This is proven from the three major sources of Islamic law:
Many hadith state the virtues of ablution. We shall mention just a few:
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, travelled by night on the way back from Khaybar.Towards the end of the night he stopped for a rest and told Bilal to stay awake to keep watch for the subh prayer. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his companions slept. Bilal stayed on guard as long as was decreed for him and then he leant against his riding camel facing the direction of the dawn and sleep overcame him and neither he nor the Messenger of Allah nor any of the party woke up until the sun's rays had struck them. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was alarmed. Bilal excused himself, saying, "Messenger of Allah! The One who took your self was the One who took myself. "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered the party to move on and so they roused thei r mounts and rode on a short distance. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, ordered Bilal to give the iqama and then led them in the subh prayer. When he had finished he said, "Anyone who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers. Allah theBlessed and Exalted says in His book, 'Establish the prayer to remember Me.'"
Allah's Apostle was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) 'Mubrur, (which is accepted by Allah and is performed with the intention of seeking Allah's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)."
This applies to both men and women. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the authority of his father from his grandfather that the Prophet said, "Do not pluck the grey hairs as they are a Muslim's light. Never a Muslim grows grey in Islam except that Allah writes for him, due to that, a good deed. And he raises him a degree. And he erases for him, due to that, one of his sins." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) And Anas said, "We used to hate that a man should pluck out his white hairs from his head or beard." (Related by Muslim. )
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The Jews and Christians do not dye, so differ from them." (Related by "the group.") Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "The best thing that one can use to change the color of grey hairs is henna and katm (a reddish dye)." (Related by "the five.")
There are some narrations that state that dying is disliked, but it is obvious that these narrations conflict with the sunnah and custom. It is related from some of the companions that it is better not to dye, while others say it is better to do it. Some used a yellow dye, while others used henna or katm. Others used saffron, and a group of them used a black dye. Ibn Hajr mentioned in Fath al-Bari that az-Zuhri said, "We used black dye if our face was youthful, but if wrinkles were present and the teeth were gone we would not use it." Said Jabir, "Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr's father) was brought to the Prophet during the conquest of Makkah while his head was "white." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Take him to one of his wives and let her change the color of his hair with something, but she should avoid (making his hair) black." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and at-Tirmidhi). This dealt with a certain incident, and cannot be generalized. Furthermore, black would not be proper for someone as old as Abu Quhafah.
Yahya related to me from Malik thatYahya ibn Said used to say, "Even if someone manages to pray before the time of the prayer has passed, the time that has passed him by is more important, or better, than his family and wealth."
Yahya said that Malik said, "If the time for a prayer comes and a traveller delays a prayer through neglect or forgetfulness until he reaches his family, he should do that prayer in full if he arrives within the time. But if he arrives when the time has past, he should do the travelling prayer. That way he only repays what he owes."
Malik said, "This is what I have found the people and men of knowledge doing in our community." Malik explained that shafaq was the redness in the sky after the sun had set, and said, "When the redness has gone then the isha prayer is due and you have left the time of maghrib."
Once Allah's Apostle passed by an Ansari (man) who was admonishing to his brother regarding Haya'. On that Allah's Apostle said, "Leave him as Haya' is a part of faith." (See Hadith No. 8)
This is based on the hadith of Aus ibn Aus al-Thaqafi who said, "I saw the Messenager of Allah make ablution, and he washed his hands three times." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When one of you rises from his sleep, he should not put his hand into a pot until he has washed it three times, for he does not know where his hand was (while he slept)." (Related by "the group", al-Bukhari did not mention the number of times.)
Laqit ibn Sabrah reported that the Prophet said, "When one performs ablution, he should rinse his mouth." (Related by Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi.)
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When one of you performs ablution, he should sniff water up his nostrils and then blow it out." (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud.)
The sunnah is to put the water into the nostrils with the right hand and blow it out with the left. 'Ali once called for water for ablution, rinsed his mouth, sniffed up water into his nostrils and blew it out with his left hand. He did that three times and then said, "That is how the Prpohet, upon whom be peace, would purify himself." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.)
