 'Uthman, then Uhud would have the right to do so." (See Hadith No. 202, Vol. 5)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Do some of the prayers in your houses."
We complained to Allah's Apostle (about our state) while he was leaning against his sheet cloak in the shade of the Ka'ba. We said, "Will you ask Allah to help us? Will you invoke Allah for us?" He said, "Among those who were before you a (believer) used to be seized and, a pit used to be dug for him and then he used to be placed in it. Then a saw used to be brought and put on his head which would be split into two halves. His flesh might be combed with iron combs and removed from his bones, yet, all that did not cause him to revert from his religion. By Allah! This religion (Islam) will be completed (and triumph) till a rider (traveler) goes from San'a' (the capital of Yemen) to Hadramout fearing nobody except Allah and the wolf lest it should trouble his sheep, but you are impatient." (See Hadith No. 191, Vol. 5)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "When a sick man is unable to prostrate he should motion with his head, and not raise anything to his forehead."
While we were in the mosque, Allah's Apostle came out to us and said, "Let us proceed to the Jews." So we went along with him till we reached Bait-al-Midras (a place where the Torah used to be recited and all the Jews of the town used to gather). The Prophet stood up and addressed them, "O Assembly of Jews! Embrace Islam and you will be safe!" The Jews replied, "O Aba-l-Qasim! You have conveyed Allah's message to us." The Prophet said, "That is what I want (from you)." He repeated his first statement for the second time, and they said, "You have conveyed Allah's message, O Aba-l-Qasim." Then he said it for the third time and added, "You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to exile you from this land, so whoever among you owns some property, can sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle." (See Hadith No. 392, Vol. 4)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "Someone who only remembers that he has forgotten a prayer when he is praying the next prayer behind an imam, should pray the prayer he has forgotten after the imam has said the taslim, and then pray the other one again."
A man from the Ansar made his slave, a Mudabbar. And apart from that slave he did not have any other property. This news reached Allah's Apostle and he said, "Who will buy that slave from me?" So Nu'aim bin An-Nahham bought him for 800 Dirham. Jabir added: It was a coptic (Egyptian) slave who died that year.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, "Which prayer is it when you remain in the sitting position in every raka?'' Said said, "It is maghrib when you miss one raka, and that is the sunna in all the prayers."
Allah's Apostle said, "A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim. So he should neither oppress him nor hand him over to an oppressor. And whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Amir ibn Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr from Amr ibn Sulaym az-Zuraqi from Abu Qutada al-Ansari that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray carrying Umama, who was the daughter of his daughter Zaynab by Abu'l As ibn Rabia ibn Abd Shams. When he prostrated, he put her down, and when he got up he carried her.
Allah's Apostle said, "Help your brother whether he is an oppressor or an oppressed." A man said, "O Allah's Apostle! I will help him if he is oppressed, but if he is an oppressor, how shall I help him?" The Prophet said, "By preventing him from oppressing (others), for that is how to help him."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Even saying to your companion 'Listen' while the imam is giving the khutba on the day of jumua, is to speak foolishly."
Allah's Apostle addressed the people saying, "Allah has given option to a slave to choose this world or what is with Him. The slave has chosen what is with Allah." Abu Bakr wept, and we were astonished at his weeping Caused by what the Prophet mentioned as to a slave (of Allah) who had been offered a choice, (we learned later on) that Allah's Apostle himself was the person who was given the choice, and that Abu Bakr knew best of all of us. Allah's Apostle added, "The person who has favored me most of all both with his company and wealth, is Abu Bakr. If I were to take a Khalil other than my Lord, I would have taken Abu Bakr as such, but (what relates us) is the Islamic brotherhood and friendliness. All the gates of the Mosque should be closed except the gate of Abu Bakr."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'n Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Ubaydullah, from Malik ibn Abi Amir that Uthman ibn Affan used to say in khutbas, and he would seldom omit it if he was giving the khutba, "When the imam stands delivering the khutba on the day of jumua, listen and pay attention, for there is the same portion for someone who pays attention but cannot hear as for someone who pays attention and hears. And when the iqama of the prayer is called, straighten your rows and make your shoulders adjacent to each other, because the straightening of the rows is part of the completion of the prayer." Then he would not say the takbir until some men who had been entrusted with straightening the rows came and told him that they were straight. Then he would say the takbir.
The Prophet said, "If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken Abu Bakr, but he is my brother and my companion (in Islam)."
Though Hajj is not compulsory for these two groups it is quite valid if they perform one, but it will not suffice them as regards the Hajj prescribed in Islam.
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'Any minor (child) who performs Hajj must perform it again after coming of age; any slave who performs Hajj and is then freed, must perform his Hajj again'." (Reported by At-Tabarani on sound authority) As-Sa'ib bin Yazid says: "My father performed Hajj with the Prophet (peace be upon him) who was performing his Farewell Hajj, while I was only seven years old." This was reported by Ahmad, Bukhari and Tirmidhi, who noted: "All scholars agree that if a minor performs Hajj, he must repeat his Hajj upon coming of age. Likewise a slave who performs Hajj, and thereafter gains his freedom, must also repeat his Hajj if he is in a position to do so."
It is also reported from Ibn 'Abbas that during a Hajj a woman lifted a boy, and asked the Prophet, "Will this boy be rewarded for Hajj?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) answered: "Yes, and you too will be rewarded." (The boy will be rewarded for his obedience, while the mother will be rewarded for helping and instructing him to perform Hajj. This hadith is also reported from 'Umar)
Jabir reports: "We performed Hajj with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and a number of women and children were with us. We said talbiyah on behalf of the children, and (also) threw pebbles on their behalf. This is narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.
