O humanity! Fear your Lord, for the ˹violent˺ quaking at the Hour is surely a dreadful thing.
The Day you see it, every nursing mother will abandon what she is nursing, and every pregnant woman will deliver her burden ˹prematurely˺. And you will see people ˹as if they were˺ drunk, though they will not be drunk; but the torment of Allah is ˹terribly˺ severe.
˹Still˺ there are some who dispute about Allah without knowledge, and follow every rebellious devil.
It has been decreed for such devils that whoever takes them as a guide will be misguided and led by them into the torment of the Blaze.
O humanity! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then ˹know that˺ We did create you1 from dust, then from a sperm-drop,2 then ˹developed you into˺ a clinging clot ˹of blood˺,3 then a lump of flesh4—fully formed or unformed5—in order to demonstrate ˹Our power˺ to you. ˹Then˺ We settle whatever ˹embryo˺ We will in the womb for an appointed term, then bring you forth as infants, so that you may reach your prime. Some of you ˹may˺ die ˹young˺, while others are left to reach the most feeble stage of life so that they may know nothing after having known much. And you see the earth lifeless, but as soon as We send down rain upon it, it begins to stir ˹to life˺ and swell, producing every type of pleasant plant.
That is because Allah ˹alone˺ is the Truth, He ˹alone˺ gives life to the dead, and He ˹alone˺ is Most Capable of everything.
And certainly the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it. And Allah will surely resurrect those in the graves.
˹Still˺ there are some who dispute about Allah without knowledge, guidance, or an enlightening scripture,
turning away ˹in pride˺ to lead ˹others˺ astray from Allah’s Way. They will suffer disgrace in this world, and on the Day of Judgment We will make them taste the torment of burning.
˹They will be told,˺ “This is ˹the reward˺ for what your hands have done. And Allah is never unjust to ˹His˺ servants.”
And there are some who worship Allah on the verge ˹of faith˺: if they are blessed with something good, they are content with it; but if they are afflicted with a trial, they relapse ˹into disbelief˺,1 losing this world and the Hereafter. That is ˹truly˺ the clearest loss.
They call besides Allah what can neither harm nor benefit them. That is ˹truly˺ the farthest one can stray.
They invoke those whose worship leads to harm, not benefit. What an evil patron and what an evil associate!
Indeed, Allah will admit those who believe and do good into Gardens, under which rivers flow. Surely Allah does what He wills.
Whoever thinks that Allah will not help His Prophet in this world and the Hereafter, let them stretch out a rope to the ceiling and strangle themselves, then let them see if this plan will do away with ˹the cause of˺ their rage.1
And so We revealed this ˹Quran˺ as clear verses. And Allah certainly guides whoever He wills.
Indeed, the believers, Jews, Sabians,1 Christians, Magi,2 and the polytheists—Allah will judge between them ˹all˺ on Judgment Day. Surely Allah is a Witness over all things.
Do you not see that to Allah bow down ˹in submission˺1 all those in the heavens and all those on the earth, as well as the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, and ˹all˺ living beings, as well as many humans, while many are deserving of punishment. And whoever Allah disgraces, none can honour. Surely Allah does what He wills.
These are two opposing groups that disagree about their Lord: as for the disbelievers, garments of Fire will be cut out for them and boiling water will be poured over their heads,
melting whatever is in their bellies, along with their skin.
And awaiting them are maces of iron.
Whenever they try to escape from Hell—out of anguish—they will be forced back into it, ˹and will be told,˺ “Taste the torment of burning!”
˹But˺ Allah will surely admit those who believe and do good into Gardens, under which rivers flow, where they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their clothing will be silk,
for they have been guided to the best of speech, and they have been guided to the Commendable Path.1
Indeed, those who persist in disbelief and hinder ˹others˺ from the Way of Allah and from the Sacred Mosque1—which We have appointed for all people, residents and visitors alike—along with whoever intends to deviate by doing wrong in it,2 We will cause them to taste a painful punishment.
And ˹remember˺ when We assigned to Abraham the site of the House, ˹saying,˺ “Do not associate anything with Me ˹in worship˺ and purify My House for those who circle ˹the Ka’bah˺, stand ˹in prayer˺, and bow and prostrate themselves.
Call ˹all˺ people to the pilgrimage.1 They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel from every distant path,
so they may obtain the benefits ˹in store˺ for them,1 and pronounce the Name of Allah on appointed days over the sacrificial animals He has provided for them. So eat from their meat and feed the desperately poor.
Then let them groom themselves,1 fulfil their vows, and circle the Ancient House.”
That is so. And whoever honours the rituals of Allah, it is best for them in the sight of their Lord. The ˹meat of˺ cattle has been made lawful for you, except what has ˹already˺ been recited to you.1 So shun the impurity of idolatry, and shun words of falsehood.
