Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al Harith at-Taymi from Abu Hazim at-Tammar from al Bayadi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, came out to the people while they were praying and their voices were raised in the recitation. He said, "When you pray you are talking confidentially to your Lord. So look to what you confide to Him, and do not say the Qur'an out loud so that others hear it."
I heard Al-Bara' saying, "The above Verse was revealed regarding us, for the Ansar on returning from Hajj never entered their houses through the proper doors but from behind. One of the Ansar came and entered through the door and he was taunted for it. Therefore, the following was revealed: --
"It is not righteousness That you enter the houses from the back, But the righteous man is he who fears Allah, obeys His order and keeps away from What He has forbidden. So, enter houses through the proper doors." (2.189)
If a person dies before he pays zakah, then it must be taken from his estate.
According to ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur, it is obligatory that zakah be paid from the property of the deceased, and this payment receives preference over debt, legacy, and inheritance for Allah says: "... after payment of legacies and debts is what you leave ..." [an-Nisa' 12]. Zakah is a debt payable to Allah.
A man came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and said: "My mother died while she still had to make up one month of fasting. Shall I make it up for her?" The Prophet replied: "If there was any debt upon your mother, would you pay it off for her?" The man answered: "Yes." The Prophet then observed: "A debt to Allah is more deserving to be paid off." This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
Since the payment of zakah is an act of worship, its validity depends upon the expression of one's intention. That is, the zakah payer should pay it for the sake of Allah; he should make up his mind, with all of his heart, that zakah is an obligation to be discharged. Allah says: "And they are commanded no more than this: to worship Allah, sincere in their faith in Him alone" [al-Bayyinah 5].
It is related in al-Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The value of [one's] deeds is determined by [one's] intentions; and thus for each shall be according to his intentions." Malik and ash-Shaf'i say that the intention is to be made at the time of rendering zakah. Abu Hanifah holds that the intention must be present at the time of payment or when zakah is being set aside from one's assets. Ahmad's view is that it is permissible to express the niyyah a little earlier before payment.
Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Umar heard the iqama while he was in Baqi, so he increased his pace of walking to the mosque.
I heard Ibn 'Abbas saying, "Allah's Apostle asked an Ansari woman (Ibn 'Abbas named her but 'Ata' forgot her name), 'What prevented you from performing Hajj with us?' She replied, 'We have a camel and the father of so-and-so and his son (i.e. her husband and her son) rode it and left one camel for us to use for irrigation.' He said (to her), 'Perform 'Umra when Ramadan comes, for 'Umra in Ramadan is equal to Hajj (in reward),' or said something similar."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utba ibn Masud from Abdullah ibn Abbas that Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith heard him reciting al Mursalat (sura 77) and she said to him, "My son, you have reminded me by reciting this sura that it was what I last heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite in the maghrib prayer."
Whenever Allah's Apostle left for Mecca, he used to pray in the mosque of Ash-Shajra, and when he returned (to Medina), he used to pray in the middle of the valley of Dhul-Hulaifa and used to pass the night there till morning.
Allah says: "O you who believe! Most surely many of the doctors of law and the monks eat away the property of men falsely and turn them from Allah's way; and as for those who hoard treasures of gold and silver and do not spend them for the sake of Allah--warn them of grievous sufferings [in the life to come]. On the Day when that [hoarded wealth] shall be heated in the Fires of Hell and their foreheads and their sides and their backs branded with it, [it will be said to them:] 'These are the treasures which you have hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to accumulate!' [at-Taubah 34-35]." He also says: "And they should not think--they who avariously cling to all that Allah has granted them out of His bounty--that this is good for them. No, it is bad for them, for that which they hoard will be hung about their necks on the Day of Judgment" [al-'Imran 180].
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim relate from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "No owner of a treasure who does not pay zakah will be spared, for his treasure will be heated in the Fires of Hell and then made into plates. His flanks and his forehead will be branded with them until Allah pronounces judgment on His servants during a day lasting fifty thousand years.
[The individual] will be shown his path, leading him either to Paradise or to Hell. A camel owner who does not pay zakah will not be spared (either). He will lay flat on a sandy, soft plain and they will run over him heavily one after another until Allah pronounces judgment on His servants during a day lasting fifty thousands years. [The individual in question] will then be shown his path, leading him either to Paradise or to Hell. Equally, no owner of goats who does not pay zakah (will be spared). He will lay flat for them on a sandy plain, and the goats will run over him as heavy as they will come and they will trample him with their hoofs and gore him with their horns--with twisted horns or with no horns--one after another until Allah pronounces judgment on His servants, during a day lasting fifty thousand years, and [the individual in question] will be shown the path, leading him either to Paradise or to Hell. They [the Companions] asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, what about the horses?' He said: 'Horses have goodness in their foreheads (or he said 'Goodness lies in the foreheads of the horses') until the Day of Judgment. Horses are of three kinds: they are a source of reward for the owner, they are a cover, or they are a burden to a person. As to those [horses] that bring rewards, one who raises and trains them for the sake of Allah will get a reward from Him as well as all that they consume will be considered a reward for him from Allah. For every stalk of grass in the meadow that one lets them graze, there is a reward for him. For every drop of water that one lets them drink from the creek, there is a reward.' He went on describing until a reward was mentioned even for their urine and their feces.
'And for every step that they prance on elevated ground, there is a reward. As for the one to whom they will provide cover [in the life hereafter], he is the one who raises them for honor and dignity and remembers the right of their backs and stomachs in plenty and adversity. As for the one to whom they are a burden, he is the one who raises them for glory and showing off to people.' They asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, what about donkeys?' He said: 'Allah has not revealed to me anything in regard to them except this one comprehensive verse: 'He who does an atom's weight of good will see it, and he who does an atom's weight of evil will see it' [az-Zalzalah 7]."
Al-Bukhari and Muslim relate from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and does not pay zakah on his wealth, on the Day of Judgment it will become a bald-headed, poisonous, male snake with two black spots over his eyes. The snake, on the Day of Judgment, will encircle his neck, and bite his cheeks and say: 'I am your treasure, I am your wealth.' " Then he [the Prophet] recited this 'ayah: " 'And let not those who hoard up that which Allah has bestowed upon them of his bounty...' [al'Imran 180]."