This sunnah is fulfilled by putting water into the mouth and nostrils in any way. The practice of the Prophet was to do both acts at the same time. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid said, "The Prophet would rinse his mouth and nose with just one hand (at one time, together). He did that three times." In one narration it says, "He would rinse his mouth and nose with three scoops of water." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) It is also sunnah to be plentiful (with water) while performing this sunnah, except if one is fasting. Laqit asked the Prophet, "Inform me about your ablution." He replied, "Complete and perfect the ablution and (put water) between your fingers. Use lots of water while sniffing it up your nostrils, unless you are fasting." (Related by "the five." At-Tirmidhi said it is sahih.)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al-Musayyab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Anyone who eats this plant should not come near our mosques. The smell of the garlic will offend us."
While I was going to help this man ('Ali Ibn Abi Talib), Abu Bakr met me and asked, "Where are you going?" I replied, "I am going to help that person." He said, "Go back for I have heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.' I said, 'O Allah's Apostle! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?' Allah's Apostle replied, "He surely had the intention to kill his companion."
These are pleasing to the soul and beautify the atmosphere. Anas reported the Messenger of Allah as saying, "Among the things of this world, I love women and perfume, and the coolness of my eyes is prayer." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "If someone offers perfume, do not reject it, for it is light to carry and has a sweet scent." (Related by Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet said about musk, "It is the best of perfumes." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).
Nafa' narrated that Ibn 'Umar used to burn and inhale a branch called aluwah that has a nice smell. He also used camphor. He used to say, "This is the way the Messenger of Allah inhaled such scents (that is, by burning them.)" (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that one time Abdullah ibn Umar fainted and lost his senses and he did not make up the prayer.
Malik commented, "We consider that that was because, and Allah knows best, the time had passed. Someone who recovers within the time has to pray."
Allah's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah."
'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal narrated that the Prophet said, "None of you should urinate in a bathing place and then make ablution in the water. The majority of waswas comes from that." This is related by "the five," but the statement, "and then make ablution in it" was only related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Jabir said the Prophet forbade urinating in still as well as running water. (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) In Majma az-Zuwaid it states, "This was related by at-Tabarani, and its narrators are trustworthy."
If there is a drain in the bathing place, it is permissible to urinate into it.
If a person can guarantee that no impurities will touch his clothes, it is permissible to urinate while standing. Said 'Aishah, "If someone relates to you that the Messenger of Allah urinated while standing, do not believe him. He only urinated while sitting." This hadith is related by "the five," except for Abu Dawud. At-Tirmidhi's comment is, "It is the best thing related on this point, and it is the most authentic."
One should not forget that what 'Aishah said is based on the knowledge that she had. Hudhaifah relates that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went to a public garbage dump and urinated while standing. Hudhaifah went away, and the Prophet then called him over. The Prophet made ablution and wiped over his shoes. This is related by "the group."
Commenting upon the issue, an-Nawawi says, "To urinate while sitting is most desirable in my opinion, but to do so standing is permissible. Both acts are confirmed by the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace.
To do so, he can use a rock, stone or any other pure matter. One may use only water to clean the area, or any combinations of purifying agents. 'Aishah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "When one of you goes to relieve himself, he should clean himself with three stones." (Related by Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni).
Anas related that the Messenger of Allah would enter the privy, and that Anas and another boy would carry the water container and spear for him. The Prophet would clean himself with water." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Ibn 'Abbas related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by two graves and said, "They are being punished. But they are not being punished for a great matter (on their part). One of them did not clean himself from urine and the other used to spread slander." (Related by "the group.")
Anas also related the Prophet as saying, "Purify yourselves from urine, as most punishment in the grave is due to it."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "Duluk ash-shams begins from when the sun passes the meridian."
Whenever Allah's Apostle ordered the Muslims to do something, he used to order them deeds which were easy for them to do, (according to their strength endurance). They said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are not like you. Allah has forgiven your past and future sins." So Allah's Apostle became angry and it was apparent on his face. He said, "I am the most Allah fearing, and know Allah better than all of you do."
If a man does not know how the sperm got on his clothes, and he has already prayed, should he perform ghusl and repeat all of his prayers since the last time he slept? If he thinks that it happened before his most recent sleep, he should repeat all of his prayers since the supposed time of his ejaculation .
This refers to the penis and the vagina. If one's penis has entered his wife's vagina, ghusl is obligatory even if there was no ejaculation. Says Allah, "If you are sexually impure, purify yourselves." Commenting on the subject, ash-Shaifi says, "In the Arabic language, sexual impurity refers to any type of sexual intercourse, regardless of whether sperm was ejaculated or not. If someone says, 'So and so is sexually impure due to so and so,' it refers to any type of sexual intercourse between them, even if there was no ejaculation. No one disagrees that the fornication which requires the prescribed punishment is sexual intercourse, even if there is no ejaculation."
