Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.
Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet led them in salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and adh-Dhahabi asserts: "This hadith is rejected."
Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul 'idain. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.
Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids. This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.
Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day of breaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation.
Jabir reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet would take different routes." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he would return through a different route." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi .
It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on 'idul adha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.
Allah's Apostle led the morning prayer in Al-Hudaibiya and it had rained the previous night. When the Prophet (p.b.u.h) had finished the prayer he faced the people and said, "Do you know what your Lord has said?" They replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." (The Prophet said), "Allah says, 'In this morning some of My worshipers remained as true believers and some became non-believers; he who said that it had rained with the blessing and mercy of Allah is the one who believes in Me and does not believe in star, but he who said it had rained because of such and such (star) is a disbeliever in Me and is a believer in star.' "
It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, any building in a city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have it performed in more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah wherever you may be." This is related by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be good. This includes both the cities and countryside.
Ibn 'Abbas says: "The first Friday salah that was performed in Islam, after the Friday salah in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam in Medinah, was in Jawa'i, a village in Bahrain." This is related by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
Al-Laith ibn Sa'd reports that the people of Egypt and of the surrounding sea-shore would perform the Jumu'ah salah during the time of 'Umar and 'Uthman according to their orders. Some of the companions of the Prophet attended jumu'ah prayer with them. Ibn 'Umar saw the people in the areas between Makkah and Medinah performing the Jumu'ah prayers, and he did not object to their action. This is related by 'Abdurrazzaq with a sahih chain.
Some of the conditions under which the jumu'ah salah becomes obligatory have already been mentioned (i.e., it is obligatory for a free, sane, adult male resident who does not have a valid excuse which would excuse him from attending the prayer). It was also mentioned that a congregation is a condition for the Friday salah. This is what the sunnah of the Prophet teaches us and what Allah holds us responsible for. Concerning the other stipulations which some of the jurists stipulate for the Jumu'ah salah, none of them has any basis to which we may refer, or any evidence to support it. It will be sufficient here to simply quote the author of ar-Raudah anNadiyah who writes:
[The Friday salah] is like the rest of the prayers and there is nothing in it that differs from them, unless there is some evidence to the contrary. This statement refutes those who stipulate, as a necessary conditions for Friday prayer, the presence of a well-established imam and a congregational mosque in the area as well as a certain number of people attending the congregational prayer. There is no evidence whatever that those conditions are even preferred - not to speak of being obligatory, or for that matter, being a necessary condition for the Friday salah. If two people pray the Jumu'ah in a place where there is no one else but them, they would have performed their prescribed duty. If one of them delivers the khutbah, they would be following what is sunnah; and if they leave the khutbah, then it is only the sunnah which they have neglected, (not something which was obligatory). But for the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab which clearly requires every Muslim to offer it in congregation and the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed it in a congregation, offering it individually, like the rest of the prayers, would have been quite acceptable. Concerning the statement "from four people to the ruler of the area," that is certainly not the Prophet's statement nor of any of his companions... In fact, [this is] a statement of al-Hassan al-Basri. As to various statements and psuedojuristic opinions concerning this noble worship, the Friday prayer, which Allah has prescribed once a week as one of the signs of Islam, a little consideration should suffice to show their superfluity and error. One of these is the amazing statement that khutbah is equivalent to two rak'at of salah, and if one misses it, then his jumu'ah is not valid. They seem to be quite ignorant of what has been related from the Prophet through a number of chains which support each other that "if a person misses one rak'ah, then he is to perform another rak'ah and his salah would be completed." Have not other ahadith reached them that are valid in such matters? Some say that one cannot perform the Jumu'ah unless there are three people with the imam and others hold that four people are needed, while yet others stipulate seven people! Still others say nine, and some think twelve, twenty, thirty, and there are even some who think forty, fifty, seventy, and every number that is between those numbers! Some hold that many people have to be present without specifying a particular number, while others state that al-Jumu'ah may only be performed in a city in which there is a "congregational mosque." Some are convinced that there have to be so many thousand people living in the area. Some hold that there has to be a congregational mosque and a public restroom. Yet others propose that the prayer