Ibn Majah, al-Bazzar, and al-Baihaqi relate from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "O Muhajirun, beware of five traits: if ever immorality spreads in a community and there is no sense of shame on its occurrence or mentioning it [and people talk about it as if nothing bad has taken place], diseases which were not present in the time of their predecessors will spread among them. If they decrease the measure and weight (of sold grains or food), they will be overcome by poverty, their provisions will decrease and their ruler will be unjust. If they refrain from paying the zakah due on their properties, they will be deprived of rain, unless they get it only for the sake of their cattle. If they renounce their commitment to Allah and His Messenger, they will be governed by an enemy who is a stranger to them and who will take away some of what they possess. If their rulers do not rule according to Allah's Book, they will be afflicted by civil war. Allah forbid that these should happen to you."
Al-Bukhari and Muslim relate from al-Ahnaf ibn Qays that he said: "I was in the company of some men of Quraish, when a man (Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, a companion of the Prophet) came with coarse hair, clothes, and appearance. He stood up, greeted them and said: 'Inform those who hoard property that a stone will be heated in the Fires of Hell and then placed on the nipples of their breasts until it comes out from the top of their shoulders. It will then be placed on the top of their shoulders until it comes out again from the nipple of their breasts, and they will be shaken.' Then he left. I followed him and sat near him, not knowing who he was. I said: 'These people disliked what you said to them.' He observed: 'They do not understand anything that my friend said to me.' I asked: 'Who is your friend?' He replied: 'The Prophet, upon whom be peace. [One day he asked me]: 'Do you see the Mount of Uhud?' I looked at the sun to see how much of the day was left, as I thought that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wanted to send me on an errand for him. I said: 'Yes.' Upon this he said: 'Nothing would delight me more than having gold equal to the bulk of Uhud and spending all of it (in Allah's way) except three dinars.'
'Indeed, these people do not understand and go on accumulating riches. By Allah! I neither ask them for this world, nor do I ask them anything about religion until I meet Allah, The Exalted One.' "
Yahya related to me from Malik from al-Ala ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Yaqub from his father and Ishaq ibn Abdullah that they informed him that they heard Abu Hurayra say, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'When the iqama is called for prayer, do not come to it running, but come with calmness. Pray what you catch and complete what you miss. You are in prayer as long as your aim is the prayer.' "
Ursa bin Az-Zubair and I entered the Mosque (of the Prophet) and saw 'Abdullah bin Umar sitting near the dwelling place of Aisha and some people were offering the Duha prayer. We asked him about their prayer and he replied that it was a heresy. He (Ursa) then asked him how many times the Prophet had performed 'Umra. He replied, "Four times; one of them was in the month of Rajab." We disliked to contradict him. Then we heard 'Aisha, the Mother of faithful believers cleaning her teeth with Siwak in the dwelling place. 'Ursa said, "O Mother! O Mother of the believers! Don't you hear what Abu 'Abdur Rahman is saying?" She said, "What does he say?" 'Ursa said, "He says that Allah's Apostle performed four 'Umra and one of them was in the month of Rajab." 'Aisha said, "May Allah be merciful to Abu 'Abdur Rahman! The Prophet did not perform any 'Umra except that he was with him, and he never performed any 'Umra in Rajab."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd arRahman ibn Abdullah ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abu Sasaca al-Ansari, and later al-Mazini, that his father told him that Abu Said al-Khudri had said to him, "I see that you love sheep and the desert. When you are among your sheep or in your desert, call the prayer and raise your voice in the adhan, because I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, 'No jinn or man oranything within range hears the voice of the muadhdhin except that it bears witness for him on the day of rising.' "
I asked 'Aisha (whether the Prophet had performed 'Umra in Rajab). She replied, "Allah's Apostle never performed any 'Umra in Rajab."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When the call to prayer is made Shaytan retreats, passing wind, so that he will not hear the adhan. When the adhan is completed he comes back, until, when the iqama is said, he retreats again. When the iqama is completed, he comes back, until he comes between a man and his self and says, 'Think of such and such, think of such and such,' which he was not thinking about before, until the man does not know how much he has prayed."
I asked Anas how many times the Prophet had performed 'Umra. He replied, "Four times. 1. 'Umra of Hudaibiya in Dhi-l-Qa'da when the pagans hindered him; 2. 'Umra in the following year in Dhi-l-Qa'da after the peace treaty with them (the pagans); 3. 'Umra from Al-Ja'rana where he distributed the war booty." I think he meant the booty (of the battle) of Hunain. I asked, "How many times did he perform Hajj?" He (Anas) replied, "Once. "
As an obligation upon Muslims, zakah is one of the essential requirements of Islam. If somebody disputed its obligation, he would be outside of Islam, and could legally be killed for his unbelief unless he was a new Muslim and could be excused for his ignorance.
As for the one who refrains from paying it without denying its obligation, he would be guilty of committing a sin. Yet, this act does not place him outside of Islam. It is the ruler's duty to take zakah from the defaulter by force and rebuke him, provided he does not collect more than the stipulated amount. However, in the views of Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i (in his earlier opinion) the ruler could take half of the defaulter's money, in addition to the calculated amount of zakah, as a punishment. This view is based on what Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and al-Baihaqi have recorded from Bahz ibn Hakim all the way back to his grandfather who said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say: 'Whether the camels of the zakah payer are grown or baby camels, it makes no difference in his reward if he gave them willingly. (However,) if someone refrains from paying it, it will be taken from him along with half his property, for it is a right of our Lord, the Blessed and the Exalted, not a right of the house of Muhammad.'"
Asked about its chain, Ahmad ruled it good (hassan). Of Bahz, al-Hakim says: "His traditions are authentic." Ash-Shaf'i, as alBaihaqi says, did not include it for fiqhi consideration because . . . "this hadith is not confirmed by the scholars of hadith."
If some people refrain from paying zakah knowing that it is due and that they can afford to pay, they should be fought until they yield and pay. Al-Bukhari and Muslim report that Ibn 'Umar heard the Prophet say: "I have been ordered to fight people until they say that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger, and they uphold the prayers, and pay the zakah. If they do this, their lives and properties will be safe, except for what is due to Islam, and their accounts are with Allah."
