Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "On one occasion when the people were praying subhat Quba a man came to them and said, 'A piece of Qur'an was sent down to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, last night, and he was ordered to face the Kaba, so face it.' They had been facing ash-Sham, so they turned round and faced the Kaba.''
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Said ibn al-Musayyab said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, prayed towards the Baytal-Maqdis for sixteen months after arriving in Madina. Then the qibla was moved, two months before the battle of Badr. "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "Any direction that is between east and west can be taken as a qibla if the person praying is face-on to the House."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Rabah and Ubaydullah ibn Abi Abdullah Salman al-Agharr from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A prayer in this mosque of mine is better than a thousand prayers in any other mosque, except the Masjid al-Haram (in Makka)."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Khubayb ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Hafs ibn Asim from Abu Hurayra or from Abu Said al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "What is between my house and my mimbar is one of the meadows of the Garden, and my mimbar is on my watering-place (al-Hawd)."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr from Abbad ibn Tamim from Abdullah ibn Zayd al-Mazini that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "What is between my house and my mimbar is one of the meadows of the Garden."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do not forbid the female slaves of Allah from (going into) the mosques of Allah.' "
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard from Busr ibn Said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "None of you women should use perfume when you are present at the isha prayer."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Atika bint Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nufayl, the wife of Umar ibn al-Khattab, used to ask Umar ibn al-Khattab for permission to go to the mosque. He would keep silent, so she would say, "By Allah, I will go out, unless you forbid me," and he would not forbid her.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had seen what women do now, he would have forbidden them to go into the mosques, just as the women of the Bani Israil were forbidden."
Yahya ibn Said said that he asked Amra, "Were the women of the Bani Israil forbidden to go into the mosques?" and she said, "Yes."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban from his paternal uncle, Wasi ibn Habban, that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "People say, 'When you sit to relieve yourself, do not face the qibla or the Bayt al-Maqdis.' "
Abdullah continued, "I went upon top of a house of ours and saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, (squatting) on two unfired bricks facing the Bayt al-Maqdis, relieving himself."
Ibn Umar added, "Perhaps you are one of those who pray folded on their haunches."
Wasi replied, "I don't know, by Allah!"
Malik said that he meant som one who, when he prostrated, kept his body close to the ground.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha that Rafiibn Ishaq, a mawla of the family of ash-Shifa who was known as the mawla of Abu Talha, heard Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, while he was in Egypt, "By Allah! I don't know how to deal with these lavatories." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you go to defecate or urinate, do not expose your genitals towards the qibla, and do not put your back to it."
Yahya related to me from Malik from one of the Ansar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade defecating or urinating while facing the qibla.
14.2 Permission to Face the Qibla when Urinating or Defecating
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw spittle on the wall of the qibla and scraped it off. Then he went up to the people and said, "Do not spit in front of you when you are praying, because Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is in front of you when you pray."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father from A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw spittle, or mucus or phlegm, on the wall of the qibla and scraped it off.
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent who bought goods with it, and the investor told him to sell them. The agent said that he did not see any way to sell at that time and they quarrelled about it. He said, "One does not look at the statement of either of them. The people of experience and insight concerning such goods are asked about these goods. If they can see anyway of selling them they are sold for them. If they think it is time to wait, they should wait."
Malik spoke about a man who took qirad money from an investor and used it and when the investor asked him for his money, he said that he had it in full. When he held him to his settlement he admitted that "Such-and-such of it was lost with me," and he named an amount of money. "I told you that so that you would leave it with me." Malik said, "He does not benefit by denying it after he had confirmed that he had it all . He is answerable by his confession against himself unless he produces evidence about the loss of that property which confirms his statement. If he does not produce an acceptable reason he is answerable by his confession, and his denial does not avail him."
