Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The blessed month has come to you. Allah has made fasting during it obligatory upon you. During it, the gates to Paradise are opened and the gates to hellfire are locked, and the devils are chained. There is a night [during this month] which is better than a thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good is really deprived [of something great]." This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and al-Baihaqi.
'Arfajah testifies to this: "We were with 'Utbah ibn Farqad while he was discussing Ramadan. A companion of the Prophet entered upon the scene. When 'Utbah saw him, he became shy and stopped talking. The man [the companion] spoke about Ramadan, saying: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah say during Ramadan: "The gates of Hell are closed, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the devils are in chains. An angel calls out: 'O you who intend to do good deeds, have glad tidings. O you who intend to do evil, refrain, until Ramadan is completed.'"
Muslim relates that Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet saying: "The time between the five prayers, two consecutive Friday prayers, and two consecutive Ramadans are expiations for all that has happened during that period, provided that one has avoided the grave sins."
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan, obeying all of its limitations and guarding himself against what is forbidden, has in fact atoned for any sins he committed before it." Ahmad and alBaihaqi related this hadith with a good chain.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan with faith and seeks Allah's pleasure and reward will have his previous sins forgiven." This hadith is related by Ahmad and the compilers of the sunan.
The Prophet said, "O Allah! Bestow on Medina twice the blessings You bestowed on Mecca."
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet said: "The bare essence of Islam and the basics of the religion are three [acts], upon which Islam has been established. Whoever leaves one of them becomes an unbeliever and his blood may legally be spilled. [The acts are:] Testifying that there is no God except Allah, the obligatory prayers, and the fast of Ramadan." This hadith is related by Abu Ya'la and ad-Dailimi. Adh-Dhahabi called it sahih.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever breaks his fast during Ramadan without having one of the excuses that Allah would excuse him for, then even a perpetual fast, if he were to fast it, would not make up for that day." This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and atTirmidhi.
Al-Bukhari records from Abu Hurairah in marfu' form: "Whoever breaks the fast of Ramadan without having a legitimate excuse or being ill, he cannot make up for that day, even if he were to undertake a perpetual fast." Ibn Mas'ud has also reported this.
Adh-Dhahabi says: "According to the established believers, anyone who leaves the fast of Ramadan without being sick is worse than a fomicator or an alcoholic. In fact, they doubt his Islam and they suspect that he might be a zandiqah and one of those who destroy [Islam].
Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey and observed the walls of Medina, he would make his mount go fast, and if he was on an animal (i.e. a horse), he would make it gallop because of his love for Medina.
According to the majority of scholars, it does not matter if the new moon has been sighted in a different location. In other words, after the new moon is seen anywhere in the world, it becomes obligatory for all Muslims to begin fasting, as the Prophet said: "Fast due to its sighting and break the fast due to its sighting." This hadith is a general address directed to the whole Muslim world - that is, "if any one of you sees the moon in any place, then that will be a sighting for all of the people."
According to 'Ikrimah, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, Salim, Ishaq, the correct opinion among the Hanafiyyah, and the chosen opinion among the Shaf'iyyah, every "country" (or territory) is to take into consideration its own sighting and not necessarily to follow the sighting of others. This is based on what Kuraib said: "While I was in ash-Sham, the new moon of Ramadan appeared on Thursday night. I retumed to Madinah at the end of the month. There, Ibn 'Abbas asked me: 'When did you people see the new moon?' I said: 'We saw it on Thursday night.' He said: 'Did you see it yourself?' I said: 'Yes, the people saw it, and they and Mu'awiyyyah fasted.' He said: 'But we saw it on Friday night. We will not stop fasting until we complete thirty days or until we see the new moon.' I said: 'Isn't Mu'awiyyah's sighting and fasting sufficient for you?' He said: 'No . . . This is the order of the Messenger of Allah.' " This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi.
About the hadith, at-Timmidhi says: "It is hassan sahih ghareeb. Scholars act in accordance with this hadith. Every land has its sighting." In Fath al-'Alam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram, it is stated: The [opinion] closest [to the truth] is that each land follows its sighting, as well as the areas that are connected to it."
