The Romans have been defeated
in a nearby land.1 Yet following their defeat, they will triumph
within three to nine years.1 The ˹whole˺ matter rests with Allah before and after ˹victory˺. And on that day the believers will rejoice
at the victory willed by Allah. He gives victory to whoever He wills. For He is the Almighty, Most Merciful.
˹This is˺ the promise of Allah. ˹And˺ Allah never fails in His promise. But most people do not know.
They ˹only˺ know the worldly affairs of this life, but are ˹totally˺ oblivious to the Hereafter.
Have they not reflected upon their own being? Allah only created the heavens and the earth and everything in between for a purpose and an appointed term. Yet most people are truly in denial of the meeting with their Lord!
Have they not travelled throughout the land to see what was the end of those ˹destroyed˺ before them? They were far superior in might; they cultivated the land and developed it more than these ˹Meccans˺ ever have. Their messengers came to them with clear proofs. Allah would have never wronged them, but it was they who wronged themselves.
Then most evil was the end of the evildoers for denying and mocking the signs of Allah.
It is Allah Who originates the creation, and will resurrect it. And then to Him you will ˹all˺ be returned.
On the Day the Hour will arrive, the wicked will be dumbstruck.
There will be no intercessors for them from among their associate-gods, and they will ˹totally˺ deny their associate-gods.
And on the Day the Hour will arrive, the people will then be split ˹into two groups˺.
As for those who believed and did good, they will be rejoicing in a Garden.
And as for those who disbelieved, and denied Our signs and the meeting ˹with Allah˺ in the Hereafter, they will be confined in punishment.
So glorify Allah in the evening and in the morning—
all praise is for Him in the heavens and the earth—as well as in the afternoon, and at noon.1
He brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living. And He gives life to the earth after its death. And so will you be brought forth ˹from the grave˺.
One of His signs is that He created you from dust, then—behold!—you are human beings spreading over ˹the earth˺.
And one of His signs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves so that you may find comfort in them. And He has placed between you compassion and mercy. Surely in this are signs for people who reflect.
And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your languages and colours. Surely in this are signs for those of ˹sound˺ knowledge.
And one of His signs is your sleep by night and by day ˹for rest˺ as well as your seeking His bounty ˹in both˺. Surely in this are signs for people who listen.
And one of His signs is that He shows you lightning, inspiring ˹you with˺ hope and fear.1 And He sends down rain from the sky, reviving the earth after its death. Surely in this are signs for people who understand.
And one of His signs is that the heavens and the earth persist by His command. Then when He calls you out of the earth just once, you will instantly come forth.
And to Him belong all those in the heavens and the earth—all are subject to His Will.1
And He is the One Who originates the creation then will resurrect it—which is even easier for Him.1 To Him belong the finest attributes in the heavens and the earth. And He is the Almighty, All-Wise.
He sets forth for you an example ˹drawn˺ from your own lives: would you allow some of those ˹bondspeople˺ in your possession to be your equal partners in whatever ˹wealth˺ We have provided you, keeping them in mind as you are mindful of your peers?1 This is how We make the signs clear for people who understand.
In fact, the wrongdoers merely follow their desires with no knowledge. Who then can guide those Allah has left to stray? They will have no helpers.
So be steadfast in faith in all uprightness ˹O Prophet˺—the natural Way of Allah which He has instilled in ˹all˺ people. Let there be no change in this creation of Allah. That is the Straight Way, but most people do not know.
˹O believers!˺ Always turn to Him ˹in repentance˺, be mindful of Him, and establish prayers. And do not be polytheists—
˹like˺ those who have divided their faith and split into sects, each rejoicing in what they have.
When people are touched with hardship, they cry out to their Lord, turning to Him ˹alone˺. But as soon as He gives them a taste of His mercy, a group of them associates ˹others˺ with their Lord ˹in worship˺,
becoming ungrateful for whatever ˹favours˺ We have given them. So enjoy yourselves, for soon you will know.
Or have We sent down to them an authority which attests to what they associate ˹with Him˺?
If We give people a taste of mercy, they become prideful ˹because˺ of it. But if they are afflicted with an evil for what their hands have done, they instantly fall into despair.
Have they not seen that Allah gives abundant or limited provisions to whoever He wills? Surely in this are signs for people who believe.
So give your close relatives their due, as well as the poor and the ˹needy˺ traveller. That is best for those who seek the pleasure of Allah,1 and it is they who will be successful.
Whatever loans you give, ˹only˺ seeking interest at the expense of people’s wealth1 will not increase with Allah. But whatever charity you give, ˹only˺ seeking the pleasure of Allah—it is they whose reward will be multiplied.