Abu Hurairah is reported to have said: "When Allah's Messenger, upon whom be peace, died and Abu Bakr succeeded him as caliph, some Arabs apostasized, causing Abu Bakr to declare war upon them. 'Umar said to him: 'Why must you fight these men?', especially when there is a ruling of the Prophet, upon whom be peace: 'I have been called to fight men until they say that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and whoever said it has saved his life and property from me except when a right is due in them, and his account will be with Allah.' Abu Bakr replied: 'By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between salah and zakah because zakah is the due on property. By Allah! If they withheld even a young she-goat ( 'anaq) that they used to pay at the time of Allah's Messenger, upon whom be peace, I would fight them.' Then 'Umar said: 'By Allah! It was He who gave Abu Bakr the true knowledge to fight, and later I came to know that he was right.' "
The same hadith narrated by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and atTirmidhi has the following variant: "If they witheld the 'iqal, the rope of the camel," instead of "'anaq, young she-goat."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Hazim ibn Dinar that Sahl ibn Sad as-Saidi said, "There are two times when the gates of heaven are opened, and few who make supplication have it returned to them unanswered. They are at the timeof the adhan, and in a rank of people fighting in the way of Allah."
Malik was asked whether the adhan on the day of jumua was called before the time had come for the prayer and he said, "It is not called until after the sun has passed the meridian."
Malik was asked about doubling the adhan and the iqama, and at what point people had to stand when the iqama for the prayer was called. He said, "I have heard nothing about the adhan and iqama except what I have seen people do. As for the iqama, it is not doubled. That is what the people of knowledge in our region continue to do. As for people standing up when the iqama for the prayer is called, I have not heard of any definite point at which it is begun, and I consider it rather to be according to people's (individual) capacity, for some people are heavy and some are light, and they are not able to be as one man ."
Malik was asked about a gathering of people who wished to do the prescribed prayer calling the iqama and not the adhan, and he said, "lt is enough for them. The adhan is only obligatory in mosques where the prayer is said in congregation."
Malik was asked about the muadhdhin saying "Peace be upon you" to the imam and calling him to the prayer, and he was asked who was the first person to whom such a greeting was made. He replied, "I have not heard that this greeting occurred in the first community."
Yahya said that Malik was asked whether a muadhdhin who called the people to prayer and then waited to see if anyone would come and no one did, so he said the iqama and did the prayer by himself and then people came after he had finished, should repeat the prayer with them. Malik said, "He does not repeat the prayer, and whoever comes after he has finished should do the prayer by himself."
Yahya said that Malik was asked about a muadhdhin who called the adhan for a group of people, did voluntary prayers, and then the group of people wanted to do the prayer with some one else saying the iqama. He said, "There is no harm in that. His iqama or somebody else's are the same."
Yahya said that Malik said, "The subh prayer is still called before dawn. As for the other prayers, we believe that they should only be called after the time has started."
I asked Anas (about the Prophet's 'Umra) and he replied, "The Prophet performed 'Umra when the pagans made him return, and Umra of al-Hudaibiya (the next year), and another 'Umra in Dhi-l-Qa'da, and another 'Umra in combination with his Hajj."
Zakah must be paid by every Muslim who has a nisab, which is the minimum of one's holdings liable to zakah. The nisab is conditioned by the following:
Commenting on the issue, an-Nawawi said: "In our view and the views of Malik, Ahmad, and the majority of scholars, the amount of property liable for payment of zakah, such as gold, silver, or cattle, is tied to the completion of nisab through the turn of a whole year. If the nisab decreases in any time of the year, [the counting of] the year discontinues. Later, if the nisab is completed, the year count is resumed from the time of its completion."
On the same subject, Abu Hanifah holds: "What matters isthe availability of nisab at the beginning and end of the year. Its decrease at any time in between does not matter, even though the zakah payer had two hundred dirhams and he lost all but one dirham during the year, or if he had forty sheep, all of which died except for one during the year. If, at the end of the year, he had two hundred dirhams, or forty sheep, then he must pay zakah on all of that. This condition is not applicable to the zakah of plantations and fruits, for their zakah should be paid on the harvest day. Allah, the Exalted One, says: 'And pay the due thereof upon the harvest day' [alA'raf 142]."
Al-'Abdari elaborated that: "The holdings subject to zakah are of two kinds. The first kind grows by itself: crops and fruits. The second kind is used for growing and production: money, merchandise, and cattle. In the former case, zakah should be paid at the time of harvest. In the latter case, it should be paid at the end of the haul. This was the opinion of all jurists as reported in anNawawi's al-Majrnu'."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the muadhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, "Prayer is better than sleep," and Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for subh .
The Prophet performed four 'Umra (three) in Dhi-l-Qa'da except the (one) 'Umra which he performed with his Hajj: His 'Umra from Al-Hudaibiya, and the one of the following year, and the one from Al-Ja'rana where he distributed the booty (of the battle) of Hunain, and another 'Umra with his Hajj.
The guardian of a child or of a mentally retarded person must pay zakah on his behalf from his property if it constitutes a nisab.
'Amr ibn Shu'aib reported from his father backed up by a chain of sources going back to 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "One who becomes the guardian of an orphan with property must trade on his behalf and not leave it passive in order to avoid depletion of the property by sadaqah."
However, this hadith has a weak link. Still, al-Hafiz affirms that: "There is a similar hadith of the mursal type in the compilation of ash-Shaf'i, who confirmed that it is considered a sound one. 'Aishah used to set aside zakah for the orphans who were under her protection."
At-Tirmidhi concludes that: "Jurists differ on this issue. More than one companion of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said that zakah may be taken from an orphan's property. Among these are: 'Umar, 'Ali, 'Aishah, and Ibn 'Umar. This view is also supported by Malik, ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq. Another group, including Sufyan and Ibn al-Mubarak, hold that: 'Zakah should not be taken out of an orphan's property.' "
Whoever has property must pay its proper zakah. If the property is indebted, he may first pay off his debt, then in case the remainder is enough to constitute a nisab, he must pay zakah. If he does not hold the nisab, he does not have to pay it since he is poor. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Only the wealthy are required to give charity." This hadith is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari. The latter records it in mu'allaq form. The Prophet also said: "Zakah is levied on the rich and paid to the poor." It is all the same, whether he is indebted to Allah or to man, because one hadith states: "Allah's debt is more deserving of fulfillment."
Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his uncle's father said, "I recognise nothing nowadays of what I saw the people (i.e. the companions of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace ) doing except the call to prayer."
I asked Masruq, 'Ata' and Mujahid (about the 'Umra of Allah's Apostle). They said, "Allah's Apostle had performed 'Umra in Dhi-l-Qa'da before he performed Hajj." I heard Al-Bara' bin 'Azib saying, "Allah's Apostle had performed 'Umra in Dhi-l-Qa'da twice before he performed Hajj."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to recite in all four rakas as when he prayed alone - in every raka the umm al-Qur'an and another sura from the Qur'an. Sometimes he would recite two or three suras in one raka in the obligatory prayer. Similarly, he recited the umm al-Qur'an and two suras in the first two rakas of maghrib.
The Prophet forbade going to one's family at night (on arrival from a journey).
There is no zakah on silver until the amount exceeds two hundred dirhams. The amount payable is a quarter of a tenth for any amount. There is no zakah exemption on (silver) coins if they attain a nisab.
'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "I exempt you from paying zakah on horses and slaves. Pay, then, zakah on silver, one dirham for each forty dirhams. Zakah is not due on ninety or one hundred dirhams of silver. If it reaches two hundred dirhams, five dirhams are to be paid." This was related by the authors of as-Sunnan (The Traditions). At-Tirmidhi relates: "I asked al-Bukhari if he confirms this hadith. He said: 'It is authentic.' " At-Tirmidhi also says: "Jurists recognize that sadaqah should be taken out of any amount less than five ounces (awaq). One ounce (uqiyyah) equals forty dirhams. Five awaq equal 200 dirhams. Two hundred dirhams equal twenty-seven riyals equal 555 1/2 Egyptian piasters."
If a person owns gold and silver, but neither of them on its own constitutes a nisab, he should not combine the two in order to obtain a nisab. This is because they are not of the same kind. The basic rule is that no category can be combined with another. It is the same for cows and sheep. For example, if someone has 199 dirhams and nineteen dinars, he is not supposed to pay zakah on them.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Said ibn al-Musayyab used to say, "Whoever prays on waterless, desolate land - an angel prays on his right and an angel prays on his left. When he calls both the adhan and the iqama for the prayer, or calls out the iqama, angels like mountains pray behind him."
We set out with Allah's Apostle shortly before the appearance of the new moon of Dhi-l-Hijja and he said, "Whoever wants to assume Ihram for 'Umra may do so, and whoever wants to assume Ihram for Hajj may do so. Had not I brought the Hadi with me, I would have assumed Ihram for 'Umra." Some of the people assumed Ihram for 'Umra while others for Hajj. I was amongst those who had assumed Ihram for 'Umra. I got my menses before entering Mecca, and was menstruating till the day of 'Arafat. I complained to Allah's Apostle about it, he said, "Abandon your 'Umra, undo and comb your hair, and assume Ihram for Hajj." So, I did that accordingly. When it was the night of Hasba (day of departure from Mina), the Prophet sent 'Abdur Rahman with me to At-Tanim.
The sub-narrator adds: He ('Abdur-Rahman) let her ride behind him. And she assumed Ihram for 'Umra in lieu of the abandoned one. 'Aisha completed her Hajj and 'Umra, and no Hadi, Sadaqa (charity), or fasting was obligatory for her.
At-Taubah 103 authorizes the Prophet, upon whom be peace, to take either a stipulated amount of alms from the believers' holdings in the form of the obligatory zakah, or a voluntary, unstipulated amount (zakah of tatawwul). In this 'ayah, "purify" means to purify them from stinginess, greed, and meanness, and a lack of remorse toward the poor and the wretched. To sanctify them is to raise them in esteem through good deeds and blessings so that they will be worthy of happiness both now and in the afterlife.
In reference to the life hereafter, Allah reveals: "Lo! Those who keep from evil will dwell amid gardens and watersprings, taking that which their Lord gives them. For they were before doers of good. They used to sleep but little of the night, and in the hours of the early dawn they prayed for forgiveness.... In their wealth, the beggar and the outcast had due share" [adh-Dhariyat 15-19]. Allah views beneficence and righteousness as exclusive qualities of the pious. It is because of their beneficence that they pray at night and ask Allah's forgiveness at dawn as a way of worshipping and approaching Him. Their beneficence is likewise in their giving to the needy their share of mercy and sympathy.
Allah further confirms: "And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends of one another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, they perform prayer and pay the zakah, and they obey Allah and His Messenger. Upon them, Allah will have mercy" [at-Taubah 71].
Such are the people blessed by Allah and given His mercy-- those who believe in Him, who take care of each other through support and love, who exhort fairness and restrain lewd behavior, who have strong ties with Allah through prayer, and who strengthen their mutual relations through zakah.
Finally, these people, as reflected in al-Hajj 41, are: "Those who, if we give them power in the land, perform prayers and pay zakah, and enjoin kindness and forbid inequity." Giving zakah is, therefore, one of the reasons for which the righteous are given authority on earth.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ata ibn Yazid al-Laythi from Abu Said al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you hear the adhan, repeat what the muadhdhin says."
Ikrima bin Khalid asked Ibn 'Umar about performing 'Umra before Hajj. Ibn 'Umar replied, "There is no harm in it." 'Ikrima said, "Ibn 'Umar also said, 'The Prophet had performed 'Umra before performing Hajj.' "
At-Tirmidhi relates from Abu Kabshah alAnmari that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "I swear upon three (things) and ask you to memorize my words: Sadaqah taken from a property never decreases it; a man who suffers injustice and is patient with it, Allah will grant him strength; a man who starts begging, Allah will cause him to be poor."
Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi relate (and the latter graded it sahih) from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Allah receives charity by His right hand, and then He causes it to grow for each of you. Just as you raise a horse, colt, foal, or young weaned camel, so that morsel becomes as large as the Mount of 'Uhud."
Of this hadith's content, Waki' says: "This is sanctioned by the Qur'an: 'Do they not know that it is Allah alone who can accept the repentance of His servants and is the (true) recipient of whatever is offered for His sake - and that Allah alone is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace?' [at-Taubah 104]. 'Allah deprives usurious gains of all blessing, whereas He blesses charitable deeds with manifold increase.' [al Baqarah 276]."
