This is one of the earliest Surahs revealed in Makkah at a time when opposition to the Prophet (upon whom be peace) had grown very harsh and tyrannical.
- Allah declared Muhammad (pbuh) to be of the highest moral character.
- Commandment of not yielding to any disbelieving oath monger, slanderer and wicked person.
- Example of the arrogant stingy owners of a garden who did not want to pay charity and as a result, their garden was destroyed.
- Allah is not going to treat the Muslims as He will treat the guilty.
- Those who do not believe in Allah's revelations are led step by step towards destruction.
- Three important themes of this Surah:
- Response to the opponents objections,
- Warning and admonition to the disbelievers, and
- Exhortation of patience to the Prophet (pbuh).
The Holy Prophet is addressed as if to say: "The disbelievers call you a madman whereas the Book that you are presenting and the sublime conduct that you practise are by themselves sufficient to refute their false accusations. Soon they will see as to who was mad and who was sane."
The disbelievers are admonished that well being in the Hereafter inevitably belongs to those who are God conscious. It is utterly against reason that in the Hereafter, the obedient servants should meet the same fate as the guilty. Those who are being called upon to bow before God in the world and refuse to do so, would be unable to prostrate themselves on the Day of Resurrection, even if they wanted to do so, and thus would stand disgraced and condemned. They have no reasonable ground for opposing the Rasool, they cannot either make the claim that they know with certainty that he is not a true Rasool, nor that what he says is false.
In conclusion, the Prophet (pbuh) has been exhorted: "Bear with patience the hardships that you may have to face in the way of preaching the Faith until Allah's judgement arrives, and avoid the impatience which caused suffering and affliction to the Prophet Jonah (pbuh)."