Allah's Apostle said: "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah and they do not eclipse because of the death of someone but Allah frightens His devotees with them."
Allah's Apostle said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone's death or life but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah, so pray whenever you see them."
In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and the Prophet (p.b.u.h) stood up to offer the prayer with the people and recited a long recitation, then he performed a prolonged bowing, and then lifted his head and recited a prolonged recitation which was shorter than the first. Then he performed a prolonged bowing which was shorter than the first and then lifted his head and performed two prostrations. He then stood up for the second Raka and offered it like the first. Then he stood up and said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone's life or death but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah which He shows to His worshipers. So whenever you see them, make haste for the prayer."
The Prophet led us and performed four bowing in two Rakat during the solar eclipse and the first Raka was longer.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the way of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his life and wealth in danger [for Allah's sake] and returns with neither of them." This is related by the group save Muslim and an-Nasa'i.
Ahmad and at-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "There is no day more honorable in Allah's sight and no acts more beloved therein to Allah than those in these ten days. So say tahlil ["There is no God but Allah"], takbir [Allah is the greatest] and tahmid ["All praise is due to Allah"] a lot [on those days]."
Ibn 'Abbas says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allah during the well known days," that it refers to the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. This is related by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair would push himself very hard [to do good deeds] during these ten days.
Al-Auza'i says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten days is similar to fighting in the way of Allah, fasting during its days and guarding during its nights, except for him who becomes a martyr." As to its source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani Makhzum related that to me from the Prophet."
Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "There are no days more loved to Allah for you to worship Him therein than the ten days of DhulHijja. Fasting any day during it is equivalent to fasting one year and to offer salatul tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one of its nights is like performing the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., Lailatul Qadr]." This is related by at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of 'id.
Jabir ibn Nafir reports: "When the companions of the Prophet met each other on the day of 'id, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka [May Allah] accept it from us and you.'" Ibn Hajar said that its chain is hasan.
It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on 'id days. Concerning the 'id of breaking the fast, Allah says "you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allah [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks." Concerning the 'id of the sacrifice, Allah says: "that you may remember Allah during the well known days;" and: "He has made them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for His guidance to you. The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the 'id of breaking the fast is from the time one goes to the 'id prayer until the khutbah begins. Weak hadith have been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn 'Umar and other companions that they did so. Al-Hakim says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadith. Malik, Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice] ."
Some say that the takbirat are from the night before the 'id, when the moon is seen, until the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. The time for the takbirat during the 'id of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafah until the time of the 'asr on the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah.
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "None of that has been confirmed from the Prophet. The most authentic report from the companions is that 'Ali and Ibn Mas'ud would make the takbirat from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Mundhir and others reported it. AshShaf'i, Ahamd, Abu Yusuf, and Muhammad follow that report and it is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas."
There is no specific time for the takbirat during the days of tashriq (three days after 'idul adha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbirat during every moment of those days.
Al-Bukhari recorded: "During 'Umar's stay at Mina, he would say takbirat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it and then they would start doing it also and the people in the market place would do the same and all of Mina would resound with the takbirat. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbirat, during those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of those days. Maimuna would say the takbirat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to say takbirat behind Abban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz along with the men in the mosque during the days of tashriq." Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar said: "These reports show that the takbirat are made during all the times of these days, after salah and all other times. Some say the takbirat are made only after the salah, and some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not after nawafl, others declare them to be for men and not for women, while some say that they are only to be said in congregations and not individually, while others reserve them only for those who perform the salah on time and not for those who are making up a missed prayer, and some say only for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the people of the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari is of the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he has transmitted support his opinion."
These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that which has been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazaq from Salman, who said: "They made takbirat with: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar kabeera."' From 'Umar and ibn Mas'ud the following is related: "Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd." Translation: Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. All praise belongs to Allah.
In the lifetime of Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) the sun eclipsed, so he led the people in prayer, and stood up and performed a long Qiyam, then bowed for a long while. He stood up again and performed a long Qiyam but this time the period of standing was shorter than the first. He bowed again for a long time but shorter than the first one, then he prostrated and prolonged the prostration. He did the same in the second Raka as he did in the first and then finished the prayer; by then the sun (eclipse) had cleared. He delivered the Khutba (sermon) and after praising and glorifying Allah he said, "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse on the death or life of anyone. So when you see the eclipse, remember Allah and say Takbir, pray and give Sadaqa." The Prophet then said, "O followers of Muhammad! By Allah! There is none who has more ghaira (self-respect) than Allah as He has forbidden that His slaves, male or female commit adultery (illegal sexual intercourse). O followers of Muhammad! By Allah! If you knew that which I know you would laugh little and weep much.