Again, Ahmad relates, with a sound chain of narrators, that Anas said: "A man from the tribe of Tameem came to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and said: 'O Messenger of Allah! I have plenty of property, a large family, a great deal of money, and I am a gracious host to my guests. Tell me how to conduct my life and how to spend.' The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, replied: 'Pay zakah out of your property, for truly it is a purifier which purifies you, and be kind to your relatives, and acknowledge the rights of the poor, neighbors, and beggars'."
It was reported from 'Aishah that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "I swear upon three things: Allah does not equate one who has a portion in Islam with one who does not. The portions of Islam are three: prayer, fasting, and zakah. If Allah takes care of a man in this world, He will take care of him on the Day of Judgment. If a man likes a group of people, Allah will certainly include him among them. As for the fourth, if I swear on it, I hope I will not commit a sin: that if Allah conceals a man's sin in this world, He will certainly not expose him on the Day of Judgment."
At-Tabarani relates in al-'Awsat, that Jabir reported: "A man said: 'O Messenger of Allah! What will be the gains for a man who pays zakah on his assets?' The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: 'For one who pays zakah on his asssets, he will be removed from the evil in them'."
On the same subject, al-Bukhari and Muslim relate that Jabir ibn 'Abdullah reported: "I gave my allegience to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, that I will establish salah (prayers) and zakah, and I will give advice to every Muslim."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman, from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If people knew what was in the adhan and the first row of the prayer and could only draw lots for it, they would draw lots. And if they knew what was in doing dhuhr early, they would race each other to it. And if they knew what was in isha and subh, they would go to them even if they had to crawl."
"I asked Ibn 'Umar the same (as above)."
Zakah must be paid immediately at its due time. Deferring payment of zakah is prohibited, unless the payer for some valid reason cannot pay it on time. In such a case, he may wait until he is able to pay it. It is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari that 'Uqbah ibn al-Harith said: "Once I performed the 'asr prayer with the Prophet, upon whom be peace. When he concluded the prayer, he hurriedly went to his house and retumed immediately. Noticing the amazed faces, he said: 'I left at home a piece of gold which was meant for sadaqah, and I did not want to let it remain a night in my house, so I ordered it to be distributed.'"
Ash-Shaf'i and al-Bukhari (the latter in his Tarikh) relate from 'Aishah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whenever sadaqah which is payable is mixed with a property, it will destroy that property." The same hadith is related by al-Humaydi with this addition: "If you have to pay sadaqah which is payable, then it must be set aside, or the unlawful [property] will destroy the lawful one."
It is permissible for zakah to be paid for even two years in advance. Al-Zuhri did not see any problem in paying his zakah before the hawl. Al-Hasan was once asked if a man who had paid his zakah for three years in advance fulfilled his obligation. Al-Hasan answered in the affirmative. Of this view, ash-Shaukani said: "This was the view of ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, and Abu Hanifah. It was supported by al-Hadi and al-Qasim." Al-Mu'ayyad-billah also subscribes to this opinion as being better, but he says that Malik, Rabi'ah, Sufyan ath-Thauri, Dawud, Abu 'Ubayd ibn al-Harith, and an-Nasir (who comes from the Prophet's family) held that one's obligation is not discharged if the zakah is paid before the expiration of the year. They formulated their stance on the Prophet's hadith, already mentioned, which makes the zakah mandatory for the payer only when he has his possessions for a year. However, this does not invalidate the view of those who maintain that paying zakah in advance is lawful, for undeniably the obligation of zakah is associated with the expiry of one full year. The difference is only on the point of whether one's obligation is discharged if the zakah is paid before the year has expired." Ibn Rushd sums up the subject: "The controversy arises from the question whether it is an act of worship or an obligation owed to the poor. The group which considers it an act of worship, like salah (prayers), does not agree that it should be paid before its time. On the other hand, the group which views it as similar to the case of deferred obligatory dues approves its voluntary payment in advance." In support of his view, ashShaf'i relates a hadith from 'Ali that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, asked for al-'Abbas' sadaqah before its due date.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar called the adhan on a cold and windy night and included the phrase, "Do the prayer in shelter." Then he said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to orderthe muadhdhin to say, 'Do the prayerin shelter' when it was a cold, rainy night "
We set out along with Allah's Apostle shortly before the appearance of the new moon (crescent) of the month of Dhi-l-Hijja and he said to us, "Whoever wants to assume Ihram for Hajj may do so; and whoever wants to assume Ihram for 'Umra may do so. Hadn't I brought the Hadi (animal for sacrificing) (with me), I would have assumed Ihram for 'Umra." ('Aisha added,): So some of us assumed Ihram for 'Umra while the others for Hajj. I was amongst those who assumed Ihram for 'Umra. The day of 'Arafat approached and I was still menstruating. I complained to the Prophet (about that) and he said, "Abandon your 'Umra, undo and comb your hair, and assume Ihram for Hajj;." When it was the night of Hasba, he sent 'Abdur Rahman with me to At-Tan'im and I assumed Ihram for 'Umra (and performed it) in lieu of my missed 'Umra.
As soon as palm trees and grapevines ripen and their produce is ready to be picked, an estimation of their nisab is made without their actual weighing. The process is carried out by a knowledgeable and trustworthy person who estimates the amount of fresh grapes and dates still on the trees for zakah as if they were dry dates and raisins. The arnount of zakah is, however, payable when the fruit becomes dry.
Abu Humayd as-Sa'idi related: "We went on the expedition of Tabuk with the Prophet, upon whom be peace. When we arrived at Wadi al-Qura, we saw a woman in her orchard. The Prophet said: 'Let us estimate [her zakah].' Then the Messenger, upon whom be peace, estimated ten awsuq and told her: '[The amount of zakah] has been calculated on your [orchard's] produce.' " This is narrated by alBukhari.
This is the practice of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and his companions and the scholars observed it.