If a minor is able he may himself declare the state of ihram and perform the rites of Hajj. Otherwise, his guardian (An-Nawawi said: "The guardian who declares the state of ihram on behalf of a non-discerning minor, is the guardian of his properties, i.e., his father, grandfather, or the guardian appointed by law. Conceming the mother, the scholars differ. Some are of the opinion that her ihram on his behalf is only valid if she is appointed by law as his guardian. Others claim that her ihram is valid even if she is not the guardian) must declare the state of ihram and say talbiyah on his behalf, circumambulate round Ka'bah, run between Safa and Marwah, stay at 'Arafah and throw stones on his behalf. If, on the other hand, a minor attains the age of puberty on or before the Day of 'Arafah, his Hajj is then credited to him. The same applies to a slave who is liberated on or before the Day of 'Aratah. Malik and Ibn Al-Mundhir say: "To both of these people their Hajj cannot be credited as (replacement for) the obligatory Hajj, for they intended a supererogatory worship while putting on ihram; its supererogatory status cannot be transformed into an obligatory worship."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar saw two men talking while the imam was giving the khutba on the day of jumua and he threw pebbles at them to tell them to be quiet.
The Prophet said, "If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken him (i.e. Abu Bakr) as a Khalil, but the Islamic brotherhood is better."
Hajj is obligatory both for women and men alike; they must perform it whenever they meet the above mentioned prerequisites for it. In the case of a woman it is essential that she be accompanied by her husband or some other mahram (Al-Hafiz said in his Al-Fath: "According to the scholars. the condition for being a mahram to a woman is that legally it should be impossible for such a man to ever marry her) relative on the journey for Hajj.
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying: 'A man must never be alone with a woman unless there is a mahram with her. A woman also may not travel with anyone except a mahram relative.' A man stood up and asked: 'O Prophet of Allah! My wife has gone for Hajj while I am enlisted for such and such a battle, what should I do?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, 'Go and join your wife in Hajj." (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim; the words given here are of Muslim's. This order underlines something desirable; it does not obligate the husband or the mahram to travel with the woman, if there is no one else but him. No one is obligated to give up his convenience so that another person might do what is not required of him)
Yahya bin 'Abbad reported that a woman from Iraq wrote to Ibrahim AnNakh'i: "I have not yet performed the prescribed Hajj; for although I am rich, I have no mahram who may accompany me on this trip." He wrote her back: "You are one of those whom Allah has not given the means to perform (Hajj)." Abu Hanifah, Al-Hassan, At-Thauri, Ahmad and Ishaq all hold a similar view on this issue.
Al-Hafiz says: "Among the Shafi'ite scholars the most commonly accepted opinion in this regard is that a woman may travel with her husband, or one of her mahram relatives, or a group of trustworthy women, or even one such (trusted) woman companion. According to one view, reported by Al-Karabisi and recorded as sound in Al-Muhadhib, a woman may travel by herself provided the way to Hajj is secure and safe. This applies to both Hajj and 'Umrah.
It is reported in Subul as-Salaam: "A group of scholars hold that an old woman may travel without being accompanied by any mahram relative."
This permission for a woman to travel without a mahram in the company of trusted companions or when the journey to Hajj is safe is supported by what is reported by Bukhari from 'Adi ibn Hatem, who says: "I was with the Prophet (peace be upon him) when a man came to him and complained of poverty. Another man complained about highway robbery. Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'O 'Adi! Have you seen the city of Hira in Iraq?' I said: 'No, but I have heard about it.' The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'If you lived long enough you will see that a woman will travel from Hira and will perform Tawaf round Ka'bah, and she will have no fear except that of Allah."
This opinion is supported by the fact that 'Umar gave permission to the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to perform Hajj while accompanied by 'Uthman and Abdur-Rahman ibn 'Awf. 'Uthman would announce them to people telling them to avoid looking at them or coming close to their camels.
If, however, a woman fails to abide by this provision and performs Hajj alone - without being accompanied by any mahram - her Hajj would still be valid.
The author of Subul as-Salaam says that Ibn Taimiyyah said: "Hajj of a woman without a mahram is valid, and likewise of a person who is financially not able to perform it."
In brief, those for whom Hajj is not compulsory due to sickness, poverty, fear of highway robbery, or in the case of a woman because no mahram is available to accompay her, if these people nonetheless perform Hajj, it will be credited to their account. Some of them try their best (and exert themselves to the utmost) like those performing Hajj on foot, while others are guilty of sins, such as those who beg others to help them perform Hajj, or a woman that performs Hajj without a mahram male companion. Notwithstanding their valid excuse, if any of these people perform Hajj, it will be quite valid, for their sin relates to their (choice of unlawful) means and has no bearing on the objective as such.
It is reported in Al-Mughni: "If a person, not obliged to perform Hajj because he is unable (financially) to do so, should seek to perform Hajj, suffering hardship, traveling on foot and without necessary provisions, his Hajj will be quite valid and acceptable."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man sneezed on the day of jumua while the imam was giving the khutba, and a man by his side asked Allah to bless him. Said ibn al Musayyab was asked about it and he forbade the man to do what he had done and said, "Don't do it again."
The people of Kufa sent a letter to Ibn Az-Zubair, asking about (the inheritance of) (paternal) grandfather. He replied that the right of the inheritance of (paternal) grandfather is the same as that of father if the father is dead) and added, "Allah's Apostle said, 'If I were to take a Khalil from this nation, I would have taken him (i.e. Abu Bakr).' "
Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab about talking in the jumua after the imam had come down from the mimbar but before he had said the takbir. Ibn Shihab said, "There is no harm in that."