It is Allah Who created you, then gives you provisions, then will cause you to die, and then will bring you back to life. Can any of your associate-gods do any of this? Glorified and Exalted is He above what they associate with Him ˹in worship˺!
Corruption has spread on land and sea as a result of what people’s hands have done, so that Allah may cause them to taste ˹the consequences of˺ some of their deeds and perhaps they might return ˹to the Right Path˺.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Travel throughout the land and see what was the end of those ˹destroyed˺ before ˹you˺—most of them were polytheists.”
So be steadfast in the Upright Faith ˹O Prophet˺, before the coming of a Day from Allah that cannot be averted. On that Day the people will be divided:
those who disbelieved will bear ˹the burden of˺ their own disbelief; and those who did good will have prepared for themselves ˹eternal homes˺,
so that He may ˹generously˺ reward those who believe and do good, out of His grace. He truly does not like the disbelievers.
And one of His signs is that He sends the winds, ushering in good news ˹of rain˺ so that He may give you a taste of His mercy, and that ships may sail by His command, and that you may seek His bounty, and perhaps you will be grateful.
Indeed, We sent before you ˹O Prophet˺ messengers, each to their own people, and they came to them with clear proofs. Then We inflicted punishment upon those who persisted in wickedness. For it is Our duty to help the believers.
It is Allah Who sends the winds, which then stir up ˹vapour, forming˺ clouds, which He then spreads out in the sky or piles up into masses as He wills, from which you see rain come forth. Then as soon as He causes it to fall on whoever He wills of His servants, they rejoice,
although they had utterly lost hope just before it was sent down to them.
See then the impact of Allah’s mercy: how He gives life to the earth after its death! Surely That ˹same God˺ can raise the dead. For He is Most Capable of everything.
Then if We send a ˹harsh˺ wind which they see withering ˹their˺ crops, they will definitely deny ˹old favours˺ right after.
So you ˹O Prophet˺ certainly cannot make the dead hear ˹the truth˺. Nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they turn their backs and walk away.
Nor can you lead the blind out of their misguidance. You can make none hear ˹the truth˺ except those who believe in Our revelations, ˹fully˺ submitting ˹to Allah˺.
It is Allah Who created you in a state of weakness, then developed ˹your˺ weakness into strength, then developed ˹your˺ strength into weakness and old age.1 He creates whatever He wills. For He is the All-Knowing, Most Capable.
And on the Day the Hour will arrive, the wicked will swear that they did not stay ˹in this world˺ more than an hour. In this way they were always deluded ˹in the world˺.
But those gifted with knowledge and faith will say ˹to them˺, “You did actually stay—as destined by Allah—until the Day of Resurrection. So here is the Day of Resurrection ˹which you denied˺! But you did not know ˹it was true˺.”
So on that Day the wrongdoers’ excuses will not benefit them, nor will they be allowed to appease ˹their Lord˺.
We have certainly set forth every ˹kind of˺ lesson for people in this Quran. And no matter what sign you bring to them ˹O Prophet˺, the disbelievers will definitely say ˹to the believers˺, “You are only a people of falsehood.”
This is how Allah seals the hearts of those unwilling to know ˹the truth˺.
So be patient, for the promise of Allah certainly is true. And do not be disturbed by those who have no sure faith.
This can also mean “in the lowest part of the earth.” The Dead Sea area where this battle reportedly took place is the lowest point on earth, at 400 meters (1 300 feet) below sea level. NASA: www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_708.html
This Meccan sûrah takes its name from the reference to the Romans in verse 2. The world’s superpowers in the early 7th century were the Roman Byzantine and Persian Empires. When they went to war in 614 C.E., the Romans suffered a devastating defeat. The Meccan pagans rejoiced at the defeat of the Roman Christians at the hands of the Persian pagans. Soon verses 30:1-5 were revealed, stating that the Romans would be victorious in three to nine years. Eight years later, the Romans won a decisive battle against the Persians, reportedly on the same day the Muslims vanquished the Meccan army at the Battle of Badr.
This verse outlines the times of the five daily prayers. The evening refers to Maghrib and ’Ishâ' prayers, the morning refers to Fajr, the afternoon refers to ’Aṣr, and noon refers to Ẓuhr.
Hope of rain and fear of torment.
lit., to Him.
This is from a human perspective. Otherwise, both the creation of the universe and the resurrection of humans are easy for Allah.
The passage says that since humans would not allow those who are inferior to them to become their partners in wealth, how can they set up helpless partners with Allah in His kingdom?
lit., seek the Face of Allah.
Another meaning is the gift given to someone with the intention of getting a more expensive gift in return—a common ancient practice.
lit., grey hair.