The Hanafiyyah have different views because they consider conjecture to be uncertain, and therefore, of no use in determining the amount owed. Still, the tradition of the Messenger of Allah is a better guide ('adha) because conjecture is not guessing; it is a diligent attempt to estimate the amount of the produce. It is the same as estimating the amount of the produce lost (because of its being rotten or moth-ridden). The basis for conjecture rests on the custom that people eat fresh fruits, and as such, there is no need for calculating the amount of zakah before it is eaten or plucked. In this way, the owners are allowed to do what they want and, at the same time, to determine the amount of zakah. The appraiser should ignore a third or a fourth of the produce as a reprieve for the property owners since they, their guests, and their neighbors need to eat some of it. Also, the produce is exposed to such perils as birds feeding, passers-by plucking, and wind blowing. Any appraisal of the amount of zakah on all of the produce without excluding a third or a fourth of it (for the preceding reasons) would have militated against the genuine interests of the owners.
Sahl ibn Abu Hathamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whenever you conjecture, estimate the [zakah] and ignore one-third. If you do not, then leave [at least] one-fourth." This is narrated by Ahmad and the authors of Sunan, except for Ibn Majah. It was also reported by al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban, and they both authenticated it. Commenting on the status of the report, atTirmidhi says: "The hadith reported by Sahl is the one enacted or followed by most scholars." Bashir ibn Yassar said: "When 'Umar ibn al-Khattab appointed Abu Hathamah al-Ansari to estimate the property of Muslims, he told him: 'Whenever you see that the people have left some dates unplucked for autumn, leave them for the people to eat, and do not estimate the zakah on them.' "
Makhul said: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, assigned someone to estimate, he would say: 'Be easy on the people, for some of their property [trees] could be barren, some low, and some for [their] eating.' " It was narrated by Abu 'Ubaid, who added: "The low palm tree is called as-sabilah and allows its fruit to be plucked by passers-by. The eating tree (al-akilah) is a palm tree especially designated as an eating tree for the owner's family or for whoever is attached to them."
Yahya related to me from Malik from his paternal uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his father said, "We heard the recitation of Umar ibn al-Khattab when we were at the home of Abu Jahmin al-Balat." (Al-Balat was a place in Madina between the mosque and the market.)
I was with Ibn 'Umar on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together. Then he said, "I saw that whenever the Prophet had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together)."
The rate of zakah differs according to the method of irrigation. If it is watered naturally without the use of artificial means, then the zakah payable is a tithe (one-tenth) of the produce. However, if it is irrigated by a mechanical device or with purchased water, then the zakah payable is half a tithe.
Mu'adh reports that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "On that which is watered by the heavens, or by an adjacent water channel, a tithe is due. As for what is irrigated through a well or a stream, its zakah is half a tithe." This hadith is narrated by alBaihaqi and al-Hakim, and is graded sahih.
Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "On that which is watered by the heavens or springs or its own roots, a tithe is due, and on that watered by a well or a stream, half a tithe." This hadith is narrated by al-Bukhari and others.
In case the land is watered equally by artificial as well as natural means, then zakah payable will be three-fourths of a tithe.
Ibn Qudamah stated that he did not know of any difference of opinion on the preceding hadith. If one method of watering is used more than the other, then for calculating zakah, this would be the determining factor. This is the view of Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, athThauri, and ash-Shaf'i (one of his two opinions).
All of the costs involved in harvesting, transportation, threshing, cleaning, storing, and others are to be borne by the owner from his property and should not be accounted for against the zakah to be paid.
Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn 'Umar hold that whatever is borrowed for the purpose of tilling, planting, and harvesting should first be taken out.
This is evident from their following statements reported by Jabir ibn Zaid that Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn 'Umar said that a man who borrows in order to spend it either on cultivation (of his land) or on his family must first pay off his debt, then pay zakah on the rest. Ibn 'Abbas said: "First he must pay off what he spent on cultivation, and then pay zakah on the rest." Yahya ibn Adam related this in al-Kharaj.
Ibn Hazm relates from 'Ata that all expenses are to be deducted first. If zakah is applicable to the remaining amount, only then will it be paid.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Adi ibn Thabit al-Ansari that al-Barra ibn Azib said, "I prayed isha with the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he recited at-Tin (Sura 95) in it."
Anas said, "Whenever Allah's Apostle returned from a journey, he, on seeing the high places of Medina, would make his she-camel proceed faster; and if it were another animal, even then he used to make it proceed faster."
Narrated Humaid that the Prophet used to make it proceed faster out of his love for Medina.
Land subject to tax is divided into two categores:
Just as zakah is payable on 'ushriyyah, so it is paid on kharajiyyah when the inhabitants of the latter accept Islam or when a Muslim buys it. In that case, both the tithe and the kharaj become due, and neither of them will negate the application of the other.
Ibn al-Mundhir witnesses: "This is the view of most of the scholars, including 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz, Rabi'ah, az-Zuhri, Yahya al-Ansari, Malik, al-Awzai, ath-Thauri, al-Hasan ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Layla, al-Layth, Ibn al-Mubarak, Ahmad, Ishaq, Abu 'Ubaid, and Dawud." Their opinion is derived from the Qur'an, the sunnah, and the exercise of their intellect--that is, by means of analogical reasoning or qiyas.
The Qur'anic verse referred to is: "O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have earned and of that which We produce from the earth for you" [al-Baqarah 267]. Sharing the produce of ones land with the poor is obligatory, whether the land is kharajiyyah or 'ushriyyah. The sunnah referred to is: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due]." This hadith encompasses in its general meaning both the kharaj and the 'ushriyyah land.
As to the analogical reasoning (qiyas), both zakah and kharaj are a kind of obligations (hagq), each based on a different reason, and one does not nullify the other. It is similar to the case when a person who is in the state of ihram kills privately owned game (for eating). Since the tithe is payable by the force of the text, it cannot be negated by kharaj, which becomes payable by the force of ijtihad. Abu Hanifah holds that there is no tithe on kharaj land. Kharaj, he says, is due only when the land is conquered, (whereas) one of the conditions governing the obligatory nature of the tithe is that the land should not be kharajiyyah.
Imam Abu Hanifah provides the following evidence for his view: According to Ibn Mas'ud, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Neither kharaj nor tithe ['ushr] are payable simultaneously on the land of a Muslim."
The preceding hadith is by consensus held to be weak (da'if). Yahya ibn 'Anbasah reported it on the authority of Abu Hanifah from Hammad from Ibrahim an-Nakha'i from 'Alqamah, from Ibn Mas'ud from the Prophet, upon whom be peace.