Malik said, "Similarly, had he said, 'I have had such-and-such a profit from the capital,' and then the owner of the capital asked him to pay him the principal and his profit, and he said that he had not had any profit in it and had said that only so it might be left in his possession, it does not benefit him. He is taken to account for what he affirmed unless he brings acceptable proof of his word, so that the first statement is not binding on him."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent who made a profit with it. The agent said, "I took the qirad from you provided that I would have two-thirds." The owner of the capital says, "I gave you a qirad provided that you had a third." Malik said, "The word is the word of the agent, and he must take an oath on that if what he says resembles the known practice of qirad or is close to it. If he brings a matter which is unacceptable and people do not make qirads like that, he is not believed, and it is judged to be according to how a qirad like it would normally be."
Malik spoke about a man who gave a man one hundred dinars as a qirad. He bought goods with it and then went to pay the one hundred dinars to the owner of the goods and found that they had been stolen. The investor says, "Sell the goods. If there is anything over, it is mine. If there is a loss, it is against you because you lost it." The agent says, "Rather you must fulfil what the seller is owed. I bought them with your capital which you gave me." Malik said, "The agent is obliged to pay the price to the seller and the investor is told, 'If you wish, pay the hundred dinars to the agent and the goods are between you. The qirad is according to what the first hundred was based on. If you wish, you are free of the goods.' If the hundred dinars are paid to the agent, it is a qirad according to the conditions of the first qirad. If he refuses, the goods belong to the agent and he must pay their price."
Malik spoke about two people in a qirad who settled up and the agent still had some of the goods which he used - threadbare cloth or a waterskin or the like of that. Malik said, "Any of that which is insignificant is of no importance and belongs to the agent. I have not heard anyone give a decision calling for the return of that. Anything which has a price is returned. If it is something which has value like an animal, camel, coarse cloth or the like of that which fetches a price, I think that he should return what he has remaining of such things unless the owner overlooks it."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor paying qirad money to an agent who made a profit and then wanted to take his share of the profit and the investor was away. He said, "He should not take any of it unless the investor is present. If he takes something from it, he is responsible for it until it is accounted for in the division of the capital."
Malik said, "It is not permitted for the parties involved in a qirad to account and divide property which is away from them until the capital is present, and the investor is given the principal in full. Then they divide the profit into their agreed portions."
Malik spoke about a man taking qirad money, and buying goods with it while he had a debt. His creditors sought and found him while he was in a city away from the investor, and he had profitable merchandise whose good quality was clear. They wanted him to sell the merchandise for them so that they could take his share of the profit. Malik said, "None of the profit of the qirad is taken until the investor is present. He takes his principal and then the profit is divided mutually between them."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent and he used it and had a profit. Then the principal was set aside and the profit divided. He took his share and added the share of the investor to his principal in the presence of witnesses he had called. Malik said, "It is not permitted to divide the profit unless the investor is present. If he has taken something here turns it until the investor has received the principal in full. Then what remains is divided into their respective portions."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent. The agent used it and then came to the investor and said, "This is your portion of the profit, and I have taken the like of it for myself, and I have retained your principal in full." Malik said, "I do not like that, unless all the capital is present, the principal is there and he knows that it is complete and he receives it. Then they divide the profit between them. He returns the principal to him if he wishes, or he keeps it. The presence of the principal is necessary out of fear that the agent might have lost some of it, and so may want it not to be removed from him and to keep it in his hand."
Yahya said that Malik said, "The person who puts up the principal must not stipulate that he has something of the profit alone without the agent sharing in it, nor must the agent stipulate that he has something of the profit alone without the investor sharing. In qirad, there is no sale, no rent, no work, no advance, and no convenience which one party specifies to himself without the other party sharing unless one party allows it to the other unconditionally as a favour and that is alright to both. Neither of the parties should make a condition over the other which increases him in gold or silver or food over the other party."
He said, "If any of that enters the qirad, it becomes hire, and hire is only good with known and fixed terms. The agent should not stipulate when he takes the principal that he repay or commission anyone with the goods, nor that he take any of them for himself. When there is a profit, and it is time to separate the capital, then they divide the profit according to the terms of the contract. If the principal does not increase or there is a loss, the agent does not have to make up for what he spent on himself or for the loss. That falls to the investor from the principal. Qirad is permitted upon whatever terms the investor and the agent make a mutual agreement, of half the profit, or a third or a fourth or whatever."