A woman came to the Prophet who ordered her to return to him again. She said, "What if I came and did not find you?" as if she wanted to say, "If I found you dead?" The Prophet said, "If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr."
It is desirable for a woman to seek her husband's permission for the prescribed Hajj. Then if he grants her the permission she may leave for Hajj; in case he refuses to give permission, she may still proceed for Hajj, for a husband should not forbid his wife from performing obligatory Hajj. It is an obligatory act of worship. It is unlawful to obey anyone in something that involves disobedience to Allah. A woman should perform obligatory Hajj as soon as possible, just as she should offer her prescribed daily prayers at their earliest prescribed times. In either case a husband has no right to prevent his wife from doing what is her obligatory duty. The same applies when a wife has vowed a Hajj, because it is obligatory like the prescribed Hajj. In the case of supererogatory Hajj, however, the husband may prevent his wife, and the wife must obey her husband. This is supported by a hadith reported by AdDaraqutni on the authority of Ibn 'Umar who narrated that while speaking about a wealthy lady whose husband had refused to give her permission to perform Hajj, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "She must not go for Hajj except by her husband's permission."
If a person dies before performing obligatory Hajj or if one vowed to perform Hajj but died before fulfilling one' s vow, his heir must assign someone to perform Hajj on behalf of the deceased. All the ensuing expenses in this regard must be paid out of the deceased's property, as indeed must be any debts left by him.
Ibn 'Abbas narrates that a woman from the tribe of Johainah came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: "My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before fulfilling her vow, should I perform Hajj on her behalf? The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. Would you not pay off any debts your mother might have left behind upon her death? Pay off what you owe to Allah, for He is most deserving of settlement of His debt." (Bukhari)
This hadith underlines the obligation of performing Hajj on behalf of a deceased person, whether or not he leaves a will to this effect (it is a kind of debt for the deceased), and all debts left by the deceased must be settled, just as all other financial obligations such as zakah, an atonement or a vow transacted by the deceased has to be fulfilled.
Ibn 'Abbas, Zaid bin Thabit, Abu Hurairah, and Ash-Shafi'i hold this opinion. They consider that the expenses of the substitute (the hired person) must be paid out of the wealth of the deceased before dividing it up among his heirs.
In case the wealth is insufficient to cover both the cost of Hajj (by the substitute) and settlement of the deceased's debts, the expense of Hajj must be paid first, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Allah is most deserving that His debt be paid back."
Imam Malik says: "A person may perform Hajj on behalf of the deceased only if the deceased leaves a will to that effect. If the deceased leaves no such will, then a Hajj on his behalf may not be performed, for this worship involves, more than anything else, physical exertion and struggle and as such, no other person can replace or substitute another person. If a deceased makes a will regarding it, then Hajj may be performed, meeting all its cost from out of one third of the share of his heritage."
Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab used to say, "Some one who catches a raka of the jumua prayer should pray another one with it." Ibn Shihab said, "That is the sunna."
Malik said, "I saw the people of knowledge in our city doing that. That is because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Whoever catches a raka of the prayer has caught the prayer.' "
Malik said, concerning some one who was in a crowd on the day of jumua and did the ruku but was not able to go into sajda until the imam had risen or finished his prayer, "If he is able to do the sajda and has already done the ruku then he should do the sajda when the people stand up. If he is unable to do thesajda until after the imam has finished the prayer, then I prefer that he begins the prayeragain and does the four rakas of dhuhr."
I saw Allah's Apostle and there was none with him but five slaves, two women and Abu Bakr (i.e. those were the only converts to Islam then).
If someone has the ability to perform Hajj but afterwards he is unable to perform it due to sickness or old age, he must arrange for someone else to perform Hajj on his behalf, for he may never be able to do it himself. In this respect, such a person is very much like the deceased, hence the permission for him to choose his substitute in Hajj.
This is based on a hadith reported by Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas, who says: "A woman of Khath'am said, 'O Prophet of Allah! Allah has prescribed Hajj for His servants. (Now that) I am grown up, I find that my father is an old man, and he cannot ride on the camel (for long). Should I perform Hajj on his behalf?' The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'Yes.'" This happened during the Farewell Hajj. (Reported by the Group) Tirmidhi considers it a sound hadith with a sound chain and adds: "On this topic, reports other than this hadith are also found; they are of sound authority, and the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) believed and practiced accordingly; they held that one may perform Hajj on behalf of a deceased person." At-Thawri, Ibn al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad and Ishaq also hold a similar view.
Imam Malik says: "If the deceased leaves a will that someone perform a Hajj on his behalf, then it may be performed." Some scholars like Ibn Mubarak and Ash-Shafi'i say that it is permissible for an old man, who is unable to perform Hajj on his own, to arrange for a substitute to do it on his behalf.
The above hadith also lends support to the view that, both for a man or a woman, it is quite permissible to perform Hajj on behalf of another man or woman. There is nothing against this in the Qur'an or hadith.
Malik said, "Someone who has a nosebleed on the day of jumua while the imam is giving the khutba and he leaves and does not come back until the imam has finished the prayer, should pray four rakas.''
Malik said that someone who prayed a raka with the imam on the day of jumua, then had a nosebleed and left and came back and the imam had prayed both rakas, should complete the prayer with another raka as long as he had not spoken.
Malik said, "If some one has a nosebleed, or something happens to him and he has no alternative but to leave, he does not have to ask permission of the imam if he wants to leave on the day of jumua."