The Prophet said, "There is a garden from the gardens of Paradise between my house and my pulpit, and my pulpit is on my Lake Fount (Al-Kauthar)."
The scholars of fiqh agree that if only one person sees the new moon, he is to fast. 'Ata differs and says that he is not to fast until someone else also sights the new moon with him. The correct position is that he is to break the fast, as ash-Shaf'i and Abu Thaur have ruled. The Prophet has based the fast and its breaking on the sighting of the moon. One's own sight is enough for him and there is no need for another person's sighting.
The fast has two essential elements (literally, "pillars") that must be fulfilled for it to be valid and acceptable. They are:
This point is based on the Qur'anic verse: "Eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast until nightfall."
This is also based on the following hadith: "When the verse 'Eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you...' was revealed, I took a black thread and a white thread and placed them underneath my pillow. During the night I looked at them to see if I could distinguish between them. In the morning I went to the Messenger of Allah and mentioned that to him and he said: 'It is the black of the night and the white of the day.'"
Allah instructs in the Qur'an: "And they are ordained nothing else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for Him." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Actions are judged according to the intention behind them, and for everyone is what he intended."
The intention must be made before fajr and during every night of Ramadan. This point is based on the hadith of Hafsah which reported that the Prophet said: "Whoever does not determine to fast before fajr will have no fast" (that is, it won't be accepted). This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban have classified it as sahih.
The intention is valid during any part of the night. It need not be spoken, as it is in reality an act of the heart which does not involve the tongue. It will be fulfilled by one's intention to fast out of obedience to Allah and for seeking His pleasure.
If one eats one's pre-dawn meal (sahoor) with the intention of fasting and to get closer to Allah by such abstinence, then one has performed the intention. If one determines that one will fast on the next day solely for the sake of Allah, then one has performed the intention even if a pre-dawn meal was not consumed.
According to many of the jurists, the intention for a voluntary fast may be made at any time before any food is consumed. This opinion is based on 'Aishah's hadith: "The Prophet came to us one day and said: 'Do you have any [food]?' We said, 'No.' He said: 'Therefore, I am fasting." This is related by Muslim and Abu Dawud.
The Hanafiyyah and Shaf'iyyah stipulate that the intention must be made before noon (for voluntary fasts). The apparent opinion of Ibn Mas'ud and Ahmad is that the intention may be made before or after noon.
When Allah's Apostle reached Medina, Abu Bakr and Bilal became ill. When Abu Bakr's fever got worse, he would recite (this poetic verse): "Everybody is staying alive with his People, yet Death is nearer to him than His shoe laces." And Bilal, when his fever deserted him, would recite: "Would that I could stay overnight in A valley wherein I would be Surrounded by Idhkhir and Jalil (kinds of good-smelling grass). Would that one day I could Drink the water of the Majanna, and Would that (The two mountains) Shama and Tafil would appear to me!" The Prophet said, "O Allah! Curse Shaiba bin Rabi'a and 'Utba bin Rabi'a and Umaiya bin Khalaf as they turned us out of our land to the land of epidemics." Allah's Apostle then said, "O Allah! Make us love Medina as we love Mecca or even more than that. O Allah! Give blessings in our Sa and our Mudd (measures symbolizing food) and make the climate of Medina suitable for us, and divert its fever towards Aljuhfa." 'Aisha added: When we reached Medina, it was the most unhealthy of Allah's lands, and the valley of Bathan (the valley of Medina) used to flow with impure colored water.
All scholars agree that fasting is obligatory upon every sane, adult, healthy Muslim male who is not traveling at that time. As for a woman, she must not be menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding. People who are insane, minors, and those who are traveling, menstruating, or going through post-childbirth bleeding, and the elderly and breast-feeding or pregnant women do not need to observe the fast.
For some, the fast is not obligatory at all, for example, the insane. In the case of young people, their parents or guardians should order them to fast. Some are to break the fast and make up the missed days of fasting at a later date, while others are to break the fast and pay a "ransom" (in which case, they are not obliged to make up the days they missed). We shall discuss each group in more detail.