Malik said, "It is not permitted for the agent to stipulate that he use the qirad money for a certain number of years and that it not be taken from him during that time."
He said, "It is not good for the investor to stipulate that the qirad money should not be returned for a certain number of years which are specified, because the qirad is not for a term. The investor loans it to an agent to use for him. If it seems proper to either of them to abandon the project and the money is coin, and nothing has been bought with it, it can be abandoned, and the investor takes his money back. If it seems proper to the investor to take the qirad loan back after goods have been purchased with it, he cannot do so until the buyer has sold the goods and they have become money. If it seems proper to the agent to return the loan, and it has been turned to goods he cannot do so until he has sold them. He returns the loan in cash as he took it."
Malik said, "It is not good for the investor to stipulate that the agent pay any zakat due from his portion of the profit in particular, because the investor by stipulating that, stipulates fixed increase for himself from the profit because the portion of zakat he would be liable for by his portion of the profit, is removed from him.
"It is not permitted for the investor to stipulate to the agent to only buy from so-and-so, referring to a specific man. That is not permitted because by doing so he would become his hireling for a wage."
Malik spoke about an investor in qirad who stipulated a guarantee for an amount of money from the agent, "The investor is not permitted to stipulate conditions about his principal other than the conditions on which qirad is based or according to the precedent of the sunna of the Muslims. If the principal is increased by the condition of guarantee, the investor has increased his share of the profit because of the position of the guarantee. But the profit is only to be divided according to what it would have been had the loan been given without the guarantee. If the principal is destroyed, I do not think that the agent has a guarantee held against him because the stipulation of guarantees in qirad is null and void."
Malik spoke about an investor who gave qirad money to a man and the man stipulated that he would only buy palms or animals with it because he sought to eat the dates or the offspring of the animals and he kept them for some time to use for himself. He said, "That is not permitted. It is not the sunna of the Muslims in qirad unless he buys it and then sells it as other goods are sold."
Malik said, "There is no harm in the agent stipulating on the investor a slave to help him provided that the slave stands to gain along with him out of the investment, and when the slave only helps him with the investment, not with anything else."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who made a qirad loan and stipulated to the agent that only certain goods should be bought with his money or he forbade certain goods which he named to be bought. He said, "There is no harm in an investor making a condition on an agent in qirad not to buy a certain kind of animal or goods which he specifies. It is disapproved of for an investor to make as a condition on an agent in qirad that he only buy certain goods unless the goods which he orders him to buy are in plentiful supply and do not fail either in winter or summer. There is no harm in that case."
Malik spoke about an investor who loaned qirad money and stipulated that something of the profit should be his alone without the agent sharing in it. He said, "That is not good, even if it is only one dirham unless he stipulates that half the profit is his and half the profit is the agent's or a third or a fourth or whatever. When he names a percentage, whether great or small, everything specified by that is halal. This is the qirad of the muslims."
He said, "It is also not good if the investor stipulates that one dirham or more of the profit is purely his, with out the agent sharing it and then what remains of the profit is to be divided in half between them. That is not the qirad of the Muslims."
Yahya said that Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us about an investor who pays qirad money to an agent to buy goods, and the agent then sells the goods for a price to be paid later, and has a profit in the transaction, then the agent dies before he has received payment, is that if his heirs want to take that money, they have their father's stipulated portion from the profit. That is theirs if they are trustworthy to take the payment. If they dislike to collect it from the debtor and they refer him to the investor, they are not obliged to collect it and there is nothing against them and nothing for them by their surrendering it to the investor. If they do collect it, they have a share of it and expenses like their father had. They are in the position of their father. If they are not trustworthy to do so, they can bring someone reliable and trustworthy to collect the money. If he collects all the capital and all the profit, they are in the position of their father."