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When anyone sits between the four parts of her body and exerts himself (has intercourse), bathing becomes obligatory (for both)." (Related by Ahmad and Muslim.)
Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyab reported that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said to 'Aishah, "I would like to ask you something, but I am embarrassed." She said, "Ask and don't be shy, for I am your mother." He asked about a man who had intercourse but did not ejaculate. She said, on the authority of the Prophet, "If the two circumcised parts encountered each other, ghusl is obligatory." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Malik with different wordings. There is no doubt that there must be insertion; if there is only touching, ghusl is not obligatory for either. All scholars agree on this point.
Concerning menstruation and childbirth bleeding, Allah says in the Qur'an, "Do not approach them until they become pure. When they are pure, go to them in the manner that Allah has prescribed for you." The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said to Fatimah bint Abu Habish, "Do not pray during your period. After it has ended, perform ghusl and pray." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Post-childbirth bleeding is treated in a similar manner, according to the consensus of the companions. If a woman gives birth and has no flow of blood afterwards, some scholars say that she must perform ghusl, while others say that it would not be necessary. There is no textual authority on this latter point.
Allah's Apostle said, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for Allah and His Apostle, then his emigration was for Allah and His Apostle. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."
When a Muslim dies, it is obligatory to wash his or her body, according to the consensus of the Muslims. This will be discussed in more detail later on.
New converts to Islam must perform ghusl. Abu Hurairah reported that Thumamah al-Hanafi was captured. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by him and said, "What do you have to say for yourself, O Thumamah?" He said, "If you kill me, you would be killing a relative. If you give me a bounty (set me free), I would be thankful. If you want wealth (as a ransom), we can give you what you wish." The companions of the Prophet preferred the ransom and said, "What would we get if we killed him?" One time when the Prophet passed by him, he finally embraced Islam. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, untied him and told him to go to the garden of Abu Talhah and perform ghusl. He performed ghusl and prayed two rak'ah. The Prophet said, "Indeed, your brother became a fine Muslim." This hadith is related by Ahmad. There is also a source for the story in reports by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The reasoning behind this can be found in What actions require the ablution as a prerequisite.
The companions were all agreed that it is forbidden to touch or carry the Qur'an while one is in a state of impurity. There are some jurists, such as Dawud ibn Hazm, who allow the physically unclean person, whether because of sex or menstruation, to touch or carry the Qur'an, and they see nothing wrong with this. He derives his support from a hadith in the two Sahihs in which it is stated that the Prophet sent a letter to Heraclius saying, "In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful...O people of the book, come to a statement that is common between us and you, that we should worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords besides Allah. If they turn away, then say 'Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him)." (al'Imran 64). Ibn Hazm concludes, "This is the letter the Messenger of Allah wrote, containing this verse, to the Christians, and of course they touched it." The majority of scholars answer him by stating that one is allowed to touch parts of the Qur'an that are used in letters, books, tafsir, and so on, as such things are not copies of the Qur'an, nor is it confirmed that such an action is forbidden.
The Prophet said, "If a man spends on his family (with the intention of having a reward from Allah) sincerely for Allah's sake then it is a (kind of) alms-giving in reward for him."
According to most scholars, one who is physically unclean (because of sex or menstruation) may not recite any portion of the Qur'an. This is based on a hadith from 'Ali, in which he stated that nothing kept the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, from the Qur'an save being sexually impure. This is related by "the four." At-Tirmidhi graded it sahih. Says al-Hafez in al-Fath, "Some people declare some of its narrators weak. But, in fact, it is of the hassan class and it is satisfactory as a proof." He also related, "I saw the Messenger of Allah perform ablution and recite some of the Qur'an, after which he said, 'This is for the one who is not in post-sex impurity. If one is in post-sex impurity, he may not do so, not even one verse." Ahmad and Abu Ya'la related this hadith with that wording. With that wording, al-Haithami says, "Its narrators are trustworthy." Says ash-Shaukani, "If that (report) is authentic, that is proof enough that it is forbidden." The first hadith does not forbid it, for it just states that it was his practice not to recite the Qur'an while he was in post-sex impurity. Similar reports do not show that it is disliked. Therefore, how can it be used as a proof that it is forbidden?" Al-Bukhari, at-Tabarani, Dawud, and Ibn Hazm are of the opinion that it is permissible for one who is in post-sex impurity (or in menstruation) to recite the Qur'an. Says al-Bukhari, "Ibrahim said, 'There is no problem if a menstruating woman recites a verse.' Ibn 'Abbas did not see anything wrong with a sexually impure person reciting the Qur'an. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to mention Allah under all circumstances." In Ibn Hajr's notes to that work, he says, "There is no authentic hadith reported by the author (al-Bukhari) concerning the prohibition of reciting by one who is sexually impure or menstruating." The sum total of what has been related on this issue informs us on this point, though the interpretations differ.