is not obligatory unless there is a well-known and established imam; if such an imam cannot be found or if his credibility is doubtful, then the Friday salah is neither obligatory nor legitimate....No such statement can be found [in the book of Allah or in the sunnah] to support what they claim to be the conditions or prerequisites of the Jumu'ah... Whoever comes with such gibberish must be refuted for the only criterion is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. As Allah says in the Qur'an: "If you dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the Messenger"; "The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, in order that he may judge between them is no other than this: they say: "We hear and we obey"; "But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction." Those verses and others similar to them are the clearest evidence that one must return to the rule of Allah and His Messenger if there is any dispute. The rule of Allah is the Book of Allah. The rule of the Messenger, after his passing away, is his sunnah and nothing other than that. Also, Allah did not endow any of his slaves - even if he reaches the highest degree of knowledge and has accumulated what no one else has - with the right to make any statement concerning this religion without any authority from the Book or the Sunnah. Likewise, if a mujtahid (jurisconsult) should take liberty of proposing an opinion without substantiating it, then it is not permissible for anyone to follow him in that, regardless of who he may be. I, as Allah knows, am always greatly astonished by this type of writers and their writings which supposedly provide guidance in one's creed and practice but which are filled with gibberish. This is not limited to only some of the schools among the different schools of law, or only certain areas from among the different areas, or only certain eras from among all of the eras [it is found in all of these schools of law, areas, and eras]! In fact, the later people follow the earlier people [in such things] as if they were following the umm al-kitab [mother of the Book], although, [they follow] distorted teachings.
Allah's Apostle was delivering the Khutba (sermon) on a Friday when the people stood up, shouted and said, "O Allah's Apostle! There is no rain (drought), the trees have dried and the livestock are destroyed; Please pray to Allah for rain." So Allah's Apostle said twice, "O Allah! Bless us with rain." By Allah, there was no trace of cloud in the sky and suddenly the sky became overcast with clouds and it started raining. The Prophet came down the pulpit and offered the prayer. When he came back from the prayer (to his house) it was raining and it rained continuously till the next Friday. When the Prophet started delivering the Friday Khutba (sermon), the people started shouting and said to him, "The houses have collapsed and the roads are cut off; so please pray to Allah to withhold the rain." So the Prophet smiled and said, "O Allah! Round about us and not on us." So the sky became clear over Medina but it kept on raining over the outskirts (of Medina) and not a single drop of rain fell over Medina. I looked towards the sky which was as bright and clear as a crown.
If the day of 'Id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul 'Id.
Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul 'id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.
Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." This is related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'id prayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."
According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the 'id prayer. Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed two rak'at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until 'asr.
The Prophet said, "I was granted victory with As-Saba and the nation of 'Ad was destroyed by Ad-Dabur (westerly wind). "
It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of Jumu'ah.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." This is related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.
Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahf aloud among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following: singling out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night to perform salatul tahajjud, reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specific manner of melody which disturbs those who are offering salah, while the people in the mosque are not listening because of their being engaged in conversation with others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a recital.
Anas bin Malik said, "A person entered the Mosque on a Friday through the gate facing the Daril-Qada' and Allah's Apostle was standing delivering the Khutba (sermon). The man stood in front of Allah's Apostle and said, 'O Allah's Apostle, livestock are dying and the roads are cut off; please pray to Allah for rain.' So Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) raised both his hands and said, 'O Allah! Bless us with rain. O Allah! Bless us with rain. O Allah! Bless us with rain!' " Anas added, "By Allah, there were no clouds in the sky and there was no house or building between us and the mountain of Sila'. Then a big cloud like a shield appeared from behind it (i.e. Silas Mountain) and when it came in the middle of the sky, it spread and then rained. By Allah! We could not see the sun for a week. The next Friday, a person entered through the same gate and Allah's Apostle was delivering the Friday Khutba and the man stood in front of him and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! The livestock are dying and the roads are cut off; Please pray to Allah to withhold rain.' " Anas added, "Allah's Apostle raised both his hands and said, 'O Allah! Round about us and not on us. O Allah!' On the plateaus, on the mountains, on the hills, in the valleys and on the places where trees grow.' " Anas added, "The rain stopped and we came out, walking in the sun." Sharik asked Anas whether it was the same person who had asked for rain the previous Friday. Anas replied that he did not know.
