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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

Syria became an important and strategic province because of its proximity to the dominions of the Byzantines. Muawiyah proved to be a Governor of exceptional character. He ruled as Governor for twenty years, and thereafter ruled as Caliph for another twenty years. In the history of the world we do not come across an instance of a Governor who was as popular as Muawiyah.

Muawiyah conquered the islands of Cypress and Rhodes. The Byzantines invaded Spain with a large force. Amir Muawlyah defeated the Byzantines. The Byzantines evacuated the border forts in the Tarsus which were occupied by the Muslims. The Muslims under Amir Muawiyah raided the Byzantine territories every year and made extensive conquests.

Muawiyah proved to be the most popular Government. While in other provinces, the Governors had to be deposed every now and then, Arnir Muawiyah enjoyed a long spell of rule as Governor for twenty years. While other provinces became the hot beds of sedition and agitation during the caliphate of Uthman. Syria remained free from such agitation. The credit for this state of affairs belonged to Muawiyah