While I was sitting with the Prophet, Abu Bakr came, lifting up one corner of his garment uncovering his knee. The Prophet said, "Your companion has had a quarrel." Abu Bakr greeted (the Prophet ) and said, "O Allah's Apostle! There was something (i.e. quarrel) between me and the son of Al-Khattab. I talked to him harshly and then regretted that, and requested him to forgive me, but he refused. This is why I have come to you." The Prophet said thrice, "O Abu Bakr! May Allah forgive you." In the meanwhile, 'Umar regretted (his refusal of Abu Bakr's excuse) and went to Abu Bakr's house and asked if Abu Bakr was there. They replied in the negative. So he came to the Prophet and greeted him, but signs of displeasure appeared on the face of the Prophet till Abu Bakr pitied ('Umar), so he knelt and said twice, "O Allah's Apostle! By Allah! I was more unjust to him (than he to me)." The Prophet said, "Allah sent me (as a Prophet) to you (people) but you said (to me), 'You are telling a lie,' while Abu Bakr said, 'He has said the truth,' and consoled me with himself and his money." He then said twice, "Won't you then give up harming my companion?" After that nobody harmed Abu Bakr.
If a sick person recovers after someone has performed Hajj on his behalf, he will be considered as having performed his obligatory duty, and he will not be required to repeat it, for it would imply the obligation of performing two obligatory pilgrimages (rather than one). This is Imam Ahmad's view.
The majority of scholars are, however, of the view that such a substitutory Hajj will not suffice a man to absolve him of his obligation, for his recovery shows that his case was not really hopeless (and he should therefore repeat it), for the decisive factor in this respect is cessation of illness and restoration of his health.
Ibn Hazim is inclined to the first view. He says: "When the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded to perform Hajj on behalf of those who are unable to walk or ride (i.e., cannot travel for Hajj), and told that this will pay off their debt to Allah, then indeed the debt is settled, and their effort accepted." And surely if an obligation is removed or fulfilled, there is no justification for its repetition, especially when there is nothing in the texts to support it. Had such a repetition been necessary, the Prophet (peace be upon him) must have clearly mentioned it, but as he did not, there is no reason for its repetition.
Before performing Hajj on behalf of someone else, a person must have performed his own Hajj . This is based on the hadith in which Ibn 'Abbas narrates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) heard a man saying: "O Allah! Here I am in response to Your call on behalf of Shabrumah." The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him: "Have you performed your own Hajj?" He replied: " No", whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) told him: "You must perform Hajj on your own behalf first, and then tor Shabrumah." (Abu Daw'ud and Ibn Majah) Al-Baihaqi says: "Its chain of authorities is sound, and in this regard it is the most genuine report."
Most of the scholars hold that it is not proper for a person to perform Hajj on behalf of others prior to performing it on his own behalf, whether or not he is able or unable to do so.
According to the verdict of Ibn 'Abbas and 'Ikrimah if a person performs Hajj in fulfillment of a vow, while he has yet to perform the prescribed Hajj, then it should suffice him (and absolve him) trom both. 'Ata and Ibn 'Umar, on the other hand, hold that one must first perform the Hajj obligatory on him, and thereafter perform another Hajj to fulfil his vow.
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihab about the word of Allah, the Majestic, the Mighty, "O you who accept, when the call is made for the prayer on the day of jumua, make haste to the remembrance of Allah."(Sura 62 ayat 9). Ibn Shihab said, ''Umar ibn al-Khattab used to recite, 'When the call is made for the prayer on the day of jumua, go to the remembrance of Allah.' "
Malik said, "Making haste in the Book of Allah is only deed and action. Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, says 'and when he turns away, he acts in the land' (Sura 2 ayat 205), and He, the Exalted, said, 'and as for the one who comes to you acting with fear' (Sura 80 ayat 8), and He said, 'then he turned his back, and acted' (Sura 79 ayat 22),and He said, 'Your deeds are diverse' " (Sura 92 ayat 4). Malik said, "Thus making haste which Allah mentions in His Book is not running on the feet or exertion. It only means deed and actions."
The Prophet deputed me to lead the Army of Dhat-as-Salasil. I came to him and said, "Who is the most beloved person to you?" He said, " 'Aisha." I asked, "Among the men?" He said, "Her father." I said, "Who then?" He said, "Then 'Umar bin Al-Khattab." He then named other men.
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'There is no Sarorah (delaying performance of obligatory Hajj) in Islam.''' (Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud)
Al-Khattabi remarks: "The word sarorah has two meanings:
Some scholars refer to it as a proof that a person who has not performed Hajj is not allowed to perform Hajj on behalf of others. Al-Awza'i, Ash-Shafi'i. Ahmad and Ishaq hold this view. Malik and Ath-Thawri say: "Such a person's Hajj depends on his own intention." Al-Hasan Al-Basri, 'Ata and An-Nakh'i also hold a similar view.
Abdullah ibn Abi 'Awfa relates: "I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) about a man who has not performed Hajj, 'Should he not get a loan to perform Hajj?' The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: 'No"' (Al-Baihaqi).
Someone performing Hajj with unlawfully gained money, may technically fulfil his prescribed duty of pilgrimage, but according to the majority of the scholars, he will be guilty of sin for doing so. Imam Ahmad disagrees and holds that such a Hajj is not enough for a person to absolve him of his prescribed obligation, and this is more correct as the sahih hadith says: "Surely, Allah is Pure, and He does not accept anything but what is pure (and clean)." Also it is reported by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "As soon as a pilgrim sets out for Hajj with a provision which is lawful, and puts his foot in the stirrup (rides his mount) and calls out: 'O, Allah! Here I am in response to Your call,' an announcer answers him from the heavens above, saying: 'Your call has been heard; you are a happy one; your provisions are lawful, your mount is lawful and your pilgrimage is free of sin and acceptable.' But, if his provisions are unlawfully gained, and he puts his foot in the stirrup and calls out: 'O Allah! Here I am in response to Your call,' an announcer from the heavens above answers him back, saying: 'Your call is not accepted; nor are you welcome; your food is unlawful; your provisions are unlawful; and your pilgrimage is not free of sin and is unacceptable."' Al-Mundhri says: "This is reported by At-Tabarani in Al-Awsat, and also by Al-Asbahani in a mursal hadith from Aslam, the freed slave of 'Umar bin al-Khattab."
