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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

Causes for the disintegration of the social values of Islam were political, social as well as economic. Political cause was that political power came to be captured by a particular section and that caused discontentment among the other-people. Economically the people came to be motivated by the desire to get rich. That created imbalance in society; and the gulf between the haves and the have nots came to be widened.

Socially the society lost the homogeneity of the day of the Holy Prophet and came to be dominated by the diversity of social interests. The towns expanded and more and more Bedouins from the desert came to settle in the cities. That created social tensions, and some of the social evils of the days of ignorance which had been suppressed under the impact of Islam came to be revived. Instead of looking at things from the Islamic point of view the people began to see things from the personal and parochial points of view. That led to indiscipline among the people. Uthman as Caliph did his best to arrest this process of social disintegration, but for causes beyond his control he could not overcome the social crisis. He died fighting in the defense of Islamic social values, and for this "Jihad", Uthman deserves great respect and honor.