Fasting is not obligatory for the insane because of their inability to understand what they are doing. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "The pen is raised for three groups [of people]--that is, they will not be responsible for their actions: the insane until they become sane, those who are sleeping until they awaken, and the young until they reach puberty." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi.
Though the young are not required to fast, it is proper for their guardians to encourage them to fast so they will become accustomed to it at an early age. They may fast as long as they are able to and then may break it. ArRabi'a bint Mu'awiyyah reported: "The Messenger of Allah sent a man, on the morning of the day of 'Ashurah, to the residences of the Ansar, saying: 'Whoever has spent the morning fasting is to complete his fast. Whoever has not spent this morning fasting should fast for the remainder of the day.' We fasted after that announcement, as did our young children. We would go to the mosque and make toys stuffed with cotton for them to play with. If one of them started crying due to hunger, we would give them a toy to play with until it was time to eat." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Umar said, O Allah! Grant me martyrdom in Your cause, and let my death be in the city of Your Apostle."
The jurists say that giving all of one's property in sadaqah is permissible provided the donor is fit, earning, and steadfast, not in debt, nor has dependents for whom adequate support from him is obligatory. If he does not fulfil these conditions, then his action is makruh.
Jabir narrated: "While we were with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, a man came with what was like an egg of gold. He said: 'O Messenger of Allah! I obtained this from buried treasure, so take it. It is sadaqah, and I do not possess anything other than it.' The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, turned away from him and he [the man] then approached him from the direction of his left side. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, then turned away from him again and he approached him from behind. Then the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, took it and threw it at him. If it had hit him, it would have injured him. Then he said: 'One of you comes with all his property to make sadaqah, then after [giving all he had] he sits [by the road] begging from the people. Sadaqah is given by the one who is rich.' " This is related by Abu Dawud and Hakim. The latter said: "It is authentic according to the stipulation of Muslim. In its transcription is Muhammad ibn Ishaq."
One can give sadaqah to the dhimmi and the soldier, and one is rewarded for that. Allah praised a group of people (for this) when He said: "And they feed, for His love, the indigent, orphan, and captive" [ad-Dahr 6]. The captive is a soldier. Allah says: "Allah has not forbidden you with regard to those who have not made war against you on account of [your] faith and have not driven you out of your homes to deal kindly and justly with them; Allah loves those who are just" [al-Mumtahanah 8].
Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, reports: "My mother came to me and she is a polytheist. I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace! If my mother came to me and she is willing, do I establish a link with her?' He said: 'Yes, establish a link with your mother.' "
The Prophet said, "The terror caused by Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal will not enter Medina and at that time Medina will have seven gates and there will be two angels at each gate guarding them."
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, is reported to have said: "While a man was walking along a road, he became very thirsty and found a well. He lowered himself into the well, drank, and came out. Then [he saw] a dog protruding its tongue out with thirst. The man said: 'This dog has become exhausted from thirst in the same way as I.' He lowered himself into the well again and filled his shoe with water. Then he took the dog by the mouth until he had raised himself. He gave the dog some water to drink. He thanked Allah, and [his sins were] forgiven." They asked: "O Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace! Is there a reward for us in our animals?" He said: "There is a reward in every living thing." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The two also related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "While a dog was walking around a well, his thirst was near to killing him. One of the prostitutes of the Banu Isra'il saw him. She took off her shoe and drew water for him with it in order to quench his thirst. [For that] she was forgiven [by Allah]."
The perpetual sadaqah (sadaqat ul-jariyah): Ahmad and Muslim relate that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "When a person dies [the benefit] of his deeds ends, except three: a continuous sadaqah, knowledge from which benefit is derived, or a pious child invoking Allah for him."
'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever seeks the protection of Allah, give him protection. Whoever asks you in the name of Allah, grant him refuge. Whoever does a good deed to you, reward him and if you do not find anything, invoke Allah on his behalf until you know that he has been rewarded." This is related by Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i with an authentic chain.
Ashab ibn Qais reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, is reported to have said: "Whoever does not thank people, does not thank Allah." This is related by Ahmad with a trustworthy chain.
Usamah ibn Zaid adds that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "To whom a good deed is done and who says to its doer: 'May Allah reward you with goodness,' also reaps the reward." This is related by at-Tirmidhi.