Allah's Apostle said, "You will be rewarded for whatever you spend for Allah's sake even if it were a morsel which you put in your wife's mouth."
Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two types of dead animals and two types of blood have been made lawful for us. The types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The two types of blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."
This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and adDaraqutni. The hadith is weak, but Imam Ahmad says that it is authentic in mauqoof form. Abu Zar'ah and Abu Hatim have said the same. Such a report has the implication of a marfu' hadith because a companion saying, "This was allowed for us" or "This was forbidden for us" is like one of them saying, "We were ordered to do this," or "We were forbidden to do this," and so on. (Such statements are considered marfu' with respect to their regulations). And we have already mentioned the Prophet's statement concerning the ocean, "Its water is pure and its 'dead animals' are allowable (to eat.)."
(That is) bees, ants, and so on. They are considered pure. If they fall into some substance and die, the substance will not become impure. Ibn al-Mundhir said, "I do not know of any disagreement concerning the purity of such water save what has been related from ash-Shaf'i. It is well-known that he views them as being impure. Nevertheless, it does not bother him if the object falling into a substance does not alter it (in any way)."
All of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of dead animals, az-Zuhri said, "I have met some scholars of the preceeding generations who used such objects for combs and pots for oil, and they did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari. Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The client of Maimunah was given a sheep as charity, and it died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by it and said, 'Why do you not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use?' She said, 'It is dead' (i.e., it has not been slaughtered properly). He said to her, 'Only eating it is forbidden."' This is related by the group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client. Al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i do not mention treating the skin. It is reported from Ibn 'Abbas that he recited: "Say (O Muhammad): "In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat; if one wants to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swine flesh..." (al-An'am 145). Then he said, "What is forbidden is its meat. As for its skin, skin used for waterskins, teeth, bones, fur and wool, they are permissible." This is narrated by Ibn Mundhir and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennet and milk are considered pure. This is supported by the fact that when the companions conquered Iraq, they ate the cheese of the Magians which was made from rennet, although their slaughtered animals were considered the same as 'dead animals.' It is confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that when he was asked about cheese, clarified butter and pelts, he said, "What is permissible is what Allah made permissible in His book. What is forbidden is what Allah made forbidden in His book. What he omits, He has pardoned for you." It is well-known that he was being asked about the cheese of the Magians, as Salman was 'Umar's deputy in Mada'in, Iraq.
Yahya related to me from Malik, from his uncle Abu Suhayl from his father that Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to Abu Musa saying that he should pray dhuhr when the sun had started to decline, asr when the sun was still pure white before any yellowness had entered it maghrib when the sun had set, and to delay isha as long as he did not sleep, and to pray subh when the stars were all visible and like a haze in the sky and to read in it two long suras from the mufassal.
Allah's Apostle said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):
Wadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people) after urination. It is considered impure. 'Aishah said, " Wadi comes out after urination. The person should wash the private parts and perform ablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is related by Ibn al-Mundhir. Ibn 'Abbas related that "mani (sperm) requires ghusl. As for madhi (semen) and wadi they require a complete purification." This is related by al-Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording, "Concerning madhi (prostatic fluid) and wadi, he said, 'Wash your sexual organs and perform the same type of ablution as you perform for prayer."'
This is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs because of thinking about sexual intercourse or foreplay, and so on. The person is usually not aware of when exactly it is secreted. It comes from both the male and the female sexual organs, although the amount from the latter is usually more than the former's. Scholars are agreed that it is impure. If it gets on the body, it is obligatory to wash it off. If it gets on the clothes, it suffices to sprinkle the area with water, as it is very hard to be completely protected from this impurity, especially for the young, single person. 'Ali said, "I used to excrete madhi, so I asked a man to ask the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, about it. I was shy to do so because of my position with respect to his daughter ('Ali was the Prophet's son-in-law). He said, 'Make ablution and wash your penis." This is related by al-Bukhari and others. Sahl ibn Hanif said, "I used to suffer from excessive amounts of madhi. I used to make lots of ghusl because of it. So I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he said, 'It is sufficient to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over your clothes wherever the fluid appears."
