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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

On the occasion of the funeral of Uthman, Naila the widow of Uthman, addressed the people of Madina in the following terms:

"O brethren of Islam do not be surprised at my standing before you and giving expression to what is in my heart. Do not regard my talk as vain or superfluous. I am most aggrieved and distressed. The shock of the assassination of my dear husband before me is too deep to be expressed in words. I have wept bitterly, and now the tears have frozen in my eyes. A great calamity has befallen. I have suffered irreparable bereavement. But in such matters we human beings are helpless. What cannot be cured has to be endured From God he came and to God he has returned. I mourn his death. His death is not a personal tragedy for me, his assassination is a great tragedy for the entire Muslim community.

Uthman was a close companion of the Holy Prophet. Uthman had the unique honor of marrying two daughters of the Holy Prophet one after the other. For this he won the title of "shun Nurain" the possessor of two luminaries. He was a counselor of the Holy Prophet. After the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar held him in great esteem, and consulted him in important affairs of the State. In qualities of head and heart he was second to none. He was most noble, most modest, most generous, most magnanimous, most gentle, and most kind. He promoted good and suppressed evil. His generosity knew no bounds. He supported many orphans and widows. He was always active in affording relief to those in distress. His beneficent acts are fully known and too numerous to be cited.

He ruled as Caliph for twelve years. His period of caliphate was longer than the period of the caliphate of his predecessors. His rule was historically memorable. In his rule extensive conquests were made. Under him the Muslims became the masters of the sea for the first time.

Uthman was a beneficent ruler. He increased your stipends. Under his rule the country became prosperous. When he became the Caliph Madina was not a large town, under him Madina grew into metropolitan dimensions. He embellished Madina with many works of public character. He enlarged and embellished the Prophet's mosque. He constructed numerous wells to provide adequate supply of water to you. In the time of famines he distributed large stocks of grain purchased by him out of his own money, in the way of Allah.

Uthman was the first citizen of your city. He did much for you, but, you did little for him. He was assassinated by rioters in front of you, but you remained confined to your houses. Every murder is heinous, but the murder of Uthman is the most heinous and most grievous of ail murders in history. The murder of their Caliph by the people is a betrayal of Islam. He was assassinated in the sacred city of Madina and that was a great sacrilege. He was murdered during the sacred month of the Hajj, and thereby the sanctity of the sacred month was violated.

Islam came as a great blessing to mankind. Islam stood for a complete break with the age of ignorance. The brutal murder of Uthman amounts to the revival of the age of ignorance. His murder has opened the door of dissension among the Muslims. With his death the process of our conquests will come to standstill. Henceforward the Muslims instead of fighting against the non-Muslims will fight among themselves. I see dark days ahead for the Muslims. May God have mercy on us! May He have mercy on Uthman and assign him a fitting abode in the paradise!"