Malik spoke about an investor who paid qirad money to a man provided that he used it and was responsible for any delayed payment for which he sold it. He said, "This is obligatory on the agent. If he sells it for delayed payment, he is responsible for it."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an agent who had qirad money with him and he spent from it and clothed himself. He said, "He cannot give away any of it, and neither a beggar nor anyone else is to be given any of it and he does not pay anyone compensation from it. If he meets some people, and they bring out food and he brings out food, I hope that that will be permitted to him if he does not intend to bestow something on them. If he intends that or what is like that without the permission of the investor, he must get the sanction of the investor for it. If he sanctions it, there is no harm. If he refuses to sanction it, he must repay it with like if he has something which is suitable as compensation."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who made a qirad loan to a man.
He said, "When the investment is large, the travelling expenses of the agent are taken from it. He can use it to eat and clothe himself in an acceptable fashion according to the size of the investment. If it saves him trouble, he can take a wage from some of the capital, if it is large, and he cannot support himself. There are certain jobs which an agent or his like are not responsible for, amongst them are collecting debts, transporting the goods, loading up and so forth. He can hire from the capital someone to do that for him. The agent should not spend from the capital nor clothe himself from it while he resides with his family. It is only permitted for him to have expenses when he travels for the investment. The expenses are taken from the capital. If he is only trading with the property in the city in which he resides, he has no expenses from the capital and no clothing."
Malik spoke about an investor who paid qirad money to a man, and the agent went out with it and with his own capital. He said, "The expenses come from the qirad and from his own capital according to their proportions."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who gave qirad money to a man, and then the man sought a loan from the investor or the investor borrowed money from the agent, or the investor left goods with the agent to sell for him, or the investor gave the agent dinars to buy goods with. Malik said, "There is no harm if the investor leaves his goods with him knowing that if the agent did not have his money and he had asked a similar thing of him, he would have still done it because of the brotherhood between them or because it would have been no bother to him and that had the agent refused that, he would not have removed his capital from him. Or if the agent had borrowed from the investor or carried his goods for him and he knew that if the investor had not had his capital with him, he would have still done the same for him, and had he refused that to him, he would not have returned his capital to him. If that is true between both of them and it is in the way of a favour between them and it is not a condition in the terms of the qirad, it is permitted and there is no harm in it. If a condition comes into it, or it is feared that the agent is only doing it for the investor in order to safeguard the capital in his possession, or the investor is only doing it because the agent has taken his capital and will not return it to him, that is not permitted in qirad and it is part of what the people of knowledge forbid.' "
Yahya said that Malik spoke about a man who made a qirad loan to a man and he bought wares with it and transported them to a commercial centre. It was not profitable to sell them and the agent feared a loss if he sold them, so he hired transport to take them to another city, and he sold them there and made a loss, and the cost of the hire was greater than the principal.
Malik said, "If the agent can pay the cost of the hire from what the capital realized, his way is that. Whatever portion of the hire is not covered by the principal, the agent must pay it. The investor is not answerable for any of it. That is because the investor only ordered him to trade with the principal. The investor is not answerable for other than the principal. Had the investor been liable, it would have been an additional loss to him on top of the principal which he invested. The agent cannot put that on to the investor."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about a man who loaned another man money and then the debtor asked him to leave it with him as a qirad. Malik said, "I do not like that unless he takes his money back from him, and then pays it to him as a qirad if he wishes or if he wishes keep it."
Malik spoke about an investor who paid a man qirad money and the man told him that it was collected with him and asked him to write it for him as a loan. He said, "I do not like that unless he takes his money from him and then lends it to him or keeps it as he wishes. That is only out of fear that he has lost some of it, and wants to defer it so that he can make up what has been lost of it. That is disapproved of and is not permitted and it is not good."
Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who made a qirad loan to a man, who used it and made a profit. Then the man bought with all the profit a slave-girl and he had intercourse with her and she became pregnant by him, and so the capital decreased. Malik said, "If he has money, the price of the slave-girl is taken from his property, and the capital is restored by it. If there is something left over after the money is paid, it is divided between them according to the first qirad. If he cannot pay it, the slave-girl is sold so that the capital is restored from her price."