The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmidhi. The latter says, "The hadith is hassan sahih. In the chain is Muhammad ibn Ishaq, who is considered weak when he relates in mu'an'an (handed-down) form because of his reputation as one who commited tadlis. But in this narration, he makes it clear that he heard the hadith directly." Al-Athram narrated the same hadith with the wording, "I was bothered by a great deal of madhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and informed him of this. He said 'It is sufficient for you to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over (the madhi)."'
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha that Anas ibn Malik said, "We would pray asr and anyone who then went to the Bani Amr ibn Awf would find them praying asr."
Some people asked Allah's Apostle, "Whose Islam is the best? i.e. (Who is a very good Muslim)?" He replied, "One who avoids harming the Muslims with his tongue and hands."
According to the verse (al-An'am 145) quoted earlier, items mentioned therein are impure. The pronoun 'they' refers to all three of the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knit with the hair of a pig according to most of the scholars.
There is agreement among the scholars that these objects are impure. But, a slight amount of vomit (commonly understood as a small amount of liquid) and the urine of an unweaned male baby are overlooked and pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over the urine of an unweaned male baby. This is based on the hadith of Umm Qais. She came to the Messenger of Allah with her unweaned son. After a while, the baby urinated in the Prophet's lap. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, called for some water, which he sprinkled over his clothes, and did not give them a complete washing. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, "The urine of a baby boy should have water sprinkled upon it. The urine of a baby girl is to be washed off." Says Qatadah, "This refers to a male baby that has not yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the garment is to be washed."
This hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. In al-Fath, Ibn Hajr says its chain is sahih.
Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing. If he eats solid food, his urine must be washed from the clothes and body. There is no disagreement on this latter point. Perhaps the reason for this exemption to the male baby's urine is that people have a tendency to carry their male babies around, and it would have been difficult to clean the clothes after their frequent urinations.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Ziyad that Abdullah ibn Rafi, the mawla of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked Abu Hurayra about the time of the prayer. Abu Hurayra said, "Let me tell you. Pray dhuhr when the length of your shadow matches your height, asr when your shadow is twice your height, maghrib when the sun has set, isha in the first third of the night, and subh in the very first light of dawn," i.e. when the dawn has definitely come.
The Prophet said, "A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. And a Muhajir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allah has forbidden."
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Circumambulation is a type of prayer, but Allah has permitted speaking during it. Whoever speaks during it should only speak good."
This hadith is related by at-Tirmidhi, ad-Daraqutni, al-Hakim, Ibn as-Sakin and Ibn Khuzaimah, who classified it as sahih.
Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad related from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, sent a letter to the people of Yemen which stated, "No one is to touch the Qur'an except one who is purified."
This hadith is related by an-Nasa'i, ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and al-Athram. Of its chain, Ibn 'Abdul-Barr says, "It appears to be a continuous transmission." 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "No one is to touch the Qur'an unless he has purified himself." (Al-Haithami mentioned it in Majma' az-Zawaid and said its narrators are trustworthy.) Apparently, this hadith has a problem. The word "purify" must have one particular meaning here. Therefore, to say that one who has a minor defilement may not touch the Qur'an makes no sense. Concerning Allah's statement, "...which none touches save the purified," (alWaqi'ah 79), apparently the pronoun refers to "the Book kept hidden" (from the preceding verse) and that is "the well-preserved tablet" and the "purified" refers to the angels, which is similar to the verses, "On honored scrolls, exalted, purified, (set down) by scribes, noble and righteous" (Abasah 13-16). Ibn 'Abbas, ashSha'bi, adh-Dhahak, Zaid ibn 'Ali, al-Mu'aiyad Billah, Dawud, Ibn Hazm and Hammad ibn Abu Sulaiman are of the opinion that one who has a minor defilement may touch the Qur'an. Most of the scholars, however, agree that such people may recite the Qur'an without touching it.