The Prophet said, "The Hour (Last Day) will not be established until (religious) knowledge will be taken away (by the death of religious learned men), earthquakes will be very frequent, time will pass quickly, afflictions will appear, murders will increase and money will overflow amongst you." (See Hadith No. 85 Vol 1).
The prayers of the two 'ids was prescribed in the first year after the migration. It is a sunnah mu'kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.
It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's best attire on the occasions of the two 'ids.
Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'id. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and al-Baghawi.
Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find." This is related by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq ibn Barzakh whom al-'Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'ids and Jumu'ah.
One is to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul adha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul adha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.
Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul adha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." This is related by at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."
In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.
Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."
(The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen." People said, "Our Najd as well." The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen." They said again, "Our Najd as well." On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the head of Satan."
The time for salatul 'id begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon until the sun reaches its meridian.
Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana' records that Jundub said: "The Prophet prayed the 'idul fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon and the 'id of the sacrifice while the sun was three meters above the horizon."
Ash-Shaukani says: "That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific time of salatul 'idain and the hadith shows that it is preferred to hasten in praying salatul adha and to delay the salatul fitr."
Ibn Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salatul adha early in order to allow more time for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the salatul fitr is to be delayed in order to give people time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this point."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allah went to the musalla (place of prayer), he would perform the salah without any adhan or iqamah and without saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that."
Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir both report that there was no adhan on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata said: "Jabir informed me that there is no adhan for the 'id of breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no iqamah or call of any kind."
Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas reports: "The Prophet prayed salatul 'id without any adhan or iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate them by sitting between them.' This is related by al-Bazzar.
Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, "Keys of the unseen knowledge are five which nobody knows but Allah . . . nobody knows what will happen tomorrow; nobody knows what is in the womb; nobody knows what he will gain tomorrow; nobody knows at what place he will die; and nobody knows when it will rain."
Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Prolonging salah and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one's understanding of the religion. So, prolong the prayer and shorten the khutbah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. Shortening the khutbah and prolonging one's salah shows one's understanding of religion, for such a person is able to comprehend and express much in a few words.
Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate length and so was his khutbah." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allah was long and his khutba.i was short." This is related by an-Nasa'i with a sahih chain.
Jabir informs: "When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased as if giving a warning to the enemy." This is related by Muslim and Ibn Majah.
An-Nawawi says: "It is preferred for the khutbah to be in an eloquent and proper Arabic, and it should be an organized speech that the people can understand. It should not be a speech, which is over the heads of the people, nor should it be shallow or contain foul language as that would defeat its purpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make them attractive and meaningful."
Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah of the Prophet reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah, the Exalted, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him. He would mention the paradise and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, has promised to His devoted servants and the people who obey Him and what Allah has promised to His enemies and the miscreant. While listening to his khutbah, the hearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His oneness, and His majesty. His khutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only of matters of concern of common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of the approaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthen belief in His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works in history, nor can they kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making the listeners look forward eagerly to the time they will meet Him! The people who hear such speeches gain no benefit at all, except that they will die and that their wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be turned to dust. Woe to such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and what sort of tawhid do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them embued with perspicuous guidance, tawhid, attributes of Allah, explaining the basic articles of the faith, inviting people to Allah, and drawing their attention to His providential care that makes Him so beloved to His slaves. His khutbahs referred to Allah's dealings with others in the past so as to wam his listeners against His wrath and exhort them to remember Him, thank Him and win His pleasure and love. Those who heard these khutbahs were inspired with the love of Allah and they looked forward eagerly to meeting their Lord. As time went by, the example of the Prophet was forgotten and other things prevailed. The main purpose of the khutbah was forgotten. The eloquent and nice words that moved the hearts became rare in speeches. The main thrust of the khutbah was neglected. The hearts were no longer touched and the basic purpose of the khutbah was lost."