Malik spoke about an investor who made a qirad loan to a man, and the agent spent more than the amount of the qirad loan when buying goods with it and paid the increase from his own money. Malik said, "The investor has a choice if the goods are sold for a profit or loss or if they are not sold. If he wishes to take the goods, he takes them and pays the agent back what he put in for them. If the agent refuses, the investor is a partner for his share of the price in increase and decrease according to what the agent paid extra for them from himself."
Malik spoke about an agent who took qirad money from a man and then gave it to another man to use as a qirad without the consent of the investor. He said, "The agent is responsible for the property. If it is decreased, he is responsible for the loss. If there is profit, the investor has his stipulation of the profit, and then the agent has his stipulation of what remains of the money."
Malik spoke about an agent who exceeded and borrowed some of what he had of qirad in money and he bought goods for himself with it. Malik said, "If he has a profit, the profit is divided according to the condition between them in the qirad. If he has a loss, he is responsible for the loss."
Malik said about an investor who paid qirad money to a man, and the agent borrowed some of the cash and bought goods for himself with it, "The investor of the capital has a choice. If he wishes, he shares with him in the goods according to the qirad, and if he wishes, he frees himself of them, and takes all of the principal back from the agent. That is what is done with some one who oversteps."
Yahya said that Malik said, "No one should make a qirad loan except in coin, because the loan must not be in wares, since loaning wares can only be worked in one of two ways: Either the owner of the wares says to the borrower, 'Take these wares and sell them. Buy and sell with the capital realized according to qirad.' The investor stipulates increase for himself from the sale of his goods and what relieves him of expenses in selling it. Or else he says, 'Barter with these goods and sell. When you are through, buy for me the like of my goods which I gave you. If there is increase, it is between you and me. 'It may happen that the investor gives the goods to the agent at a time in which they are in demand and expensive, and then the agent returns them while they are cheap and he might have bought them for only a third of the original price or even less than that. The agent then has a profit of half the amount by which the price of the wares has decreased as his portion of the profit. Or he might take the wares at a time when their price is low, and make use of them until he has a lot of money. Then those wares become expensive and their price rises when he returns them, so he buys them for all that he has so that all his work and concern have been in vain. This is an uncertain transaction and is not good. If, however, that is not known until it has happened, then the wage an agent in qirad would be paid for selling that, is looked at and he is given it for his concern. Then the money is qirad from the day the money became cash and collected as coin and it is returned as a qirad like that."
Malik said, "When a man owes money to another man and he asks him to let it stay with him as a quirad, that is disapproved of until the creditor receives his property. Then he can make it a qirad loan or keep it. That is because the debtor may be in a tight situation, and want to delay it to increase it for him."
Malik spoke about an investor who made a qirad loan to a man, and some of the principal was lost before he used it, and then he used it and made a profit. The agent wanted to make the principal the remainder of the money after what was lost from it. Malik said, "His statement is not accepted, and the principal is made up to its original amount from his profit. Then they divide what remains after the principal has been repaid according to the conditions of the qirad."
Malik said, "Qirad loan is only good in gold or silver coin and it is never permitted in any kind of wares or goods or articles."
Malik said, "There are certain transactions which if a long span of time passes after the transaction takes place, its revocation becomes unacceptable. As for usury, there is never anything except its rejection whether it is a little or a lot. What is permitted in other than it is not permitted in it because Allah, the Blessed and the Exalted, said in His Book, 'If you repent, you have your capital back, not wronging and not wronged. ' "
32.4 Conditions Permitted in Qirad
Malik said, "The recognised and permitted form of qirad is that a man take capital from an associate to use. He does not guarantee it and in travelling pays out of the capital for food and clothes and what he makes good use of, according to the amount of capital. That is, when he travels to do the work and the capital can support it. If he remains with his people, he does not have expenses or clothing from the capital."
Malik said, "There is no harm in the two parties in a qirad helping each other by way of a favour when it is acceptable to them both."
Malik said, "There is no harm in the investor of the capital buying some of the goods from the agent in the qirad if that is acceptable and without conditions."