Al-Baihaqi probes its chain and says in al-Ma'rifah as-Sunan wa al-Athar: "The preceding hadith is narrated by Abu Hanifah from Hammad from Ibrahim on his own authority. Thus, Yahya reported in suspended (marfu') form." Yahya ibn 'Anbasah is well-known for interpolating unauthentic sayings and attributing them to established authorities. This was related by Abu Ahmad ibn 'Adiyy al-Hafiz as we were informed by Abu Sa'id al-Malini about him."
Likewise, al-Kamal Ibn al-Humam, a leading Hanafiyyah, considers the hadith weak.
Ahmad, Muslirn, and Abu Dawud relate from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Iraq would refrain from paying its qafiz' and dirham, Syria its mudd and dinar, and Egypt its ardab and dinar. Thus, you would come back from where you had started." He said this three times. Abu Hurairah heard this in person.
This hadith does not provide evidence to the effect that zakah should not be taken from kharaj land. The scholars interpret it to mean that the conversion of these countries to Islam would eliminate land tax. It may also have alluded to dissensions which could prevail at the end of time and which would lead to neglecting or fulfilling the obligation of zakah, jizyah and other such dues by them.
An-Nawawi says: "If this hadith means what they [the Hanafiyyah] claim, then it means that zakah could not be enjoined on dirhams, dinars, and merchandise. If this is so, then nobody subscribes to it."
It was reported that when the dahqan (grandee) of Bahr al-Mulk embraced Islam, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab said: "Give him the land and collect the land tax from him." This is a clear statement on the matter of taking kharaj without demanding payment of the tithe.
This incident indicates that kharaj is not cancelled for any person after he embraces Islam, nor does it lead to the cancellation of tithe. He mentioned kharaj here as a way of stating that it will not be cancelled by embracing Islam, like jizyah. As for the tithe, it is well known that it is binding on a free Muslim, so there is no need to mention it. He also did not mention the levy of zakah on cattle. This holds for the payment of zakah on silver and gold and other valuables. Perhaps the dahqan (grandee) did not possess anything which required the levy of a tithe on it.
It is said that the practice of the rulers and imams was not to combine the 'ushr and kharaj. Ibn al-Mundhir disapproves of such a practice because 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz did combine the two.
It is also said that kharaj is the opposite of 'ushr. This means that kharaj is a consequence of conquest, whereas 'ushr is an act of worship. Therefore, the two cannot be combined (at one time) and obtained simultaneously from the same person. This held true in the beginning (when lands were conquered), but it is not tenable in the long run. Nevertheless, not all forms of kharaj are based on force and conquest since some of its forms are instituted without force as, for example, in the case of lands adjoining a kharaj land or in the case of acquired and revived land watered with streams.
It is also said that the reason behind the imposition of kharaj and 'ushr is one--that is, an actually or potentially yielding land. This can be explained by recalling that if it is marsh land of no benefit (sabkhah), there is no kharaj or 'ushr on it. That is, one cause cannot demand two dues of the same kind. This is similar to the case of an individual who for a year possesses free-grazing camels (sa'imah) intended for sale, for such a person is not required to pay two kinds of zakah--that is, one for possession and one for trade.
This is not the case because the 'ushr (tithe) is payable on the land's produce and the kharaj on the land itself, regardless of whether it is planted or not. As to the admissibility of the unity of cause, alKamal ibn al-Humam explains there is nothing to prevent two obligations from being connected to one cause, such as land.
Most scholars are of the opinion that anyone who rents a piece of land and cultivates it must pay the zakah, not the true owner of that land. To this Abu Hanifah replies: "Zakah is due on the land owner." Ibn Rushd holds: "Their difference lies in whether the 'ushr is payable on the land itself or its produce." Obviously, zakah, as their views suggest, is payable on either of them. The difference is only of priority, considering that both the produce and the land belong to the same owner. Most scholars say that zakah is due on seeds (habb). Abu Hanifah holds that the essence of obligation rests with the land. Ibn Qudamah inclines toward the majority's view and says: "The obligation lies on the produce and is payable by its owner, as in the case of zakah on the value [of a property] intended for trade. Also, it is similar to the tithe payable on the produce of the land owned." Their (the Hanafiyyah) view is not authentic, for if zakah were to be levied on the value of the land, then it would have been obligatory even if the land was not cultivated, as is the case with the land tax, and even nonMuslirns would not be excluded from its application. Be that the case, kharaj would have to be estimated on the land itself, not on the value of produce--that is, it would be considered part of the expenditure of fay', not the expenditure of zakah.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Ibrahim ibn Abdullah ibn Hunayn from hisfatherfromAliibnAbiTalibthattheMessengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade wearing the qassi (an Egyptian garment, stripedwithsilk),wearing gold rings, and reciting the Qur'an in ruku.
As above, but mentioned "the walls of Medina" instead of "the high places of Medina. Al-Harith bin Umar agrees with Anas.
An-Nawawi says: "As for olives, our [Shaf'iyyah] view is that there is no zakah on them." This is also the opinion of Hasan ibn Salih, Ibn Abu Layla, and Abu 'Ubaid.
Scholars such as as-Zuhri, al-Auza'i, al-Layth, Malik, athThauri, Abu Hanifah, and Abu Thaur maintain that there is zakah on olives. Az-Zuhri, al-Layth, and al-Auza'i hold: "Determine its quantity by conjecture (yukharras), and then take its zakah in the form of olive oil," while Malik says: "There is no need to compute its quantity by conjecture (yukharras). Take a tithe subsequent to the olives being pressed and attain the weight of five awsuq."
Of their differences on the payment of zakah pertaining to plants and fruits, Ibn Rushd informs us: "The difference of opinion lies in the fact that some jurists confine paying of zakah to only those items of consumption which are generally agreed upon, while others go beyond those items and include dried fruits in them too. [The crux of the issue is]: What qualifies the four edible items [wheat, barley, dates, and dried grapes] for zakah? Are they subject to zakah because of their being delineated as such or because of their special import to the subsistence of life? Those who subscribe to the first view restrict payment of zakah to the four edibles, and those who subscribe to the second view extend the obligation to all land produce except for grass, firewood, and bamboo. There is a consensus on the latter being excluded from zakah. However, when it comes to the use of analogy based on a general statement, both groups rest on shaky ground."