Malik said, "If the imam stops off on a journey in a town where jumua is obligatory and he gives a khutba and takes the jumua prayer for them, then the people of the town and any other people present do the jumua prayer with him."
Malik said, "If the imam gathers people for prayer while he is travelling in a town where the jumua prayer is not obligatory, then there is no jumua for him, nor for the people of the town, nor for anyone else who joins them for the prayer in congregation, and the people of the town and anyone else who is not travelling should complete the prayer."
Malik added, "A traveller does not have to do jumua "
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "While a shepherd was amongst his sheep, a wolf attacked them and took away one sheep. When the shepherd chased the wolf, the wolf turned towards him and said, 'Who will be its guard on the day of wild animals when nobody except I will be its shepherd.' And while a man was driving a cow with a load on it, it turned towards him and spoke to him saying, 'I have not been created for this purpose, but for ploughing.' " The people said, "Glorified be Allah." The Prophet said, "But I believe in it and so does Abu Bakr and 'Umar."
Al-Hafiz writes in Al-Fath: "Ibn al-Mundhir says there is a difference of opinion as to what is better for a pilgrim, walking or riding during the Hajj.
The majority of scholars hold riding is better, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) did so, and because it is more helpful (in concentrating) on praying and making supplications to Allah, apart from other benefits.
Ishaq bin Rahoweh says: "Walking is preferable for it involves more exertion and hardship (in the cause of Allah)." We may say that whether a person walks or rides during Hajj depends on each person and his particular circumstance .
Bukhari has transmitted from Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw a man leaning on both sides on his two sons, whereupon he asked: "What is the matter with this man?" The people said: "He has vowed to walk during Hajj." The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Allah is in no need whatever of torturing this man." Then he commanded the man to perform his Hajj riding."
There is no harm if a pilgrim engages in trade and business during Hajj or 'Umrah.
Ibn 'Abbas said: "In the beginning when Hajj was prescribed, the people used to trade at Mina, 'Arafah, and the market place of Dhul-Majaz (A place close to 'Arafah) during the Hajj season, but they feared it might be forbidden for them while in a state of ihram. Thereupon Allah revealed the verse (Qur'an 2.198): "It is no crime in you if you seek of the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage)." This is reported by Bukhari, Muslim and Nasa'i.
Commenting on the above verse, Ibn 'Abbas adds: "The people used to shun business while in Mina, so they were instructed to engage in business or trade while pouring down from 'Arafah.''ls Abu Omamah At-Taimi narrates that he said to Ibn 'Umar: "I rent mounts to people during Hajj season, and the people tell me that my Hajj is void." Ibn 'Umar asked him: "Do you not don Hajj garb, say talbiyah, go around the House of Allah, pour down from 'Arafah, and stone the Satan?" The man said, "Yes, I do." Ibn 'Umar said: "Then your Hajj is quite valid (and you will be rewarded for it). A person came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and asked him something similar to what you asked me, whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) remained silent until this verse (Qur'an 2.198) was revealed to him: "It is no crime in you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during Hajj season)." Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent for the man and recited the verse to him, saying: "Your Hajj is valid." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud and Sa'id ibn Mansur. Al-Hafiz Al-Mundhri said Abu Omamah is not known (as a narrator).
Ibn 'Abbas says that a man asked him: "I hire myself to these people to guide them in performing their rites of Hajj; will I have a reward for Hajj?" Ibn 'Abbas said: "Yes." (And then he recited) "To these will be allotted what they have earned; and Allah is quick in account.'' (Qur'an 2.202) This is transmitted by Al-Baihaqi and Ad-Daraqutni.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned the day of jumua and said, "There is a time in it when Allah gives to a muslim slave standing in prayer whatever he asks for," and the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, indicated with his hand how small it was.
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "While I was sleeping, I saw myself standing at a well, on it there was a bucket. I drew water from the well as much as Allah wished. Then Ibn Abi Quhafa (i.e. Abu Bakr) took the bucket from me and brought out one or two buckets (of water) and there was weakness in his drawing the water. May Allah forgive his weakness for him. Then the bucket turned into a very big one and Ibn Al-Khattab took it over and I had never seen such a mighty person amongst the people as him in performing such hard work, till the people drank to their satisfaction and watered their camels that knelt down there."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn al-Had from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf that Abu Hurayra said, "I went out to at-Tur (Mount Sinai) and met Kab al Ahbar and sat with him. He related to me things from the Tawrah and I related to him things from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Among the things I related to him was that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The best of days on which the sun rises is the day of jumua. In it Adam was created, and in it he fell from the Garden. In it he was forgiven, and in it he died. In it the Hour occurs, and every moving thing listens from morning till sunset in apprehension of the Hour except jinn and men. In it is a time when Allah gives toa muslim slave standing in prayer whatever he asks for.' Kab said, 'That is one day in every year.' I said, 'No, in every jumua.' Then Kab recited the Tawrah and said, 'The Messenger of Allah has spoken the truth.' "
Abu Hurayra continued, "I met Basra ibn Abi Basra al-Ghiffari and he said, 'Where have you come from?' I said, 'From at-Tur.' He said, 'If I had seen you before you left, you would not have gone. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Only make a special journey to three mosques: the mosque of the Haram (Makka), this mosque (Madina), and the mosque of Ilya or the Bait al-Maqdis (two names of Jerusalem)." ' " (He was not sure which expression was used.)