The Prophet went out towards the Musalla in order to offer the Istisqa' prayer and when he intended to invoke (Allah) or started invoking, he faced the Qibla and turned his cloak inside out.
In al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone performs both prayers at the time of the earlier salah and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the salah and before the time of the next salah begins [i.e., the next salah being the one which he had just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he need not repeat the second salah at its proper time. Since he performed the salah in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had some legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performe tayammum, and after he finishes his salah, he finds water."
A salah on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no dislike for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. Ibn 'Umar says: "I asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam about salah on a ship and he said: 'Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will be drowned [i.e., the boat might capsize]."' This is related by ad-Daraqutni and by al-Hakim. The later grades it sahih according to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utbah reports: "I accompanied Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with one of them as their imam, although they could have gone ashore [if they had so desired]." This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur.
It is preferred for the traveler to say, upon leaving his house: "In the name of Allah, the Exalted! We have trusted in Allah. There is no power or might, save with Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from being misguided and from misguiding others, or that I stray from Your path or cause others to stray from Your path, or that I am wronged or that I do wrong to others, or that I act foolishly or have someone act foolishly with me."
Then, the person may say whatever he wishes of the supplications which have been recorded from the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam. Here are some of them:
'Ali ibn Rabi'ah narrates: "'Ali was brought a riding animal. When he put his foot in the stirrup, he said: 'In the name of Allah.' Then, when he sat on it, he said: 'Praise be to Allah. Glory be to the One Who made this subservient to us for we were not able to make [it subservient] and it is to our Lord that we will return.' He then praised Allah three times and extolled His greatness three times and then said: 'Glory be to You; there is no God but Thee. I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. No one forgives sins, except You.' Then, he laughed. I said to him: 'Why do you laugh, commander of the faithful?' He replied: 'I saw the Messenger of Allah doing the same and then laughing. I asked him: "What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "The Lord is pleased with His slave who says: 'O Lord, forgive me,' and He says: 'My slave knows that no one forgives sins, save I.'" This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban, and by al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.
Al-'Azdi reports that Ibn 'Umar taught him that the Messenger of Allah would extol Allah's greatness three times while seating himself on his camel for a journey. Then he would say: "Glory be to the One who made this subservient to us for we were not able [to make it subservient]. It is to our Lord that we shall return. O Allah, we ask of Thee, in this journey of ours, righteousness and piety and to (be able to) perform such deeds that are pleasing to You. O Allah, make this journey of ours easy for us and make its length short for us. O Allah, companion on this journey and the One who looks after our family and property in our absence. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from the difficulty of traveling and the unhappiness in what I see and in finding that something harmful has happened when I return to my property and family."
When he would return from his journey he would add: "Returning [are we] repentant, serving and praising our Lord." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that when the Prophet desired to travel, he would say: "O Allah, You are my companion in my travels and the One Who looks after my family [while I am gone]. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from unworthy travel companions and an unpleasant situation upon my return. O Allah, make the distance short for us and the travel easy for us." When he desired to return, he would say: "We are returning, [while] repenting to Allah, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." When he would enter upon his family, he would say: "We are repenting to our Lord. We hope that none of our sins would remain." This is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani, and al-Bazzar with a sahih chain.
'Abdullah ibn Sarjas reports that, when the Prophet had to travel, he would say: "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the difficulty of the journey, and sorrow on return, and disorder after things are set right, from the cry of the oppressed, and from seeing harm having come to our property and family."
And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that when the Prophet went out for a battle or a journey, and night came upon him, he would say: "O Earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge in Allah from your evil and the evil of what is on you and the evil of what has been created upon you and the evil of what walks upon you. I seek refuge in Allah from lions and large black snakes, and from snakes and scorpions, and from the evil or all that inhabit the land, and the evil of a father and what he has fathered." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.
