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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

On receiving the proposal of Muawiyah, Umar asked the opinion of 'Amr b Al 'Aas the Governor of Egypt on the point. He was particularly asked to express his view about naval warfare on the sea.

In figurative language, 'Amr b Al 'Aas described naval action on the sea in the following terms:

"Verily, I saw a huge creature floating on the sea, on which men seemed to be diminutive things. Huge billows as high as mountains rise. If the sea is still it rends the heart. If it swells it terrifies the senses. With it the faculties become numb, and the calamities augment. Those inside it are like worms in a log. If it inclines to one side, they are drowned, if it escapes they are confounded." On receiving this reply from 'Amr b Al 'Aas , Umar turned down the proposal of Muawiyah. He wrote to Amir Muawiyah:

"Let the sea remain a barrier between us and the enemy. BY Allah I will not set a true believer upon it."

Amir Muawiyah did not agree with the logic of fear from the sea. He had, however, no option but to remain quiet.