Abu Hurayra continued, "Then I met Abdullah ibn Salam and I told him that I had sat with Kabal-Ahbar, and I mentioned what I had related to him about the day of jumua, and told him that Kab had said, 'That is one day in every year.' Abdullah ibn Salam said, 'Kab lied,' and I added, 'Kab then recited the Tawrah and said, "No, it is in every jumua.'' ' Abdullah ibn Salam said, 'Kab spoke the truth. 'Then Abdullah ibn Salam said, 'I know what time that is.' "
Abu Hurayra continued, "I said to him, 'Let me know it - don't keep it from me.' Abdullah ibn Salam said, 'It is the last period of time in the dayof jumua.' "
Abu Hurayra continued, "I said, 'How can it be the last period of time in the day of jumua, when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "a muslim slave standing in prayer", and that is a time when there is no prayer?' Abdullah ibn Salam replied, 'Didn't the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "Whoever sits waiting for the prayer is in prayer until he prays?" "'
Abu Hurayra added, "I said, 'Of course.' He said, 'Then it is that.' "
That Allah's Apostle said, "Allah will not look on the Day of Judgment at him who drags his robe (behind him) out of pride." Abu Bakr said "One side of my robe slacks down unless I get very cautious about it." Allah's Apostle said, "But you do not do that with a pride."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There is nothing wrong in wearing two garments which are not work-clothes for jumua."
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Anybody who spends a pair of something in Allah's Cause will be called from all the gates of Paradise, 'O Allah's slave! This is good.' He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan." Abu Bakr said, "He who is called from all those gates will need nothing," He added, "Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah's Apostle?" He said, "Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr."
Muslim reports: "Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah and Ishaq bin Ibrahim told us that Hatem bin Isma'il al-Madani reported of Ja'far bin Mohammad and he of his father, saying, 'We visited Jabir bin Abdullah (he was blind) and he began inquiring about the people (who had come to see him) till it was my turn. I said: "I am Mohammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein." He placed his hand on my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one, and then placed his hand on my chest (in order to bless me). I was during those days a young boy, and then he said: "You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask." I asked him a question but it was time for prayer. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. Whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down because it was short (in size). Another mantle was, however, Iying on the clothes rack nearby (and he put it on) and led the prayer. I said to him: "Tell me about the Hajj of the Prophet (peace be upon him)." He held up his nine fingers and said: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) stayed in Madinah for nine years but did not perform Hajj. Then, in the tenth year he made a public announcement to the effect that Allah's Messenger was about to perform the Hajj. A large number of people came to Madinah, and all of them were eager to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him) and follow his actions.
"We set out with him until we reached Dhul-Hulaifah, where Asma bint 'Umais gave birth to Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr. She sent a message to the Prophet (peace be upon him) asking him: "What should I do?" He said, "Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on ihram.
"The Prophet (peace be upon him) then prayed in the mosque and then mounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back at al-Baida. As far as I could see in front of me, behind me, on my right and on my left, I saw riders and pedestrians. The Messenger of Allah (peace be him) was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Qur'an was descending upon him, and it is he who knows (its true) interpretation. Whatever he did, we also did.
He pronounced the Oneness of Allah (saying): Labbaika Allahumma labbaik labbaika la sharika laka labbaik, innal hamda wan-ni'mata laka wal mulk, la sharika lak (O Allah! I hasten to You. You have no partner. I hasten to You. All praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; You have no partner). And the people also pronounced this talbiyah which they pronounce today. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) did not disapprove of anything in it, but he adhered to his own talbiyah.
Jabir said: "We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only, being unaware of the 'Umrah, but when we came with him to the House (of Allah), he touched the Black Stone (Hajar al Aswad) and made seven circuits, running three of them and walking four. Then going to the Station of Ibrahim, he recited: "And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.'' (Qur'an 2.125) He stood at a place where the Station (of Ibrahim) was between him and the House. There he prayed two rak'ahs reciting Surah Al-lkhlas, and Surah Al-Kafirun. He then returned to the Black Stone (Hajar al A.sl~ad) and kissed it. Then he went out of the gate to Safa, and as he approached it he recited: "Al-Safa and al-Marwah are among the signs appointed by Allah," (Qur'an 2.15) (adding:) I begin with what Allah began. He first mounted Safa until he saw the House, and facing Qiblah he declared the Oneness of Allah and glorified Him and said: La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulk wa lahul hamd, wa huwa 'ala kulli sha'in qadeer, la ilaha illallahu wahdahu anjaza wa'dahu, wa nasara 'abdahu, wa hazamal ahzaba wahdah (There is no God but Allah, One, He has no partner. His is the Sovereignty, to Him praise is due, and He is Powerful over everything. There is no God but Allah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone").
He said these words three times making supplications in between. He then descended and walked towards Marwah, and when his feet touched the bottom of the valley, he ran; and when he began to ascend, he walked till he reached Marwah. There he did as he had done at Safa.
"When it was his last round of Marwah he said: 'If I had known beforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have brought sacrificial animals and would have offered it as an 'Umrah. So, he among you who has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off ihram and treat it as an 'Umrah. Suraqa ibn Malik ibn Ju'tham got up and said, 'Messenger of Allah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into another and said twice: 'The 'Umrah has become incorporated in the Hajj,' (adding): 'No, but forever and ever.'
"Ali came from Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet (peace be upon him) and found Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) to be one among those who had put olf ihram. put on dyed clothes, and had applied kuhl*. Ali showed diiapproval of it, whereupon she said: 'My father has commanded me to do this.' (The narrator) said that Ali used to say in Iraq: 'I went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) showing annoyance at Fatimah for what she had done, and asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding what she had narrated from him, and told him that he was angry with her, whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'She has told the truth; she has told the truth.'