Allah is the Most Knowing, and all praise is due to the Lord of the Worlds.
Allah's Apostle said, "There are angels guarding the entrances (or roads) of Medina, neither plague nor Ad-Dajjal will be able to enter it."
The Prophet said, "There will be no town which Ad-Dajjal will not enter except Mecca and Medina, and there will be no entrance (road) (of both Mecca and Medina) but the angels will be standing in rows guarding it against him, and then Medina will shake with its inhabitants thrice (i.e. three earthquakes will take place) and Allah will expel all the non-believers and the hypocrites from it."
Allah's Apostle told us a long narrative about Ad-Dajjal, and among the many things he mentioned, was his saying, "Ad-Dajjal will come and it will be forbidden for him to pass through the entrances of Medina. He will land in some of the salty barren areas (outside) Medina; on that day the best man or one of the best men will come up to him and say, 'I testify that you are the same Dajjal whose description was given to us by Allah's Apostle .' Ad-Dajjal will say to the people, 'If I kill this man and bring him back to life again, will you doubt my claim?' They will say, 'No.' Then Ad-Dajjal will kill that man and bring him back to life. That man will say, 'Now I know your reality better than before.' Ad-Dajjal will say, 'I want to kill him but I cannot.' "
It is unlawful for the one giving sadaqah to remind the recipient of his generosity, to reproach bim, or to make a show with his sadaqah. Allah warns: "O you who believe! Do not invalidate your sadaqah by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like those who spend their property to be seen by men" [al-Baqarah 264].
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "There are three [types of people]. Allah shall not speak to them, notice them, or sanctify them; and for them is a grievous penalty." Abu Dhar inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, who are the ones gone wrong and astray?" He replied: "Those who through conceit lengthen their garments to make them hang on the ground, who give nothing without reproach, and who sell their merchandise swearing untruthfully [to its quality]."
Allah does not accept sadaqah if it is from what is unlawful: The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "O people! Allah is good and accepts only good, and He has instructed the believers through the Messengers. Allah, the Mighty and the Majestic, says: 'O Messengers! Consume what is good and work righteously. I am well-acquainted with what you do' [al-Mu'minum 51]." He also calls upon [you]: 'O you who believe! Consume of the good that We have provided for you' [al-Baqarah 172]. Then [the Messenger] mentioned a man who had traveled for a long time. Unkempt and covered in dust, he raised his hands to the heavens (and cried): 'O my Lord! O my Lord!' His food was unlawful, his drink was unlawful, his clothing was unlawful, and what he had provided to sustain himself with was also unlawful. How could his invocation be accepted?" This is related by Muslim.
Also: "If one gives a date bought from honestly earned money (and Allah accepts only good), Allah accepts it in His right hand and enlarges [its rewards] for its owner (as one rears his foal) until it becomes as big as a mountain." This is related by al-Bukhari.
I heard the Prophet saying, "None plots against the people of Medina but that he will be dissolved (destroyed) like the salt is dissolved in water."
One's children, family, and relatives have precedence over others. It is not permissible to give sadaqah to a stranger when you and your dependents are in need of it.
It is related from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "When one of you is poor, he starts with himself. If anything is left, he spends it on his dependents. If anything is (still left) then on his relatives, and then, if more is left, he spends it here and there."
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Give sadaqah." A man said: "I have a dinar." He replied: "Give it to yourself as sadaqah." He said: "I have another dinar." He replied: "Give it to your wife as sadaqah." He said: "I have another dinar." He replied: "Give it to your child as sadaqah." He said: "I have another dinar." He replied: "Give it to your servant as sadaqah." He said: "I have another dinar." He replied: "You would be able to assess better [to whom to give it]." This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and Hakim. Hakim grades it as authentic.
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "A man has sinned enough if he neglects to feed those in need." This is related by Muslim and Abu Dawud.
Also: "The most excellent sadaqah is that given to a relative who does not like you." This is related by at-Tabarani and Hakim. The latter grades it authentic.
Allah's Apostle said, "Verily, belief returns and goes back to Medina as a snake returns and goes back to its hole (when in danger)."