Khaulah bint Hakim as-Sulimiyah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever stops at a stopping place should say: 'I seek refuge by the perfected word of Allah. the Exalted, from the evil of what has been created,' then nothing will harm him until he leaves that stopping place." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Ata ibn abi Marwan states from his father that Ka'b took an oath by the One who opened up the sea for Moses that Suhaib related to him that whenever the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam saw a city which he wished to enter, he would say: "O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, Lord of the seven earths and what they carry, Lord of the satans and those that they misguide, Lord of the winds and what they blow away, I ask of You for the good of this city and the good of its inhabitants and the good of what is in it. I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants and the evil of what is in it." This is related by an-Nasa'i, ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who calls it sahih.
Ibn 'Umar says: "We would travel with the Messenger of Allah, and when he would see the city that he wished to enter, he would say: 'O Allah, give us blessings from what is in it,' three times. And, 'Allah, give us provisions from its harvest and make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat with a good chain.
'Aishah says: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah came to a place that he wished to enter he would say: 'O Allah, I ask of you of the good of this place and the good of what you have collected therein. O Allah, grant us provisions from its harvest and protect us from its diseases. Make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us.' This is related by ibn as-Sani.
Abu Hurairah reports that when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was on a journey and daybreak approached he would say: "Let one listen and witness the praise of Allah and His good favor toward us. Our Lord, accompany us and show us favour [as we] seek refuge in Allah from the hell-fire." This is related by Muslim.
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) went out to offer the Istisqa' prayer and turned (and put on) his cloak inside out.
There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab who reports that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is an obligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-Jumu'ah. There are fifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid if there are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."
Ash-Shaukani says: 'The other prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Jumu'ah salah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other prayers. 'Abdul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmed hadith on the number of people needed for al-Jumu'ah.' Similarly, as-Sayuti holds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a particular number [for the Jumu'ah salah].'" This is also the opinion of at-Tabari, Dawud, an-Nakha'i, and Ibn Hazm.
One day I went to Ibn Mas'ud who said, "When Quraish delayed in embracing Islam, the Prophet I invoked Allah to curse them, so they were afflicted with a (famine) year because of which many of them died and they ate the carcasses and Abu Sufyan came to the Prophet and said, 'O Muhammad! You came to order people to keep good relation with kith and kin and your nation is being destroyed, so invoke Allah!' So the Prophet recited the Holy verses of Sirat-Ad-Dukhan: 'Then watch you For the day that The sky will Bring forth a kind Of smoke Plainly visible.' (44.10) When the famine was taken off, the people renegade once again as nonbelievers. The statement of Allah, (in Sura "Ad-Dukhan"-44) refers to that: 'On the day when We shall seize You with a mighty grasp.' (44.16) And that was what happened on the day of the battle of Badr." Asbath added on the authority of Mansur, "Allah's Apostle prayed for them and it rained heavily for seven days. So the people complained of the excessive rain. The Prophet said, 'O Allah! (Let it rain) around us and not on us.' So the clouds dispersed over his head and it rained over the surroundings."
Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that 'Umar was giving an address and said: "The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him [i.e., the emigrants and the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a person among you is to make the prostration on the back of his brother." When, he saw some people praying in the street, he said to them: "Pray in the mosque."
It is a sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is to pray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi.
Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house on the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by the group.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet finished the Jumu'ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu'ah to pray four rak'at after it.
Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn 'Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house after the Friday salah."
If one prays four rak'at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak'at, make the taslim, followed by another two rak'at. It is preferred to pray them in one's house. If one prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after the Friday salah.
Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah after the adhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet's time, there was only one adhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the adhan and then the Prophet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the adhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him...' That has been related from the Prophet's companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak'at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak'ah or time, before aljumu'ah, for there is nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.