Al-Muhajir ibn Qunfudh related that he greeted the Prophet, upon whom be peace, but that the latter did not return his salutation until he had made ablution: "There is nothing that prevented me from responding to you except that I do no like to mention the name of Allah unless I am in a state of purity." Said Qatadah, "Because of this, al-Hassan hated to recite the Qur'an or mention Allah's name unless he had performed ablution. (Related by Amad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) Raeported Abu Juhaim ibn al-Harith, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, met a person at the well of Jaml, who greeted him, but he did not return his greeting until he had wiped his face and hands." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i.) This action was one of preference, not of obligation. Mentioning the name of Allah is permissible for the one who is in a state of purity, one who has a minor impurity, a person in post-sex impurity, or one who is standing, sitting, and so on. Said 'Aishah, "The Messenger of Allah used to remember Allah at all times." (Related by "the five," except for an-Nasa'i.) Al-Bukhari recorded it in mu'alliq form.) Reported 'Ali, "The Messenger of Allah would come from relieving himself, recite to us and eat meat with us. Nothing would stop him from the Qur'an except post-sex impurity." (Related by "the five." At-Tirmidhi and Ibn as-Sakin categorized it as sahih.)
Allah's Apostle said, "If any one of you improve (follows strictly) his Islamic religion then his good deeds will be rewarded ten times to seven hundred times for each good deed and a bad deed will be recorded as it is."
It is not desirable that one who is making ablution should leave any of the sunan that have just been mentioned. The person would then lose the great reward of these (simple)acts. Anytime one abandons the sunnah, he has done a disliked deed.
This would include urine, feces (Allah says, "...or one of you comes from relieving himself," thus proving that such an act obligates a new purification), and releasing gas from the anus. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Allah does not accept the prayer of a person who has released gas until he makes a new ablution. A person from Hadhramaut asked Abu Hurairah, "What does releasing gas mean?" He answered, "Wind with or without sound." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) He also narrated that the Prophet said, "If one of you finds a disturbance in his abdomen and is not certain if he has released any gas or not, he should not leave the mosque unless he hears its sound or smells its scent." (Related by Muslim.)
Hearing the escaping gas or smelling it is not a condition for nullifying ablution, but he stressed that one should be certain of the action. As for al-Madhi (prostatic fluid), the Prophet said, "Make ablution." Concerning sperm or al-mani, said Ibn 'Abbas "It requires ghusl and for al-madhi and al-wadi, wash your sex organs and make ablution." This was related by al-Baihaqi in his Sunan.
If the person did not keep his bottocks firmly seated on the floor while sleeping, he must make a new ablution. Safwan ibn 'Asal said, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to order us while we were travelling not to take our socks off unless we were in post-sex impurity (i.e. not for defecation, urination or sleep)." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmidhi, who graded it sahih.) If one's buttocks has remained firmly on the floor during his sleep, no new ablution is necessary. This is implied by the hadith of Anas who said, "The companions of the Prophet were waiting for the delayed night prayer until their heads began nodding up and down (from drowsiness and sleep). They would then pray without performing ablution." (Related by ash-Shaifi, Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi.) The wording that at-Tirmidhi recorded from the chain of Shu'bah is, "I have seen the companions of the Prophet sleeping to the extent that one could hear some of them snoring. But, they would stand for prayer without a new ablution." Said Ibn alMubarak, "In our opinion, this happened when they were sitting."
The Prophet said, "The person who participates in (Holy battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause."
The following invalidates the wiping:
One day while the Prophet was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel came and asked, "What is faith?" Allah's Apostle replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allah, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection." Then he further asked, "What is Islam?" Allah's Apostle replied, "To worship Allah Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakat) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." Then he further asked, "What is Ihsan (perfection)?" Allah's Apostle replied, "To worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is looking at you." Then he further asked, "When will the Hour be established?" Allah's Apostle replied, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.
The Prophet then recited: "Verily, with Allah (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour--." (31. 34) Then that man (Gabriel) left and the Prophet asked his companions to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet said, "That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion." Abu 'Abdullah said: He (the Prophet) considered all that as a part of faith.
It is preferred to perform ablution before ghusl regardless of whether that particular ghusl was an obligatory or a preferred act. Said 'Aishah, "When the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, performed post-sex ghusl, he would begin by washing his hands and then pour water from his right hand to his left and wash his private parts. He would then perform ablution.." (Related by "the group.")