As-Siyam generally means "to abstain from something." For example, a verse in the Qur'an says: "I have vowed to the Merciful to abstain--that is, from speaking.
What is meant here is abstaining from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset with the explicit intention of doing so (for the sake of Allah).
Abu Hurairah reported the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, saying: "Allah said: 'Every action of the son of Adam is for him except fasting, for that is solely for Me. I give the reward for it.' The fast is a shield. If one is fasting, he should not use foul language, raise his voice, or behave foolishly. If someone reviles him or fights with him he should say, 'I am fasting,' twice. By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, the [bad] breath of the one who is fasting is better in the sight of Allah on the Day of Resurrection than the smell of musk. The one who is fasting is happy at two times: when he breaks his fast he is happy with it, and when he meets his Lord he will be happy that he has fasted." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i. A similar version was recorded by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud, but with the following addition: "He leaves his food, drink, and desires for My sake. His fasting is for Me... I will give the reward for it, and for every good deed, he will receive ten similar to it."
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "The fast and the Qur'an are two intercessors for the servant of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. The fast will say: 'O Lord, I prevented him from his food and desires during the day. Let me intercede for him.' The Qur'an will say: 'I prevented him from sleeping at night. Let me intercede for him.' And their intercession will be accepted." Ahmad related this hadith with a sahih chain.
Abu Umamah reported: "I came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'Order me to do a deed that will allow me to enter Paradise.' He said: 'Stick to fasting, as there is no equivalent to it.' Then I came to him again and he said: 'Stick to fasting."' This hadith is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and al-Hakim who classified it as sahih.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "No servant fasts on a day in the path of Allah except that Allah removes the hellfire seventy years further away from his face." This is related by "the group," except for Abu Dawud.
Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Prophet said: "There is a gate to Paradise that is called ar-Rayyan. On the Day of Resurrection it will say: 'Where are those who fasted?' When the last [one] has passed through the gate, it will be locked." This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
A bedouin came to the Prophet and gave a pledge of allegiance for embracing Islam. The next day he came with fever and said (to the Prophet ), "Please cancel my pledge (of embracing Islam and of emigrating to Medina)." The Prophet refused (that request) three times and said, "Medina is like a furnace, it expels out the impurities (bad persons) and selects the good ones and makes them perfect."
There are two types of fasting: obligatory and voluntary. Obligatory can be further subdivided into the fast of Ramadan, the fast of expiation and the fast of fulfilling a vow. Here we shall discuss the Ramadan and voluntary fasts.
The fast of Ramadan, according to the Qur'an, sunnah and consensus, is obligatory.
The evidence from the Qur'an consists of the following two verses: "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for the people before you in order for you to gain God consciousness, and, "...The month of Ramadan, during which the Qur'an was revealed, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance and the criterion; and whoever of you is resident, let him fast the month" [al-Baqarah 185].
From the sunnah we have the following statements of the Prophet: "Islam is built upon [the following] five pillars: testifying that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, the establishment of the prayer, the giving of zakah, the fast of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Makkah." Talhah ibn 'Ubaidullah reported that a man came to the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of Allah, tell me what Allah requires of me as regards fasting." He answered, "The month of Ramadan." The man asked: "Is there any other [fast]?" The Prophet answered: "No, unless you do so voluntarily."
The whole Muslim nation agrees that the fast of Ramadan is obligatory. It is one of the pillars of Islam, and if one disputes this, he cannot be called a Muslim.l
When the Prophet went out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of his companions (hypocrites) returned (home). A party of the believers remarked that they would kill those (hypocrites) who had returned, but another party said that they would not kill them. So, this Divine Inspiration was revealed: "Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties concerning the hypocrites." (4.88) The Prophet said, "Medina expels the bad persons from it, as fire expels the impurities of iron."
We came with the Prophet from Tabuk, and when we reached near Medina, the Prophet said, "This is Tabah."
This event is confirmed by sighting the new moon, even if it is seen by only one just person, or by the passage of thirty days in the immediately preceding month of Sha'ban.
