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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

If this somewhat lengthy letter is studied analytically it will be seen that Uthman did not appeal to the Muslims to come to his aid. There is nothing in the letter to incite the Muslims to violence against the rioter. Uthman merely apprised the people of the situation. He was averse to civil war, and did not want any blood to be shed. He resigned himself to the will of God, and prepared himself to meet eventualities with a smiling face. It appears that the object of the letter was merely to exhort the Muslims to do their duty to Islam. The Muslims were required to fear God, to hold fast to the cord of Allah, to maintain unity in their ranks, to take lesson from history, to obey Allah, His Messenger and those in authority, and to suppress evils, discord and dissension. It appears that Uthman was concerned more with the welfare of the Islamic community than with his personal safety. The letter was read by Abdullah b Abbas at the time of the pilgrimage. It is not known what was the reaction of the people to the letter. It seems that as no attempt was made to rally any support for Uthman, the people dispersed after hearing the letter. By the time Abbas returned from the pilgrimage to Madina, all was over, and Uthman was dead.