When the Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrated to Yathrib there was a considerable number of Jews in the city. Some time in the first century of the Christian era, the Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine, and some of the tribes of the Jews found refuge in Yathrib. The Jews were moneylenders. They lent money to the people of Yathrib at exorbitant rates of interest. Because of their wealth the Jews dominated the economic scene in Yathrib. The indigenous people of Yathrib belonged to two main tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj. The two tribes fought among themselves, and they had also to contend against the growing influence of the Jews. It was with a view to counter balancing the influence of the Jews that the people of Yathrib invited the Holy Prophet and the Muslims to come and live in their midst.
When the Holy Prophet proclaimed his prophethood in Makkah, and the news traveled to Yathrib, Jews confirmed that according to their sacred books that was the time for the advent of a prophet. When the Holy Prophet came to Yathrib, the Jews found in him all the signs of prophethood that had been foretold in their books. The Jews regarded themselves as the chosen people of God, and that made them think that all Prophets must necessarily belong to their race. When Jesus Christ who was not a Jew proclaimed his prophethood, the Jews denied his prophethood and had him executed. The Jews of Yathrib had thought that the Prophet of Arabia would be subservient to them. When the Holy Prophet adopted an independent policy, and declared that Islam was an improvement on the Jewish faith, the Jews developed an attitude of an animosity to Islam.