Whenever a strong wind blew, anxiety appeared on the face of the Prophet (fearing that wind might be a sign of Allah's wrath).
Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah and al-Hassan and al-Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two red shirts and they were tripping while walking. The Prophet came down from the pulpit and picked them up and placed them in front of himself, and then he said: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the truth. Verily, your wealth and children are a trial. I looked to these two children walking and tripping, and I could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick them up."' This is related by the five.
Abu Rifah al-'Adwi says: "I went to the Prophet while he was delivering a khutbah, and I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, this strange man has come to ask about his religion as he does not know what his religion is.' The Prophet turned to me and left his speech, he came to me and he was given a wooden chair with four iron legs, and he started to teach me what Allah had taught him and then he went back to complete his khutbah." This is related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would interrupt his khutbah due to some reason, or to respond to a question from some of his companions.
Sometimes he would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then return and complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain. He took them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he would interrupt his khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so and so,' 'Pray, so and so.' [Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certain things during his khutbah."
The Prophet never raised his hands for any invocation except for that of Istisqa' and he used to raise them so much that the whiteness of his armpits became visible. (Note: It may be that Anas did not see the Prophet raising his hands, but it is narrated that the Prophet used to raise his hands for invocations other than Istisqa. See Hadith No. 807 &
The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray al-Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its meridian. Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah ibn al-Akua' said: "We would pray salatul Jumu'ah with the Prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and when we returned [from the salah], we would be following our shadow." Al-Bukhari says: "The time of al-Jumu'ah is when the sun passes its meridian." Similar narrations have been recorded from 'Umar, 'Ali, an-Nu'man ibn Bashir, and 'Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf'i says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and the imams after them all prayed the Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its zenith."
The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-Jumu'ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to the end of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i who record from Jabir: "The Prophet would pray alJumu'ah and then we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its zenith." This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu'ah before the sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Saidan as-Salmi who said: "We prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it." This is related by Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and by ad-Daraqutni. Ahmad adds: "And [something] similar to that has been related from ibn Mas'ud, Jabir, Sa'id, and Mu'awiyyah. They all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that was the consensus. The majority of the scholars, however, interpret the hadith of Jabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in its time, when the sun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool. The prayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed the meridian. As to the report from 'Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consdier it weak. Ibn Hajar writes about him: 'He is one of the major tabi'in [i.e., of the generation after the companions], and his integrity is not well-established. 'Adi says: "He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as a trustworthy person." Bukhari observes. "His report is not to be trusted, especially when he is contradicted by people who are more credible (qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn Ghaflah that the later prayed with Abu Bakr and 'Umar after the sun had passed the meridian and its chain is strong. "'
A man came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Livestock are destroyed and the roads are cut off; so please invoke Allah." So Allah's Apostle prayed for rain and it rained from that Friday till the next Friday. Then a man came to the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and said, "O Allah's Apostle! The houses have collapsed, roads are cut off and the livestock are destroyed." So Allah's Apostle said, "O Allah! (Let it rain) on the tops of the mountains, on the plateaus, in the valleys and over the places where trees grow." So the clouds cleared away from Medina as clothes are taken off.
Whenever the Prophet (p.b.u.h) lifted his head from the bowing in the last Raka he used to say: "O Allah! Save 'Aiyash bin Abi Rabi'a. O Allah! Save Salama bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Walid bin Walid. O Allah! Save the weak faithful believers. O Allah! Be hard on the tribes of Mudar and send (famine) years on them like the famine years of (Prophet) Joseph ." The Prophet further said, "Allah forgive the tribes of Ghifar and save the tribes of Aslam." Abu Az-Zinad (a sub-narrator) said, "The Qunut used to be recited by the Prophet in the Fajr prayer."