Be upright ˹in devotion˺ to Allah, associating none with Him ˹in worship˺. For whoever associates ˹others˺ with Allah is like someone who has fallen from the sky and is either snatched away by birds or swept by the wind to a remote place.
That is so. And whoever honours the symbols of Allah, it is certainly out of the piety of the heart.
You may benefit from sacrificial animals for an appointed term,1 then their place of sacrifice is at the Ancient House.
For every community We appointed a rite of sacrifice so that they may pronounce the Name of Allah over the sacrificial animals He has provided for them. For your God is only One God, so submit yourselves to Him ˹alone˺. And give good news ˹O Prophet˺ to the humble:
those whose hearts tremble at the remembrance of Allah, who patiently endure whatever may befall them, and who establish prayer and donate from what We have provided for them.
We have made sacrificial camels ˹and cattle˺ among the symbols of Allah, in which there is ˹much˺ good for you. So pronounce the Name of Allah over them when they are lined up ˹for sacrifice˺. Once they have fallen ˹lifeless˺ on their sides, you may eat from their meat, and feed the needy—those who do not beg, and those who do. In this way We have subjected these ˹animals˺ to you so that you may be grateful.
Neither their meat nor blood reaches Allah. Rather, it is your piety that reaches Him. This is how He has subjected them to you so that you may proclaim the greatness of Allah for what He has guided you to, and give good news to the good-doers.
Indeed, Allah defends those who believe. Surely Allah does not like whoever is deceitful, ungrateful.
Permission ˹to fight back˺ is ˹hereby˺ granted to those being fought, for they have been wronged.1 And Allah is truly Most Capable of helping them ˹prevail˺.
˹They are˺ those who have been expelled from their homes for no reason other than proclaiming: “Our Lord is Allah.” Had Allah not repelled ˹the aggression of˺ some people by means of others, destruction would have surely claimed monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which Allah’s Name is often mentioned. Allah will certainly help those who stand up for Him. Allah is truly All-Powerful, Almighty.
˹They are˺ those who, if established in the land by Us, would perform prayer, pay alms-tax, encourage what is good, and forbid what is evil. And with Allah rests the outcome of all affairs.
If they deny you ˹O Prophet˺, so did the people of Noah before them, as well as ˹the tribes of˺ ’Ȃd and Thamûd,
the people of Abraham, the people of Lot,
and the residents of Midian. And Moses was denied ˹too˺. But I delayed ˹the fate of˺ the disbelievers ˹until their appointed time˺ then seized them. And how severe was My response!
Many are the societies We have destroyed for persisting in wrongdoing, leaving them in total ruin. ˹Many are˺ also the abandoned wells and lofty palaces!
Have they not travelled throughout the land so their hearts may reason, and their ears may listen? Indeed, it is not the eyes that are blind, but it is the hearts in the chests that grow blind.
They challenge you ˹O Prophet˺ to hasten the torment. And Allah will never fail in His promise. But a day with your Lord is indeed like a thousand years by your counting.
Many are the societies whose end We delayed while they did wrong, then seized them. And to Me is the final return.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “O humanity! I am only sent to you with a clear warning.
So those who believe and do good will have forgiveness and an honourable provision.
But those who strive to discredit Our revelations, they will be the residents of the Hellfire.”
Whenever We sent a messenger or a prophet before you ˹O Prophet˺ and he recited ˹Our revelations˺, Satan would influence ˹people’s understanding of˺ his recitation. But ˹eventually˺ Allah would eliminate Satan’s influence. Then Allah would ˹firmly˺ establish His revelations. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
All that so He may make Satan’s influence a trial for those ˹hypocrites˺ whose hearts are sick and those ˹disbelievers˺ whose hearts are hardened. Surely the wrongdoers are totally engrossed in opposition.
˹This is˺ also so that those gifted with knowledge would know that this ˹revelation˺ is the truth from your Lord, so they have faith in it, and so their hearts would submit humbly to it. And Allah surely guides the believers to the Straight Path.
Yet the disbelievers will persist in doubt about this ˹revelation˺ until the Hour takes them by surprise, or the torment of a terminating1 Day comes to them.
All authority on that Day is for Allah ˹alone˺.1 He will judge between them. So those who believe and do good will be in the Gardens of Bliss.
But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, it is they who will suffer a humiliating punishment.
As for those who emigrate in the cause of Allah and then are martyred or die, Allah will indeed grant them a good provision. Surely Allah is the Best Provider.
He will certainly admit them into a place they will be pleased with. For Allah is truly All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.
That is so. And whoever retaliates in equivalence to the injury they have received, and then are wronged ˹again˺, Allah will certainly help them. Surely Allah is Ever-Pardoning, All-Forgiving.
That is because Allah causes the night to merge into the day, and the day into the night. Indeed, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
That is because Allah ˹alone˺ is the Truth and what they invoke besides Him is falsehood, and Allah ˹alone˺ is truly the Most High, All-Great.
Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky, then the earth becomes green? Surely Allah is Most Subtle, All-Aware.
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Allah ˹alone˺ is truly the Self-Sufficient, Praiseworthy.
Do you not see that Allah has subjected to you1 whatever is in the earth as well as the ships ˹that˺ sail through the sea by His command? He keeps the sky from falling down on the earth except by His permission. Surely Allah is Ever Gracious and Most Merciful to humanity.
And He is the One Who gave you life, then will cause you to die, and then will bring you back to life. ˹But˺ surely humankind is ever ungrateful.
For every community We appointed a code1 of life to follow.2 So do not let them dispute with you ˹O Prophet˺ in this matter. And invite ˹all˺ to your Lord, for you are truly on the Right Guidance.
But if they argue with you, then say, “Allah knows best what you do.”
Allah will judge between you ˹all˺ on Judgment Day regarding your differences.
Do you not know that Allah ˹fully˺ knows whatever is in the heavens and the earth? Surely it is all ˹written˺ in a Record. That is certainly easy for Allah.
Yet they worship besides Allah that for which He has sent down no authority, and of which they have no knowledge. The wrongdoers will have no helper.
Whenever Our clear revelations are recited to them, you ˹O Prophet˺ recognize rage on the faces of the disbelievers, as if they are going to snap at those who recite Our revelations to them. Say, “Shall I inform you of something far more enraging than that? ˹It is˺ the Fire with which Allah has threatened those who disbelieve. What an evil destination!”
O humanity! A lesson is set forth, so listen to it ˹carefully˺: those ˹idols˺ you invoke besides Allah can never create ˹so much as˺ a fly, even if they ˹all˺ were to come together for that. And if a fly were to snatch anything away from them, they cannot ˹even˺ retrieve it from the fly. How powerless are those who invoke and those invoked!1
They have not shown Allah the reverence He deserves. Surely Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.
Allah selects messengers from both angels and people, for Allah is truly All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
He knows what is ahead of them and what is behind them. And to Allah ˹all˺ matters will be returned ˹for judgment˺.
O believers! Bow down, prostrate yourselves, worship your Lord, and do ˹what is˺ good so that you may be successful.
Strive for ˹the cause of˺ Allah in the way He deserves, for ˹it is˺ He ˹Who˺ has chosen you, and laid upon you no hardship in the religion—the way of your forefather Abraham. ˹It is Allah˺ Who named you ‘the ones who submit’1 ˹in the˺ earlier ˹Scriptures˺ and in this ˹Quran˺, so that the Messenger may be a witness over you, and that you may be witnesses over humanity. So establish prayer, pay alms-tax, and hold fast to Allah. He ˹alone˺ is your Guardian. What an excellent Guardian, and what an excellent Helper!
Your father, Adam.
Nuṭfah refers to the union of male and female gametes (sperm and egg) which results in the zygote after fertilization.
’Alaqah, meaning the embryo resembles a leech.
Muḍghah, meaning it resembles a chewed morsel.
Fully formed or defected, evolving into a healthy embryo or ending in miscarriage.
lit., they tumble on their faces.
Meaning, no matter what the deniers do, Allah will never stop supporting His Prophet (ﷺ).
See footnote for 2:62.
Magi (singular: magus): Zoroastrians; fire-worshippers.
lit., prostrate. Meaning, all beings submit to His Will.
Another possible translation: “… and they have been guided to the Path of the Praiseworthy ˹God˺.”
The Sacred Mosque is in Mecca.
Generally, intending to do wrong does not necessitate a punishment, unless the person acts upon it. But the Sacred Mosque is unique in that intending to sin in it is sufficient to bring punishment from Allah, unless the person repents.
According to Ibn Kathîr, Abraham (ﷺ) said to Allah, “But my voice cannot reach all peoples.” Allah responded, “You make the call, and We will deliver the invitation to all.”
Spiritual benefits such as prayers, pilgrimage, and forgiveness of sins, as well as worldly benefits such as meeting Muslims from everywhere and trading.
Shaving their hair, clipping nails, and taking a shower.
Milking or riding them until the time for sacrifice.
For over thirteen years, Muslims had not been allowed to fight back against the brutality of the Meccan pagans, leading to the emigration of the Prophet and many of his companions to Medina. As the hostilities continued, this verse was later revealed allowing Muslims to fight back in self-defence.
The Day ˹of Judgment˺ is described as ’aqîm (lit., barren) because it will terminate all forms of life on earth and no new day will be born.
Allah grants authority to some of His servants in this world, but none will have authority on Judgment Day except Him. See 3:26.
For your service.
All prophets came with the same message: have faith in one God and do good. But each faith-community had their own law.
The Muslim code of life is called Sharî’ah, which means a “path.” For more information, see the Introduction.
Another possible translation: “How weak are the seekers (i.e., the idols) and the sought (i.e., the fly)!”