On the day of Ibrahim's death, the sun eclipsed and the people said that the eclipse was due to the death of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet). Allah's Apostle said, "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah. They do not eclipse because of someone's death or life. So when you see them, invoke Allah and pray till the eclipse is clear."
(the wife of the Prophet (p.b.u.h)) In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and he went to the Mosque and the people aligned behind him. He said the Takbir (starting the prayer) and prolonged the recitation (from the Quran) and then said Takbir and performed a prolonged bowing; then he (lifted his head and) said, "Sami allahu liman hamidah" (Allah heard him who sent his praises to Him). He then did not prostrate but stood up and recited a prolonged recitation which was shorter than the first recitation. He again said Takbir and then bowed a prolonged bowing but shorter than the first one and then said, "Sami 'a-l-lahu Lyman hamidah Rabbana walak-lhamd, (Allah heard him who sent his praises to Him. O our Sustainer! All the praises are for You)" and then prostrated and did the same in the second Raka; thus he completed four bowing and four prostrations. The sun (eclipse) had cleared before he finished the prayer. (After the prayer) he stood up, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then said, "The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah. They do not eclipse because of the death or the life (i.e. birth) of someone. When you see them make haste for the prayer." Narrated Az-Zuhri: I said to 'Ursa, "When the sun eclipsed at Medina your brother ('Abdullah bin Az-Zubair) offered only a two-Rak'at prayer like that of the morning (Fajr) prayer." 'Ursa replied, "Yes, for he missed the Prophet's tradition (concerning this matter)."
"When the sun eclipsed in the lifetime of Allah's Apostle an announcement was made that a prayer was to be offered in congregation."
No doubt the Prophet ordered people to manumit slaves during the solar eclipse.
The sun eclipsed in the lifetime of the Prophet (p.b.u.h). Allah's Apostle offered the eclipse prayer and stood for a long period equal to the period in which one could recite Surat-al-Baqara. Then he bowed for a long time and then stood up for a long period which was shorter than that of the first standing, then bowed again for a long time but for a shorter period than the first; then he prostrated twice and then stood up for a long period which was shorter than that of the first standing; then he bowed for a long time which was shorter than the previous one, and then he raised his head and stood up for a long period which was shorter than the first standing, then he bowed for a long time which was shorter than the first bowing, and then prostrated (twice) and finished the prayer. By then, the sun (eclipse) had cleared. The Prophet then said, "The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah. They eclipse neither because of the death of somebody nor because of his life (i.e. birth). So when you see them, remember Allah." The people say, "O Allah's Apostle! We saw you taking something from your place and then we saw you retreating." The Prophet replied, "I saw Paradise and stretched my hands towards a bunch (of its fruits) and had I taken it, you would have eaten from it as long as the world remains. I also saw the Hell-fire and I had never seen such a horrible sight. I saw that most of the inhabitants were women." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! Why is it so?" The Prophet replied, "Because of their ungratefulness." It was asked whether they are ungrateful to Allah. The Prophet said, "They are ungrateful to their companions of life (husbands) and ungrateful to good deeds. If you are benevolent to one of them throughout the life and if she sees anything (undesirable) in you, she will say, 'I have never had any good from you.' "
A Jewess came to 'Aisha to ask her about something and then she said, "May Allah give you refuge from the punishment of the grave." So 'Aisha asked Allah's Apostle, "Would the people be punished in their graves?" Allah's Apostle asked Allah's refuge from the punishment of the grave (indicating an affirmative reply). Then one day Allah's Apostle rode (to leave for some place) but the sun eclipsed. He returned on the forenoon and passed through the rear of the dwellings (of his wives) and stood up and started offering the (eclipse) prayer and the people stood behind him. He stood for a long period and then performed a long bowing and then stood straight for a long period which was shorter than that of the first standing, then he performed a prolonged bowing which was shorter than the first bowing, then he raised his head and prostrated for a long time and then stood up (for the second Raka) for a long while, but the standing was shorter than the standing of the first Raka. Then he performed a prolonged bowing which was shorter than that of the first one. He then stood up for a long time but shorter than the first, then again performed a long bowing which was shorter than the first and then prostrated for a shorter while than that of the first prostration. Then he finished the prayer and delivered the sermon and) said what Allah wished; and ordered the people to seek refuge with Allah from the punishment of the grave.