Ibn 'Umar said: "The people were looking for the new moon and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah that I had seen it, he fasted and ordered the people to fast." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and Ibn Hibban, who declared it to be sahih.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet instructed: "Fast after you have seen it [the new crescent] and end the fast [at the end of the month] when you see it. If it is hidden from you, then wait until the thirty days of Sha'ban have passed." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Commenting on these reports, at-Tirmidhi states: "Most knowledgeable people act in accordance with these reports. They say that it is correct to accept the evidence of one person to determine the beginning of the fast. This is the opinion of Ibn alMubarak, ash-Shaf'i, and Ahmad. An-Nawawi says that it is the soundest opinion. Conceming the new moon of Shawwal [which signifies the end of the fast], it is confimmed by completing thirty days of Ramadan, and most jurists state that the new moon must have been reported by at least two just witnesses. However, Abu Thaur does not distinguish between the new moon of Shawwal and the new moon of Ramadan. In both cases, he accepts the evidence of only one just witness."
Ibn-Rushd comments that: "The opionion of Abu Bakr ibn alMundhir, which is also that of Abu Thaur and, I suspect, that of the Dhahiri school of thought, is supported by the following argument given by Abu Bakr al-Mundhiri: there is complete agreement that breaking the fast is obligatory, that abstaining from eating is based on one person's report, and that the situation must be like that for the beginning of the month and for the ending of the month, as both of them are simply the signs that differentiate the time of fasting from the time of not fasting."
Ash-Shaukani observes: "If there is nothing authentic recorded that states that one may only accept two witnesses for the end of the month, then it is apparent, by analogy, that one witness is sufficient, as it is sufficient for the beginning of the month. Furthemmore, worship based on the acceptance of one report points to the fact that such singular reports are accepted in every matter unless there is some evidence that specifies the peculiarity of specific cases, such as the number of witnesses conceming matters of wealth, and so on. Apparently this is the opinion of Abu Thaur."
(The people of) Bani Salama intended to shift near the mosque (of the Prophet) but Allah's Apostle disliked to see Medina vacated and said, "O the people of Bani Salama! Don't you think that you will be rewarded for your footsteps which you take towards the mosque?" So, they stayed at their old places.
Sadaqah is not restricted to any special deed of righteousness. The general rule is that all good deeds are sadaqah. Some of them are as follows:
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Every Muslim has to give sadaqah." The people asked: "O Prophet of Allah, what about the one who has nothing?" He said: "He should work with his hands to give sadaqah." They asked: "If he cannot find [work]?" He replied: "He should help the needy who asks for help." They asked: "If he cannot do that?" He replied: "He should then do good deeds and shun evil, for this will be taken as sadaqah." This is related by al-Bukhari and others.
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Sadaqah is prescribed for every person every day the sun rises. To administer justice between two people is sadaqah. To assist a man upon his mount so that he may ride it is sadaqah. To place his luggage on the animal is sadaqah. To remove harm from the road is sadaqah. A good word is sadaqah. Each step taken toward prayer is sadaqah." This is related by Ahmad and others.
Abu Dhar al-Ghafari said: "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: 'Sadaqah is for every person every day the sun rises.' I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, from what do we give sadaqah if we do not possess property?' He said: 'The doors of sadaqah are takbir [i.e., to say: Allahu-akbar, Allah is Great]; Subhan-Allah [Allah is free from imperfection]; Alhamdulillah [all praise is for Allah]; La -ilaha-illallah [there is no god other than Allah]; Astaghfirul-lah [I seek forgiveness from Allah]; enjoining good; forbidding evil; removing thorns, bones, and stones from the paths of people; guiding the blind; listening to the deaf and dumb until you understand them; guiding a person to his object of need if you know where it is; hurrying with the strength of your legs to one in sorrow who is appealing for help; and supporting the weak with the strength of your arms. These are all the doors of sadaqah. [The sadaqah] from you is prescribed for you, and there is a reward for you [even] in sex with your wife.' " This is related by Ahmad, and the wording is his. According to Muslim, they said: "O Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, is there a reward if one satisfies his passion?" He said: "Do you know that if he satisfies it unlawfully he has taken a sin upon himself? Likewise, if he satisfies it lawfully, he is rewarded."