"(The Prophet then asked Ali): 'What did you say when you put on ihram?' I (Ali) said: 'O Allah, I am putting on ihram for the same purpose as Your Messenger has put it on.' Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) told him, 'I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the ihram.'
"(Jabir) said: 'The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by Ali from Yemen and of those brought by the Prophet (peace be upon him) was one hundred. All the people except the Prophet (peace be upon him) and those who had with them sacrificial animals, put off ihram and got their hair clipped. When it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Dhul-Hijjah) they went to Mina and put on the ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) rode and led there, the noon, afternoon, sunset, 'Isha and dawn prayers. He then waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hair should be pitched at Namira.
"The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then set out and the Quraish did not doubt that he would halt at Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (the sacred site) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafah and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours.
Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet, and completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days of Ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi 'a ibn al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of the pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished.
Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by word of Allah. You too have rights over them, in that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner.
I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray. And you will be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: "We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel." He (the narrator) said: "He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said): 'O Allah, be witness. O Allah be witness,' saying it thrice' ."
"Then adhan was pronounced and later on iqama and the Prophet (peace be upon him) led the noon prayer. Then another Iqama was pronounced and the Prophet (peace be upon him) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no other prayer in between the two. (This proves the validity of joining Zuhr and 'Asr prayer on this day, at this place. There is consensus on it, but there is disagreement as to its cause. Abu Hanifah and some Shafi'i scholars hold that it is a part of Hajj, but the majority of Shafi+i scholars hold it is due to journey) The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then mounted his camel and came to the place where he was to stay. He made his she-camel, al-Qaswa, turn towards the rocky side, with the pedestrian path Iying in front of him. He faced the Qiblah, and stood there until the sun set, and the yellow light diminished somewhat, and the disc of the sun totally disappeared. He made Usama sit behind him, and pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and pointing out with his right hand, advised the people to be moderate (in speed) saying: "O people! calmness, calmness!" Whenever he passed over an elevated tract of land, he slightly loosened the nose-string of his camel till she climbed up. This is how he reached al-Muzdalifah."
"There he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one adhan and two iqamas and did not glorify (Allah) in between them (i.e. he did not observe supererogatory rak 'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha prayers). The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then lay down til1 dawn and offered the dawn prayer with an adhan and iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mounted al-Qaswa, and when he came to Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram, he faced Qiblah, and supplicated to Allah, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness and Oneness, and kept standing till the daylight was very clear.
"He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him was Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas, who wa.s a man with beautiful hair, fair complexion, and handsome face. As the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) moved on, a group of women riding camels was also passing. Al-Fadl began to look at them. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) placed his hand on Al-Fadl's face who then turned his face to the other side, and began to look, and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) turned his hand to the other side and placed it on Al-Fadl's face. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to the bottom of Muhassir. He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middle road, (This proves that it is sunnah to follow a different road on the way back from Arafah than the one taken while going toward it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) went by the Dab road to Arafah. Similarly he used to take different routes going to or coming back from 'Eid prayers) which comes out at the greatest Jamarah, he came to the Jamarah which is near the tree. At this he threw seven small pebbles, saying, 'Allahu Akbar' while throwing every one of them in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (holding them with fingers) and this he did while at the bottom of the valley. (That is, he stood there at a place where Mina, Arafah and Al-Muzdalifah were on his right, and Makkah on his left side)
"He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand. He shared the remaining camels with Ali, who sacrificed them. He then commanded that a piece of meat from each sacrificed animal be put in a pot. When it was cooked, both of them (the Prophet and Ali) ate some of it and drank its soup.
"The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) again rode and came to the House (of Allah), where he performed Tawaf Al-Ifadah and oftered the Zuhr prayer at Makkah. He came to the tribe of 'Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplying water at Zamzam, and said: 'Draw water, O Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would have drawn it along with you.' So they handed him a bucket and he drank from it."
The scholars said: "This hadith is one of its kind. It contains lots of valuable information." Al-Qadi 'Iyad said: "Many scholars have spoken (and written) at great length about the legal injunctions contained in this hadith." Abu Bakr ibn Al-Mundhir has listed a large part of these identifying about one hundred and fifty injuctions. He observes that if he had analysed more closely this number would almost double.
The scholars said: This hadith indicates that for the women giving birth to a child or having monthly periods it is sunnah - and much more so for others - to take a bath when they intend to perform Hajj or 'Umrah. It also teaches us that the women who are menstruating or are still in their confinement after childbirth, should clean themselves properly, cover their private parts with a piece of cotton, then declare their ihram. It also indicates that ihram must be declared after offering either a fard or a supererogatory prayer. After declaring ihram one should utter talbiyah loudly and preferably use the same words as used by the Prophet (peace be upon him). However, there is no harm in adding similar phrases as 'Umar did: "O Allah! I answer Your call, You Who gives blessings and good favors. I answer Your call fearing You, and wishing Your favor."
This hadith also indicates that a pilgrim must first come to Makkah where one must perform circumambulation of arrival in Makkah (Tawaf qudoom), and touch the Black Stone--if possible--and make the first three rounds running, while making the other four walking at normal speed. The running is done around the Ka'bah except between the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone.
After making the Tawaf one must go to the Station of Ibrahim (peace be upon him) and recite the verse: "Take the Station of Ibrahim as a place for prayer." Then standing there, with the Station of Ibrahim between him and the Ka'bah, he should pray two rak'ahs reciting after Al-Fatihah, Surah Al-Kafirun in the first rak'ah, and Surah Al-lkhlas in the second rak'ah. This hadith also indicates that touching the Black Stone again prior to leaving the Sacred Mosque is recommended (if possible), just as one did upon entering it. There is consensus among the scholars that touching (kissing) the Black Stone is sunnah.
