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Period of Revelation

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin 'Abbas states that this is the last Surah of the Qur'an which was revealed, i. e. no complete Surah was revealed to the Prophet after this. (Reported by Muslim Nasai, Tabarani, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Ibn Marduyah). According to Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar, this Surah was revealed on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage at Mina, and after it the Prophet rode his she camel and gave his farewell Sermon. Mother of the Believers, Sayyidah Umme Habibah, says that when this Surah was revealed the Prophet said that he would leave the world that year. Upon hearing this the Prophet's daughter Sayyidah Fatimah wept. Thereat he said: "From among my family you will be the first to join me." Hearing this she laughed. (Reported by Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduyah).

Major Issues, Divine Laws and Guidance
  1. Victory is not an occasion of exultation, but to glorify Allah , it comes with the help of Allah.
  2. Indication is given that the mission of the Prophet has been fulfilled.

In this Surah Allah has informed His Rasool (pbuh) that when Islam attained complete victory in Arabia and the people started entering Allah's religion (Islam) in great numbers, it would mean that the mission for which he was appointed in this world, had been fulfilled. He was then enjoined to busy himself in praising and glorifying Allah by Whose bounty he had been able to accomplish such a great task, and should implore Him to forgive whatever failings and frailties he might have shown in the performance of the service.

Here, one can easily see the great difference that there is between a Prophet and a common worldly leader. If a worldly leader in his own lifetime is able to bring about a revolution, which has the aim and objective of his struggle, this would be an occasion for exultation for him. But here we witness quite another phenomenon. The Messenger of Allah in a brief space of 23 years, revolutionized an entire nation regarding its beliefs, thoughts, customs, morals, civilization, ways of living, economy, politics and fighting ability, and raising it from ignorance and barbarism enabled it to conquer the world and become the leader of nations. Yet, when he had accomplished this unique task, he was not enjoined to celebrate it but to glorify and praise Allah and to pray for His forgiveness. He busied himself humbly in the implementation of that command.