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7. The Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar

18. Uthman's Concept of the Caliphate

19. Governors of Uthman

22. Campaigns Against Nubia

25. Conquest of the Island of Cypress

26. Campaigns in Syria, Armenia, and Asia Minor

32. Transoxiana

35. Abdur Rahman bin Auf

50. Naila's Letter to Amir Muawiyah

52. What the Companions Said About Uthman's Assasination

59. Politics in the time of Uthman

Umar suppressed all political activity. He took measures to ensure that political power was not concentrated in any particular group. Although he himself was a Quraish he imposed restrictions on the activities of the Quraish. He did not allow the Arabs to acquire lands in the conquered territories. He imposed restrictions on the movements of the Companions, and did not allow them to leave Madina. He even did not permit them to participate in the wars. He declared that whatever eminence the Companions had achieved during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet was quite enough for them, and it was necessary that henceforward they should lead a retired life; neither the world should see them, nor they should see the world. He deposed most of the Governors not because of any lapse on their part, but because he did not want them to become more powerful. He deposed Khalid b Walid from the supreme command of the Muslim army, lest the people should have an impression that all their victories were because of the genius of Khalid b Walid. Umar was not only harsh with other people; he was harsh even with himself and his family members. As such even when the people felt bitter at the harshness of Umar they could not dare complain. Consequently political activity remained suppressed.