After that, one must make Sa'i and for this purpose go to mount Safa. climb it, face the Ka'bah and make supplications three times to Allah. Then. one must climb down and walk toward Marwah, while jogging in the marked area called bainal milain between Safa and Marwah every time one passes this area during the seven rounds not just in the first three rounds as in Tawaf. On reaching Marwah one should climb it just as one climbed Safa, make supplications, and make remembrance.
Completion of all these rites will complete one's 'Umrah. Now one should either shave one's head or clip some of one's hair to get out of the state of ihram. This is precisely what the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) did when the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded them to change their Hajj to 'Umrah. As for the pilgrim who is combining Hajj and 'Umrah, he must not shave or clip his hair, but should remain in his state of ihram.
On the 8th of Dhul-Hij jah. those who had put off their ihram after making 'Umrah, should again put on ihra77l to perform pilgrimage, and then head to Mina with those who combine Hajj and 'Umrah. It is sunnah to offer the five daily prayers in Mina and to spend the night of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah there.
It is also sunnah not to leave Mina for 'Arafah until after the sunrise, and not to enter 'Arafah until the sun begins to decline, and after ot'fering both Zuhr and 'Asr prayers, which the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered at Namira which is not a part of 'Arafah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not enter his quarters at 'Arafah until after otfering Zuhr and 'Asr prayers. Moreover, it is also sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to offer some supererogatory (nawafil) prayers in between these two prayers.
The imam should give a sermon before the prayer, which is one of the sunnah sermons in pilgrimage. The second sermon is given by the imam on the 7th of Dhul-Hijjah after Zuhr prayer in the Ka'bah. The third of these sunnah sermons is delivered on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of slaughtering. And the fourth sermon is given on the day the people leave (yawm an-nafr)--the 11th day of Dhul-Hijjah.
This hadith also contains some important manners and etiquette for performing Hajj and 'Umrah:
One is thereafter permitted to engage in any lawful activity that was unlawful for him while in the state of ihram, including sexual intercourse with one's wife. A person who has thrown pebbles at Jamarah al- 'Aqabah, but has not performed the circumambulation of if adah (or ziyarah) may engage in any lawful activity except sexual intercourse with his wife.
That is the guidance of the Prophet (peace be upon him) concerning Hajj. It explains what he meant when, according to a hadith, he said: "Take your rites from me," for his Hajj alone is the real and true Hajj.
In the following pages we will deal in detail with all these rites, and the opinions of various scholars concerning them.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar would never go to jumua without wearing oil and perfume except when it was forbidden (i.e. when he was muhrim).
(the wife of the Prophet) Allah's Apostle died while Abu Bakr was at a place called As-Sunah (Al-'Aliya) 'Umar stood up and said, "By Allah! Allah's Apostle is not dead!" 'Umar (later on) said, "By Allah! Nothing occurred to my mind except that." He said, "Verily! Allah will resurrect him and he will cut the hands and legs of some men." Then Abu Bakr came and uncovered the face of Allah's Apostle, kissed him and said, "Let my mother and father be sacrificed for you, (O Allah's Apostle), you are good in life and in death. By Allah in Whose Hands my life is, Allah will never make you taste death twice." Then he went out and said, "O oath-taker! Don't be hasty." When Abu Bakr spoke, 'Umar sat down. Abu Bakr praised and glorified Allah and said, -No doubt! Whoever worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, then Allah is alive and shall never die." Then he recited Allah's Statement.: "(O Muhammad) Verily you will die, and they also will die." (39.30) He also recited:
"Muhammad is no more than an Apostle; and indeed many Apostles have passed away, before him, If he dies Or is killed, will you then Turn back on your heels? And he who turns back On his heels, not the least Harm will he do to Allah And Allah will give reward to those Who are grateful." (3.144)
The people wept loudly, and the Ansar were assembled with Sad bin 'Ubada in the shed of Bani Saida. They said (to the emigrants). "There should be one 'Amir from us and one from you." Then Abu Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abu 'baida bin Al-Jarrah went to them. 'Umar wanted to speak but Abu Bakr stopped him. 'Umar later on used to say, "By Allah, I intended only to say something that appealed to me and I was afraid that Abu Bakr would not speak so well. Then Abu Bakr spoke and his speech was very eloquent. He said in his Statement, "We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers)." Hubab bin Al-Mundhir said, "No, by Allah we won't accept this. But there must be a ruler from us and a ruler from you." Abu Bakr said, "No, we will be the rulers and you will be the ministers, for they (i.e. Quarish) are the best family amongst the 'Arabs and of best origin. So you should elect either 'Umar or Abu 'Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah as your ruler." 'Umar said (to Abu Bakr), "No but we elect you, for you are our chief and the best amongst us and the most beloved of all of us to Allah's Apostle." So 'Umar took Abu Bakr's hand and gave the pledge of allegiance and the people too gave the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr. Someone said, "You have killed Sad bin Ubada." 'Umar said, "Allah has killed him." 'Aisha said (in another narration), "(When the Prophet was on his deathbed) he looked up and said thrice, '(Amongst) the Highest Companion,' (See Qur'an 4.69)." Aisha said, "Allah benefited the people by their two speeches. 'Umar frightened the people some of whom were hypocrites whom Allah Caused to abandon Islam beCause of 'Umar's speech. Then Abu Bakr led the people to True Guidance and acquainted them with the right path they were to follow so that they went out reciting: 'Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed many Apostles have passed away before him...' (3.144)"