The 'id prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir seven times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah. During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of the takbir. This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and his son Abdullah.
'Amr ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet would make twelve takbirat during the 'id prayer, seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'id. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: "I follow that."
Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni report that the Prophet said: "The takbirat during the ['id of breaking the fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second, and the Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at." This is the strongest opinion and it is the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from among the companions, the successors, and the imams. Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of takbirat, says: "It has been related through many good chains that the Prophet made seven takbirat in the first rak'ah and five in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah. Abu Waqid, and 'Amer ibn 'Auf al-Mazni. Nothing that has been related from him, either through a stonger or weaker chain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced."
As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet would be silent for a short period of time between the takbirat, and nothing has been related from him concerning exactly what he said during that pause; however, at-Tabarani and al-Baihai relate, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud would praise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make prayers upon the Prophet during such intervals. The same has been recorded from Hudhaifah and Abu Musa. Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.
Ibn Qudamah says: "I know of no difference of opinion on that point." Ash-Shaukani states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the takbirat out of forgetfulness, he is not to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
We were with Allah's Apostle when the sun eclipsed. Allah's Apostle stood up dragging his cloak till he entered the Mosque. He led us in a two-Rak'at prayer till the sun (eclipse) had cleared. Then the Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone's death. So whenever you see these eclipses pray and invoke (Allah) till the eclipse is over."
It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the 'id prayer. The Prophet never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the musalla (prayer place).
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out to the site of the 'id prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without praying anything before or after it." This is related by the group.
It is reported that Ibn 'Umar did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the Prophet.
Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas disliked that one should perform a prayer before salatul 'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar has stated in Fath al-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day.
The 'id prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.
In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "If one misses salatul 'id he may pray two rak'at and the same is the case for the women or people in their houses or in the countryside. This is based on the Prophet's words: 'O Muslims, this is our festival."' Anas ibn Malik ordered his protege Ibn abi-'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to gather his family and children and to pray [the 'id prayer] like the people in the city and with takbirat similar to theirs. 'Ikrimah said: "The people of the country should gather for the 'id and pray two rak'at as the imam does." 'Ata says: "If you miss the 'id [salah], pray two rak'at."
The khutbah after salatul id is a sunnah and so is listening to it. Abu Sa'id says: "On the id of breaking the fast and of the sacrifice, the Prophet would go to the musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah and when he finished, he would face the people while the people were sitting in rows, and he would admonish them, advise them, and exhort them [to do good deeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or order something, he would do so and then leave." Abu Sa'id then says: "The people continued to act likewise until I went out with Marwan, while he was the govenor of Medinah, for one of the two 'ids. When I arrived at the place of prayer, I found a minbar that was built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. When Marwan went to mount it before the prayer, I pulled him by his clothes. He pushed me away and gave the khutbah before the salah. I said to him: 'By Allah you have changed [the order].' He said: 'O Abu Sa'id...what you know is gone.' I said: 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I don't know.' He said: 'The people would not stay with us after the salah so we made the khutbah before the salah.'" This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the 'id salah with the Messenger of Allah and when he finished the salah he said: 'We will be delivering a khutbah. Whoever wishes to stay for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like to leave, may leave . ' " This is related by an-Nasa' i, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
Whatever has been recorded suggests that there are two khutbahs for the 'id and the imam sits between them [i.e., like the khutbatul Jumu'ah]. Such reports are considered weak. An-Nawawi says: "There is nothing at all substantiated about there being more than one khutbah."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his khutbahs with the praise of Allah and there is no hadith from him that states that he began his 'id khutbahs with takbir.
Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa'id, the mu'adhdhin of the Prophet, that the Prophet would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more so during the 'id khutbahs. Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbah with it! The people differ over the beginning of the 'id and the khutbah for salatul istisqa' (prayer for rain). Some say that they are to begin with takbir. Some say that the khutbah for salatul istisqa' begins with praying for forgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allah." Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said: 'Every affair that does not begin with the praise of Allah is deficient.' The Prophet began all of his speeches with praises of Allah. Concerning the statement of many jurists, i.e.. he began the 'prayer for rain' by asking forgiveness from Allah and the id speech with takbir, there is absolutely no proof for it in the Prophet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that statement as he began all of his speeches with the praises of Allah."
The Prophet said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death of someone from the people but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah. When you see them stand up and pray."
Abu 'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among the companions of the Messenger of Allah said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from us and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came and they bore witness to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam that they had seen the moon the previous night. The Prophet ordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of the salatul 'id on the next day.'" This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah with a sahih chain. In this hadith there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss salatul 'id due to some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day.
The Prophet said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life (i.e. birth) of someone but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah. When you see them offer the prayer."
Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible on the days of 'id.
Anas reports: "When the Prophet came to Medinah they had two days of sport and amusement. The Prophet said: "Allah, the Exalted, has exchanged these days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of sacrifice." This is related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.
'Aishah says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque on the day of 'id. I looked over the Prophet's shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them until I was satisfied and left." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: "Abu Bakr entered upon us on the day of 'id and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song the battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Abu Bakr said: 'Slaves of Allah, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The Prophet said to him: 'O Abu Bakr, every people have a festival and this is our festival."' In al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah, entered the house and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet lied down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. Abu Bakr entered and spoke harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah turned his face to him and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu Bakr became inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of 'id and the Africans were performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet asked if I would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At this the Prophet made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was saying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet asked: 'Is that enough for you?' I replied: "yes," so he said: 'Leave [then].'"
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu az-Zinad on the authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet said that day: 'Let the Jews of Medinah know that our religion is spacious [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with an easy and straight forward religion. "'
Ahmad and Muslim record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The days of tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'id is celebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and of remembering Allah, the Exalted."
"The sun eclipsed in the lifetime of Allah's Apostle on the day when (his son) Ibrahim died. So the people said that the sun had eclipsed because of the death of Ibrahim. Allah's Apostle said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life (i.e. birth) of someone. When you see the eclipse pray and invoke Allah."
In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and then he offered a two Rakat prayer.
In the lifetime of the Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) the sun eclipsed and he went out dragging his clothes till he reached the Mosque. The people gathered around him and he led them and offered two Rakat. When the sun (eclipse) cleared, he said, "The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because of the death of someone, and so when an eclipse occurs, pray and invoke Allah till the eclipse is over." It happened that a son of the Prophet called Ibrahim died on that day and the people were talking about that (saying that the eclipse was caused by his death).
When the sun eclipsed in the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and an announcement was made that the prayer was to be held in congregation. The Prophet performed two bowing in one Raka. Then he stood up and performed two bowing in one Raka. Then he sat down and finished the prayer; and by then the (eclipse) had cleared 'Aisha said, "I had never performed such a long prostration."
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) recited (the Quran) aloud during the eclipse prayer and when he had finished the eclipse prayer he said the Takbir and bowed. When he stood straight from bowing he would say "Sami 'al-l-ahu Lyman hamidah Rabbana walaka-l-hamd." And he would again start reciting. In the eclipse prayer there are four bowing and four prostrations in two Rakat. Al-Auza'i and others said that they had heard Az-Zuhi from 'Ursa from 'Aisha saying, "In the lifetime of Allah's Apostle the sun eclipsed, and he made a person to announce: 'Prayer in congregation.' He led the prayer and performed four bowing and four prostrations in two Rakat." Narrated Al-Walid that 'Abdur-Rahman bin Namir had informed him that he had heard the same. Ibn Shihab heard the same. Az-Zuhri said, "I asked ('Ursa), 'What did your brother 'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair do? He prayed two Rakat (of the eclipse prayer) like the morning prayer, when he offered the (eclipse) prayer in Medina.' 'Ursa replied that he had missed (i.e. did not pray according to) the Prophet's tradition." Sulaiman bin Kathir and Sufyan bin Husain narrated from Az-Zuhri that the prayer for the eclipse used to be offered with loud recitation.