We were with 'Abdullah and he said, "When the Prophet saw the refusal of the people to accept Islam he said, "O Allah! Send (famine) years on them for (seven years) like the seven years (of famine during the time) of (Prophet) Joseph." So famine overtook them for one year and destroyed every kind of life to such an extent that the people started eating hides, carcasses and rotten dead animals. Whenever one of them looked towards the sky, he would (imagine himself to) see smoke because of hunger. So Abu Sufyan went to the Prophet and said, "O Muhammad! You order people to obey Allah and to keep good relations with kith and kin. No doubt the people of your tribe are dying, so please pray to Allah for them." So Allah revealed: "Then watch you For the day that The sky will bring forth a kind Of smoke Plainly visible ... Verily! You will return (to disbelief) On the day when We shall seize You with a mighty grasp. (44.10-16)" Ibn Mas'ud added, "Al-Batsha (i.e. grasp) happened in the battle of Badr and no doubt smoke, Al-Batsha, Al-Lizam, and the verse of Surat Ar-Rum have all passed.
It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.
Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then two rak'at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional three days." This is related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer the salah?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." This is related by the group. In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it hasan sahih.
A man came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Livestock are destroyed and the roads are cut off. So please invoke Allah." So Allah's Apostle prayed and it rained from that Friday to the next Friday. Then he came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Houses have collapsed, roads are cut off and the livestock are destroyed." So Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) prayed, "O Allah! (Let it rain) on the tops of mountains, on the plateaus, in the valleys and over the places where trees grow." So the clouds cleared away from Medina as clothes are taken off.
Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by the five, except for at-Tirmidhi.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings]; therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."
I heard Anas bin Malik saying, "On a Friday a person entered the main Mosque through the gate facing the pulpit while Allah's Apostle was delivering the Khutba. The man stood in front of Allah's Apostle and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! The livestock are dying and the roads are cut off; so please pray to Allah for rain.' " Anas added, "Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) raised both his hands and said, 'O Allah! Bless us with rain! O Allah! Bless us with rain! O Allah! Bless us with rain!' " Anas added, "By Allah, we could not see any trace of cloud in the sky and there was no building or a house between us and (the mountains of) Sila." Anas added, "A heavy cloud like a shield appeared from behind it (i.e. Sila' Mountain). When it came in the middle of the sky, it spread and then rained." Anas further said, "By Allah! We could not see the sun for a week. Next Friday a person entered through the same gate and at that time Allah's Apostle was delivering the Friday's Khutba. The man stood in front of him and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! The livestock are dying and the roads are cut off, please pray to Allah to withhold rain.' " Anas added, "Allah's Apostle I raised both his hands and said, 'O Allah! Round about us and not on us. O Allah! On the plateaus, on the mountains, on the hills, in the valleys and on the places where trees grow.' So the rain stopped and we came out walking in the sun." Sharik asked Anas whether it was the same person who had asked for the rain (the last Friday). Anas replied that he did not know.
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not committed major sins."
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Anas I said, "While Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) was delivering the Friday Khutba (sermon) a man came and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Rain is scarce; please ask Allah to bless us with rain.' So he invoked Allah for it, and it rained so much that we could hardly reach our homes and it continued raining till the next Friday." Anas further said, "Then the same or some other person stood up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Invoke Allah to withhold the rain.' On that, Allah's Apostle I said, 'O Allah! Round about us and not on us.' " Anas added, "I saw the clouds dispersing right and left and it continued to rain but not over Medina."
The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individual obligation and it is two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you but knew."
The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."
Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu'ah and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the heedless." This is related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and ibn 'Abbas.
Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever misses three Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah." This is related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.
Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident Muslim who has the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah, however, is not obligatory on the following:
Tariq ibn Shihab reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Al-Jumu'ah is a duty upon every Muslim in the community, save four: a slave, or a woman, or a child, or a person who is ill." An-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih according to the conditions set by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Ibn Hajr says that more than one person has graded it sahih.
All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although they are obliged to pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah, it will still be valid for him or her and he will no longer be obliged to pray the zuhr. And the women during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with him.
A man complained to the Prophet about the destruction of livestock and property and the hunger of the offspring. So he invoked (Allah) for rain. The narrator (Anas) did not mention that the Prophet had worn his cloak inside out or faced the Qibla.