Said Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn Qaridh, "I passed by Abu Hurairah while he was performing ablution and he said, 'Do you know why I am making ablution? It is because I ate some yoghurt dried over a fire, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say, 'Perform ablution before eating food touched by fire." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and "the four.")
'Aishah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Perform ablution from whatever touches fire." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) This order is one of preference as the following hadith makes clear: 'Amr ibn Umayyah adhDhamari said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, cutting a piece of a sheep's shoulder and eating it. He was then called to prayer. He put the knife down, prayed, and did not perform another ablution." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Said Buraidah, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, made ablution for every prayer. On the day of the conquest of Makkah, he made ablution, wiped over his socks and prayed a number of times with just one ablution. 'Umar said to him, 'O Messenger of Allah, you did something that you have not done (before).' He answered, 'I did it on purpose, 'Umar."' (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and others.)
Said Anas ibn Malik, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to make ablution for every prayer." He was asked, "And what did you people use to do?" Malik said, "We prayed the prayers with one ablution unless we nullified it." (Related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari . )
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "Were it not to be a hardship on my people, I would order them to make ablution for every prayer." (Related by Ahmad with a hassan chain.)
Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever makes ablution while he is already in a state of purity will have ten good deeds written for him."~Ã¸ (Related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.)
The Prophet said, "Whoever said "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a barley grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a wheat grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell."
It is permissible to speak while performing ablution. There is nothing reported from the sunnah that prohibits it.
Making supplications while washing the extremities is based on false hadith. It is best for the person to use only the supplications mentioned under the Sunnah Acts of Ablution.
If the person who is making ablution has a doubt concerning how many times he has washed a particular part of the body, he should go by the number he is certain about.
If any barrier or substance with weight, such as wax, is found on the body, it would invalidate one's ablution unless it is removed and the ablution is performed again. Coloring, like henna, is permissible, as it does not affect the ablution's correctness.
People with unusual circumstances (i.e. women with "prolonged flows of blood"), people who cannot control their urine, people with flatulence, and so on, should perform one ablution for each prayer whether their problem exists all or part of the time. Their prayers will be acceptable even while their problems are occuring.
One may be assisted by others in performing ablution.
One may use a towel to dry himself during any time of the year.
Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (5.3) 'Umar replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj)"
Allah has chosen certain acts for all of His prophets and their followers to perform. These acts distinguish them from the rest of mankind, and are known as sunan al-fitra, (the acts that correspond to the nature of mankind).
This prevents dirt from getting on one's penis, and also makes it easy to keep it clean. For women, it involves cutting the outer portion of the clitoris. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Ibrahim circumcised himself after he was eighty years old." (Related by al-Bukhari.) Many scholars say that it is obligatory.'Ã¸ The Shaf'iyyah maintain that it should be done on the seventh day. Says ash-Shaukani, "There is nothing that states explicitly its time or indicates that it is obligatory."
They are two sunan acts. If the hair is only trimmed or pulled out, it will suffice.
Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah said, "Differ from the polytheists: let your beards (grow)" and shave your moustache." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim). Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Five things are part of one's fitra: Shaving the pubic hairs, circumcision, trimming the moustache, removing the hair under the arms and trimming the nails." (Related by "the group.") It does not mention which one would specifically fulfill the sunnah. One should make sure that his moustache is not so long that food particles, drink and dirt accumulate in it. Zaid ibn Arqam related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said "Whoever does not take (off) some of his moustache is not one of us." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmidhi, who classified it as sahih.) It is preferred to cut the pubic hairs, pluck out the underarm hairs, cut the nails and trim the moustache on a weekly basis, a practice which is most hygenic. If some unnecessary hair is left on the body for a longer period of time, it may disturb the person. One may leave this action for forty days, but no longer. Said Anas, "The time period for us to trim the moustache, cut the nails, pluck out the underarm hairs and cut the pubic hairs was forty nights." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and others).
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If someone misses the asr prayer it is as if he has suffered a great misfortune in his family and wealth ."
The Prophet said, "When the people of Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, Allah will order those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. So they will be taken out but (by then) they will be blackened (charred). Then they will be put in the river of Haya' (rain) or Hayat (life) (the Narrator is in doubt as to which is the right term), and they will revive like a grain that grows near the bank of a flood channel. Don't you see that it comes out yellow and twisted"
This is a feature of dignity. It should not be cut so short that it appears like a shaved beard, nor should it be left so long that it becomes untidy. It is also a sign of manhood. Says al-Bukhari, "Whenever Ibn 'Umar made the hajj or 'umrah, he would hold his beard in his fist and, whatever exceeded his fist, he would cut off."
Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, as saying, "Whoever has hair should honor it." (Related by Abu Dawud.)
Said 'Ata ibn Yasar, "A man came to the Prophet with unkempt hair and an untidy beard. The Prophet pointed to him, as if ordering him to straighten his hair and beard. He did so and returned. Thereupon the Prophet observed, 'Is that not better than one of you coming with his hair unkempt, as if he were a devil?"' (Related by Malik.)
Abu Qatadah related that he had a great amount of hair. He asked the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, I have lots of hair. Should I comb it?" He answered, "Yes ... and honor it." Abu Qatadah used to oil it twice a day due to the Prophet's words, "... and honor it."
Cutting one's hair off is permissible, and so is letting it grow if one honors it. Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Shave it all or leave it all." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i). To shave part of it and leave part of it is greatly disliked. Nafa' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah prohibited qiza'. Nafa' asked, "What is qiza' ?" He said, "It is to shave off part of the hair of a youth and to leave part." (AlBukhari and Muslim.)
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that once Umar ibn al-Khattab left after doing the asr prayer and met a man who had not been there. Umar asked him what had kept him from the prayer and eventhough the man gave a good reason, Umar said, "You have given yourself short measure."
Yahya added that Malik commented, "It is said that everything has a short measure and a full measure."
Allah's Apostle said, "While I was sleeping I saw (in a dream) some people wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. Umar bin Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging." The people asked, "How did you interpret it? (What is its interpretation) O Allah's Apostle?" He (the Prophet ) replied, "It is the Religion."
'Abdurahman ibn Zaid related that Salman was asked, "Your Prophet teaches you everything, even how to relieve yourselves?" Salman said, "Certainly ... He forbade us from facing the qiblah while doing so, from cleaning ourselves with our right hand, and from cleaning ourselves with less than three stones. We also should not use an impure substance or a bone to clean ourselves." (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi.)
Hafsah reported, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, reserved his right hand for eating, drinking, putting on his clothes, taking and giving. He used his left hand for other actions." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi).
Abu Hurairah said, "When the Messenger of Allah upon whom be peace, relieved himself, I used to bring him a container of water. He would cleanse himself, then rub his hands against the soil." (Related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn Majah.)
Make sure that he has cleansed himself. If one finds some dampness in his clothes after so doing, he can content himself by saying, "That is just water." This is based on the hadith related by al-Hakim ibn Sufyan or Sufyan ibn al-Hakim who said, "When the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, urinated, he would wash and sprinkle (his penis)." In another narration it states, "I saw the Messenger of Allah urinate, after which he sprinkled water over his penis." Ibn 'Umar used to sprinkle his penis until his underwear became wet.
One should enter the bathroom or a privy with his left foot, and exit with his right foot, saying: "O Allah! I seek your forgiveness." 'Aishah related that when the Messenger of Allah left the bathroom, he would say this supplication. (Related by "the five," except for an-Nasa'i.) What 'Aishah stated is the soundest statement on this topic. It is related through a number of weak chains that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to say, "Praise be to Allah who made the filth leave me and who has given me health," and "Praise be to Allah who let me enjoy it, kept for me its energy and relieved me of its harm."
Yahya related to me from Malik that Da'ud ibn al-Husayn said that someone had told him Abdullah ibn Abbas used to say, "Duluk ash-shams begins from when the sun passes the meridian. Ghasaq al-layl is the gathering of the night and its darkness."
The Prophet said, "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will taste the sweetness of faith:
'Aishah reported that the Messenger of Allah would run his fingers through his beard. (Related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi, who classified it as sahih . )
Anas said that when the Messenger of Allah performed ablution, he would take a handful of water and put it under his jaws and pass it through his beard. He said, "This is what my Lord, Allah, ordered me to do." (Related by Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim.)
Ibn 'Abbas said that when the Messenger of Allah performed ablution, he would run his fingers through his fingers and toes. (Related by "the five," except Ahmad.) It is also related that it is preferable to remove jewelry, for example, rings, bracelets, and so on, while performing ablution. Even though these reports are not accepted as fully authentic, one must follow them, for they fall under the general category of completing and perfecting the ablution.