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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

Uthman became the Caliph a generation after the passing away of the Holy Prophet. Uthman himself was an embodiment of all the Islamic social values, but the society around him underwent a change. During this period, most of the old companions passed away, and a new generation grew up, whose faith in Islam was not as deep as that of the generation which lived during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. Islam stood for an egalitarian society wherein all were equal politically, socially, as well as economically. During Uthman's time the State became prosperous; and that created a gulf between the rich and the poor. With the lapse of the time there was a recurrence of some of the social practices which characterized the age of ignorance in the pre-Islamic period. In Madina the flying of pigeons and the shooting of arrows for divining fortune became the pastime of the people during the time of Uthman. Uthman took strong note of these social evils. Under his orders the wings of the pigeons were cut, and the bows were broken. That made Uthman unpopular with the younger generation in Madina.