Malik spoke about an investor making a qirad loan to a man and his slave, to be used by both. He said, "That is permitted, and there is no harm in it because the profit is property for his slave, and the profit is not for the master until he takes it from him. It is like the rest of his earnings."
While Allah's Apostle was proceeding at night during one of his journeys and 'Umar bin Al-Khattab was traveling beside him, 'Umar asked him about something but Allah's Apostle did not reply. He asked again, but he did not reply, and then he asked (for the third time) but he did not reply. On that, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab said to himself, "Thakilat Ummu 'Umar (May 'Umar's mother lose her son)! I asked Allah's Apostle three times but he did not reply." 'Umar then said, "I made my camel run faster and went ahead of the people, and I was afraid that some Qur'anic Verses might be revealed about me. But before getting involved in any other matter, I heard somebody calling me. I said to myself, 'I fear that some Qur'anic Verses have been revealed about me,' and so I went to Allah's Apostle and greeted him.
He (Allah's Apostle ) said, 'Tonight a Sura has been revealed to me, and it is dearer to me than that on which the sun rises (i.e. the world).' Then he recited: 'Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.' " (48.1)
"Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory," refers to Al-Hudaibiya Peace treaty).
On the Day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet recited Surat Al-Fath in a vibrating and pleasant voice. (Muawaiya, the subnarrator said, "If I could imitate the recitation of the Prophet I would do so.")
Slumber overtook us during the battle of Uhud while we were in the front files. My sword would fall from my hand and I would pick it up, and again it would fall down and I would pick it up again.
Something was sent to the Prophet and he distributed it amongst four (men) and said, "I want to attract their hearts (to Islam thereby)," A man said (to the Prophet ), "You have not done justice." Thereupon the Prophet said, "There will emerge from the offspring of this (man) some people who will renounce the religion."
That he heard Ibn 'Abbas reciting the Divine Verse:
"And for those who can fast they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day..." (2.184) Ibn 'Abbas said, "This Verse is not abrogated, but it is meant for old men and old women who have no strength to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting)."
The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of true dreams. The Angel came to him and said, "Read, in the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists), has created man a clot. Read! And your Lord is Most Generous." (96.1,2,3)
regarding the Statement of Allah: "And whoever amongst the guardian is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his work)." This Verse was revealed regarding the orphan's property. If the guardian is poor, he can take from the property of the orphan, what is just and reasonable according to his work and the time he spends on managing it.
When 'Abdullah bin 'Ubai died, his son 'Abdullah bin 'Abdullah came to Allah's Apostle and asked him to give him his shirt in order to shroud his father in it. He gave it to him and then 'Abdullah asked the Prophet to offer the funeral prayer for him (his father). Allah's Apostle got up to offer the funeral prayer for him, but Umar got up too and got hold of the garment of Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Will you offer the funeral prayer for him though your Lord has forbidden you to offer the prayer for him?" Allah's Apostle said, "But Allah has given me the choice by saying:
'(Whether you) ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times...' (9.80) so I will ask more than seventy times." 'Umar said, "But he ('Abdullah bin 'Ubai) is a hypocrite!" However, Allah's Apostle did offer the funeral prayer for him whereupon Allah revealed:
"And never (O Muhammad) pray for anyone of them that dies, nor stand at his grave." (9.84)
When 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul died, Allah's Apostle was called in order to offer the funeral prayer for him. When Allah's Apostle got up (to offer the prayer) I jumped towards him and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do you offer the prayer for Ibn Ubai although he said so-and-so on such-and-such-a day?" I went on mentioning his sayings. Allah's Apostle smiled and said, "Keep away from me, O 'Umar!" But when I spoke too much to him, he said, "I have been given the choice, and I have chosen (this); and if I knew that if I asked forgiveness for him more than seventy times, he would be for given, I would ask it for more times than that." So Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayer for him and then left, but he did not stay long before the two Verses of Surat-Bara'a were revealed, i.e. "And never (O Muhammad) pray for anyone of them that dies...and died in a state of rebellion." (9.84) Later I was astonished at my daring to speak like that to Allah's Apostle and Allah and His Apostle know best.
