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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

In 680 C.E., the Muslim world shook to its foundations by the tragedy of Karbala. The tragedy of Karbala would bot have taken place if Uthman had not been assassinated. If Uthman had not been assassinated and he had died a natural death, he was likely to be succeeded by Ali. In that case there would have been no Ali-Muawiyah conflict for the conflict merely arose because of the demand for the vengeance of the blood of Uthman. In the absence of such a conflict, Ali would not have been assassinated and the Umayyads would not have come into power. As such there would have been no occasion for the tragedy of Karbala.