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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

In the time of Uthman, the military organization set up under Umar was duly maintained. The Governor of each province acted as the com. mender of the forces. The Caliph acted as the Commander-in-Chief, and he directed the military activity under Umar, and extensive conquests

were made during the period. During the time of Uthman, most of Persia, Azarbauan, and Armenia revolted and these areas had to be reconquerd. Further conquests were made. In the north the Oxus was crossed, and a greater part of Transoxiana was occupied. In the east the frontiers were pushed up to India. In the west the whole of North Africa was conquered. From North Africa the Muslims crossed over to Spain and occupied a part thereof. In the Mediterranean the islands of Cypress and Rhodes were conquered during the reign of Uthman. Under Uthman the Muslims became a naval power for the first time. They

undertook some fifty military operations against the Byzantines. In the war against the Byzantines many forts were captured in Asia Minor. A campaign was undertaken against Constantinople itself, but it had to be abandoned because of the disturbed state of home politics.