'Ali said, "We were sitting with the Prophet." (He then mentioned the Hadith above (469)).
Fasting was observed on the day of 'Ashura' (i.e. 10th of Muharram) by the people of the Pre-Islamic Period. But when (the order of compulsory fasting) in the month of Ramadan was revealed, the Prophet said, "It is up to one to fast on it (i.e. day of 'Ashura') or not."
The people used to fast on the day of 'Ashura' before fasting in Ramadan was prescribed but when (the order of compulsory fasting in) Ramadan was revealed, it was up to one to fast on it (i.e. 'Ashura') or not.
That Al-Ash'ath entered upon him while he was eating. Al-Ash'ath said, "Today is 'Ashura." I said (to him), "Fasting had been observed (on such a day) before (the order of compulsory fasting in) Ramadan was revealed. But when (the order of fasting in) Ramadan was revealed, fasting (on 'Ashura') was given up, so come and eat."
During the Pre-Islamic Period of ignorance the Quraish used to observe fasting on the day of 'Ashura', and the Prophet himself used to observe fasting on it too. But when he came to Medina, he fasted on that day and ordered the Muslims to fast on it. When (the order of compulsory fasting in) Ramadan was revealed, fasting in Ramadan became an obligation, and fasting on 'Ashura' was given up, and who ever wished to fast (on it) did so, and whoever did not wish to fast on it, did not fast.
Abu Jahl said, "O Allah! If this (Quran) is indeed the Truth from You, then rain down on us a shower of stones from the sky or bring on us a painful torment." So Allah revealed: "But Allah would not punish them while you were amongst them, nor He will punish them while they seek (Allah's) forgiveness..." (8.33) "And why Allah should not punish them while they turn away (men) from Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque of Mecca)..." (8.33-34)
There was a dispute between Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and Abu Bakr made Umar angry. So 'Umar left angrily. Abu Bakr followed him, requesting him to ask forgiveness (of Allah) for him, but 'Umar refused to do so and closed his door in Abu Bakr's face. So Abu Bakr went to Allah's Apostle while we were with him. Allah's Apostle said, "This friend of yours must have quarrelled (with somebody)." In the meantime 'Umar repented and felt sorry for what he had done, so he came, greeted (those who were present) and sat with the Prophet and related the story to him. Allah's Apostle became angry and Abu Bakr started saying, "O Allah's Apostle! By Allah, I was more at fault (than 'Umar)." Allah's Apostle said, "Are you (people) leaving for me my companion? (Abu Bakr), Are you (people) leaving for me my companion? When I said, 'O people I am sent to you all as the Apostle of Allah,' you said, 'You tell a lie,' while Abu Bakr said, 'You have spoken the truth.' "
The law of Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) was prescribed for the children of Israel, but the Diya (i.e. blood money was not ordained for them). So Allah said to this Nation (i.e. Muslims):
"O you who believe! The law of Al-Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in cases of murder: The free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the relatives (or one of them) of the killed (person) forgive their brother (i.e. the killer) something of Qisas (i.e. not to kill the killer by accepting blood money in the case of intentional murder)--then the relatives (of the killed person) should demand blood-money in a reasonable manner and the killer must pay with handsome gratitude. This is an allevitation and a Mercy from your Lord, (in comparison to what was prescribed for the nations before you).
So after this, whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. to kill the killer after taking the blood-money) shall have a painful torment." (2.178)
The Prophet said, "The prescribed Law of Allah is the equality in punishment (i.e. Al-Qisas) (in cases of murders, etc.)."
That his aunt, Ar-Rubai' broke an incisor tooth of a girl. My aunt's family requested the girl's relatives for forgiveness but they refused; then they proposed a compensation, but they refused. Then they went to Allah's Apostle and refused everything except Al-Qisas (i.e. equality in punishment). So Allah's Apostle passed the judgment of Al-Qisas (i.e. equality of punishment). Anas bin Al-Nadr said, "O Allah's Apostle! Will the incisor tooth of Ar-Rubai be broken? No, by Him Who sent you with the Truth, her incisor tooth will not be broken." Allah's Apostle said, "O Anas! The prescribed law of Allah is equality in punishment (i.e. Al-Qisas.)" Thereupon those people became satisfied and forgave her. Then Allah's Apostle said, "Among Allah's Worshippers there are some who, if they took Allah's Oath (for something), Allah fulfill their oaths."