It is related following Abu Dhar that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Sadaqah is prescribed for each descendant of Adam every day the sun rises." It was asked: "O Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, from what do we give sadaqah every day?" He said: "The doors of goodness are many--the tasbih [to say 'Subhaan-Allah'], the tamhid [to say 'Alhamdu lillah'], the tahlil [to say 'La-ilaha-illallah], enjoining good, forbidding evil, removing harm from the road, listening to the deaf, leading the blind, guiding one to the object of his need, hurrying with the strength of one's legs to one in sorrow who is asking for help, and supporting the feeble with the strength of one's arms--all of these are sadaqah prescribed for you." This is related by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. Al-Bukhari related it in a shortened form and added in his report: "Your smile for your brother is sadaqah. Your removal of stones, thorns, or bones from the paths of people is sadaqah. Your guidance of a person who is lost is sadaqah."
The Messenger of Allah also said: "He from among you who is able to protect himself from the Fire should give sadaqah, even if but with half a date. If he does not find it, then with a good word."
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Allah, the Majestic and Mighty, shall say on the Day of Judgment: 'O son of man! I was ill and you did not visit me.' He will reply: 'O my Lord! How could I visit You and You are the Lord of the Worlds?' Allah shall say: 'Did you not know that My slave, so-and-so, was ill and you did not visit him? If you had visited him, you would have found Me with him. O son of man! I asked you for food and you did not give it to me.' He will reply: 'O my Lord! How could I give You food--You are the Lord of the Worlds?' Allah shall say: 'Did you not know that My slave, so-and-so, asked you for food and you did not give it to him? Did you not know that if you had given the food, you would have found that with Me? O son of man! I asked you to quench My thirst and you did not.' He will say: 'O my Lord! How could I quench Your thirst--You are the Lord of the Worlds?' Allah shall say: 'My slave, so-and-so, asked you to quench his thirst and you did not. If you had given him to drink, you would have found that with Me.' " This is related by Muslim.
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "A Muslim does not plant or sow anything from which a person, an animal, or anything eats but it is considered as sadaqah from him." This is related by al-Bukhari.
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Every good deed is sadaqah. To meet your brother with a smiling face and to pour out from your bucket into his container are sadaqah."
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "The people will leave Medina in spite of the best state it will have, and none except the wild birds and the beasts of prey will live in it, and the last persons who will die will be two shepherds from the tribe of Muzaina, who will be driving their sheep towards Medina, but will find nobody in it, and when they reach the valley of Thaniyat-al-Wada', they will fall down on their faces dead."
I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Yemen will be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina) and will urge their families, and those who will obey them to migrate (to Yemen) although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew. Sham will also be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina) and will urge their families and those who will obey them, to migrate (to Sham) although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew. 'Iraq will be conquered and some people will migrate (from Medina) and will urge their families and those who will obey them to migrate (to 'Iraq) although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew."
The Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people." (See Hadith No. 409, Vol 9).
The kin are considered the most deserving people for the sadaqah gift because of the common blood relationship. When a man is in need and some of his relatives are rich, naturally he looks to them for help because they are of one family. Also, it is natural for a man to feel more sympathy and pain with his hard-pressed and needy relatives than with strangers. He is humiliated by their degradation and elevated by their honor. Therefore, any well-to-do person who cuts off his kin from assistance and lives in luxury while his relatives are in a state of misery is devoid of natural feeling or lacks belief and is far away from goodness or piety. On the other hand, for one who maintains close links with his kin, his sustenance is assured and his relationship is of beneficence to his kin.
In the case of orphans whose guardians have died, their support and upbringing depends on wealthy and well to-do Muslims so that they will not become a problem to themselves or other people.
Because they are unable to earn enough to maintain themselves and have become contented with the little they have and abstain from begging, it is necessary for the well-to-do to help them.
The Prophet came to Medina and ordered a mosque to be built and said, "O Bani Najjar! Suggest to me the price (of your land)." They said, "We do not want its price except from Allah" (i.e. they wished for a reward from Allah for giving up their land freely). So, the Prophet ordered the graves of the pagans to be dug out and the land to be leveled, and the date-palm trees to be cut down. The cut date-palms were fixed in the direction of the Qibla of the mosque.