The saying of the Prophet, which uses the expression alladhi yaqtadhi, reads: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due], and from what is watered by irrigation [nadh] a half a tithe." The relative pronoun ma is used to mean al-ladhi, which is a general expression. Allah, the Exalted, also says: "It is He who has brought into being gardens--both the cultivated ones and those growing wild--and the date palm, and fields bearing multiform produce, and the olive trees, and the pomegranate: all resembling one another and yet so different. Eat of their fruit when it comes to fruition, and give unto the poor their due on the harvest day ..." [al-An'am 141].
Analogically speaking, zakah aims at counteracting poverty and this cannot be done through zakah on land produce which is edible and sustains life.
Restricting a general statement with this kind of analogical reasoning vitiates zakah on all land produce except ones which sustain life. Those who follow the general import of the Prophet's saying add some more to the generally acknowledged four items. Excluded of course are the ones on which there is consensus.
Again, those who agree upon land produce of a subsistance kind often differ over whether it can be considered as being subsistent. Can analogical reasoning be the basis of what they agree upon or not? An example of such a disagreement is that of Malik and ash-Shaf'i regarding olives. Malik holds that zakah on olives is obligatory, while ash-Shaf'i is against it, according to a latter view expressed in Egypt. The reason for his disagreement is whether olives could be considered as food vital for life or not.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mutim that his father said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, recite at-Tur (Sura 52) in the maghrib prayer."
When the Prophet arrived at Mecca, some boys of the tribe of Bani 'Abdul Muttalib went to receive him, and the Prophet made one of them ride in front of him and the other behind him.
Most scholars say that there is no zakah on plants or fruits until they attain the amount of five awsuq. Furthermore, this becomes applicable only after the chaff, straw, and husk are removed. If it is not cleansed of husk, then the amount of zakah would be ten awsuq.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "There is no sadaqah (zakah) on that which is less than five awsuq." It is also narrated by Ahmad and al-Baihaqi with a good chain.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "There is no sadaqah on any amount of dates or grains less than five awsuq." A wusuq by consensus of opinion is sixty sa'as (a cubic measure of varying magnitude). This hadith is said to be munqati that is--a hadith with an interrupted chain.
Both Abu Hanifah and Mujahid hold that zakah is due on any amount, little or big, in accordance with the generic nature of the Prophet's saying: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due] ..." This is because land produce is perishable and cannot be preserved for a whole year. In that case, such produce does not attain a nisab within a one-year period.
Ibn al-Qayyim's discussion of the subject is that the authentic and explicit sunnah for a tithe's nisab is the hadith: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due], and from what is watered by irrigation (gharb-vessel) a half a tithe." This is applicable to both small and large quantities as opposed to the specific amount mentioned in other hadith. In its application, a generic statement is as important as a specific one. Should there be a conflict between the two, then the most comprehensive will be applicable. This is the rule.
It has been said that both of the preceding hadith ought to be followed. In their essence, they do not contradict each other, nor does one of them have to cancel the other. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, has to be obeyed in this matter, for he said: "From what the heavens water, a tithe [is due] . . ." This saying seeks to distinguish between the two (categories): one on which a tithe is due, and the other on which only half of the tithe is due. He therefore distinguished between the two categories only in respect to the amount due. There is no mention of any amount of nisab in this hadith. However, he mentioned it explicitly in another hadith which cannot be ignored as something that is general or is intended to be so and not otherwise. It is similar to other statements of general import which have been explained in the texts.
Ibn Qudamah concludes: "The saying of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, that 'there is no sadaqah [zakah] on anything less than five awsuq' is agreed upon. This hadith is specific, and for this reason takes precedence and clarifies his previous statement of general import. This is similar to his saying that 'zakah is due on all freely grazing camels,' which becomes explicit by his other saying on the same subject: 'There is no sadaqah on less than five camels.' Likewise his saying: 'Sadaqah on silver is a fourth of the tithe,' becomes specific by a latter utterance: 'There is no sadaqah on any amount less than five ounces.' Thus, it is possible to have holdings which qualify for sadaqah per se, but on which it is not levied."
When it comes to land produce, possession of a property for a year cannot be used as criterion, because their maturity or growth is completed by the time of harvest, and not by their continuity extended beyond a year. However, possession is considered for goods other than land produce since it is generally assumed that by the end of the year they must have completed their growth. The principle of attaining a nisab on any property is based on the understanding that a nisab is an amount large enough to be subjected to zakah. This may be explained by recalling that sadaqah is obligatory for the rich, which presupposes the existence of nisab generated by their holdings. For produce which cannot be measured but qualifies for zakah, a sa'a is used. One sa'a is a measure equal to one and one-third cups (gadah). Thus, a nisab is fifty kaylah (kaylah is a dry measure of weight, in Egypt it is equal to 16.72 L). As to the produce which cannot be measured, Ibn Quadamah says: "The nisab of saffron, cotton and such items is to be weighed at 1,600 Iraqi pounds (ratl, an Iraqi ratl equals approximately 130 dirhams). Thus, its weight is estimated."
Abu Yusuf says that if the produce cannot be measured, then zakah can only be levied on it when its value attains the nisab of articles subject to the lowest standard of measurement. Thus, zakah will not be levied on cotton until its value reaches five awsuq of an article to the lowest value so measured, such as barley and the like. This is because it is impossible to measure the article in itself except by the lower price of two nisabs. According to Muhammad ibn al-Hasan: "For zakah, a product has to reach five times the greatest value of its kind. Thus, zakah is not payable on cotton when it reaches five qintars, because evaluation by means of wusuq is based on the consideration that its value is higher than what is valued in kind."
26 Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Ubayd, the mawla of Sulayman ibn Abd alMalik, from Ubada ibn Nusayy from Qays ibn al Harith that Abu Abdullah as-Sunabihi said, "I arrived in Madina in the khalifate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, and I prayed maghrib behind him. He recited the umm al Qur'an and two suras from the shorter ones of the mufassal in the first two rakas. Then he stood up in the third and I drew so near to him that my clothes were almost touching his clothes. I heard him reciting the umm al-Qur'an and this ayat, 'Our Lord, do not make our hearts go astray after You have guided us, and give us mercy from Your presence. Surely You are the Giver. ' " (Sura 3 ayat 8)