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "No prophet gets sick but he is given the choice to select either this world or the Hereafter." 'Aisha added: During his fatal illness, his voice became very husky and I heard him saying: "In the company of those whom is the Grace of Allah, of the prophets, the Siddiqin (those followers of the prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them), the martyrs and the pious." (4.69) And from this I came to know that he has been given the option.
Ibn Abbas said ( regarding the verse), "And when the relatives and the orphans and the poor are present at the time of division, "this verse and its order is valid and not abrogated."
We used to participate in the holy wars carried on by the Prophet and we had no women (wives) with us. So we said (to the Prophet ). "Shall we castrate ourselves?" But the Prophet forbade us to do that and thenceforth he allowed us to marry a woman (temporarily) by giving her even a garment, and then he recited: "O you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you."
I heard Ka'b bin Malik talking about the story of the battle of Tabuk when he remained behind, "By Allah, I do not know anyone whom Allah has helped for telling the truth more than me since I mentioned that truth to Allah's Apostle till today, I have never intended to tell a lie. And Allah revealed to His Apostle: "Verily! Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin... and be with those who are true (in words and deeds)." (9.117-119) (See Hadith No. 702 Vol 5).
While I was praying, Allah's Apostle passed me and called me, but I did not go to him until I had finished the prayer. Then I went to him, and he said, "What prevented you from coming to me? Didn't Allah say: "O you who believe! Answer the call of Allah (by obeying Him) and His Apostle when He calls you?" He then said, "I will inform you of the greatest Sura in the Qur'an before I leave (the mosque)." When Allah's Apostle got ready to leave (the mosque), I reminded him. He said, "It is: 'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.' (i.e. Surat-al-Fatiha) As-sab'a Al-Mathani (the seven repeatedly recited Verses)."
Whoever tells that Muhammad concealed part of what was revealed to him, is a liar, for Allah says:
"O Apostle (Muhammad)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord." (5.67)
'Allah is Sufficient for us and He Is the Best Disposer of affairs," was said by Abraham when he was thrown into the fire; and it was said by Muhammad when they (i.e. hypocrites) said, "A great army is gathering against you, therefore, fear them," but it only increased their faith and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs, for us)." (3.173)
The last statement of Abraham when he was thrown into the fire was: "Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs for us)." (3.173)
Az-Zubair quarrelled with a man from the Ansar because of a natural mountainous stream at Al-Harra. The Prophet said "O Zubair! Irrigate (your lands and then let the water flow to your neighbor. The Ansar said, "O Allah's Apostle! (This is because) he (Zubair) is your cousin?" At that, the Prophet's face became red (with anger) and he said "O Zubair! Irrigate (your land) and then withhold the water till it fills the land up to the walls and then let it flow to your neighbor." So the Prophet enabled Az-Zubair to take his full right after the Ansari provoked his anger. The Prophet had previously given a order that was in favor of both of them. Az-Zubair said, "I don't think but the Verse was revealed in this connection: 'But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them.' " (4.6)
Regarding the Verse: "To everyone, We have appointed heirs." (4.33) 'Mawali' means heirs. And regarding: "And those to whom your right hands have pledged,"
When the Emigrants came to Medina, an Emigrant used to be the heir of an Ansari with the exclusion of the latter's relatives, and that was because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet had established between them (i.e. the Emigrants and the Ansar). So when the Verse: "To everyone We have appointed heirs," was revealed, (the inheritance through bond of brotherhood) was cancelled. Ibn Abbas then said: "And those to whom your right hands have pledged," is concerned with the covenant of helping and advising each other. So allies are no longer to be the heir of each other, but they can bequeath each other some of their property by means of a will.
We think that the Verse: "Among the Believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah,"' was revealed in favor of Anas bin An-Nadir.