O Prophet! ˹Always˺ be mindful of Allah, and do not yield to the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord. Surely Allah is All-Aware of what you ˹all˺ do.
And put your trust in Allah, for Allah is sufficient as a Trustee of Affairs.
Allah does not place two hearts in any person’s chest. Nor does He regard your wives as ˹unlawful for you like˺ your real mothers, ˹even˺ if you say they are.1 Nor does He regard your adopted children as your real children.2 These are only your baseless assertions. But Allah declares the truth, and He ˹alone˺ guides to the ˹Right˺ Way.
Let your adopted children keep their family names. That is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers, then they are ˹simply˺ your fellow believers and close associates. There is no blame on you for what you do by mistake, but ˹only˺ for what you do intentionally. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Prophet has a stronger affinity to the believers than they do themselves. And his wives are their mothers. As ordained by Allah, blood relatives are more entitled ˹to inheritance˺ than ˹other˺ believers and immigrants, unless you ˹want to˺ show kindness to your ˹close˺ associates ˹through bequest˺.1 This is decreed in the Record.2
And ˹remember˺ when We took a covenant from the prophets, as well as from you ˹O Prophet˺, and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, son of Mary. We did take a solemn covenant from ˹all of˺ them
so that He may question these men of truth about their ˹delivery of the˺ truth. And He has prepared a painful punishment for the disbelievers.
O believers! Remember Allah’s favour upon you when ˹enemy˺ forces came to ˹besiege˺ you ˹in Medina˺,1 so We sent against them a ˹bitter˺ wind and forces you could not see.2 And Allah is All-Seeing of what you do.
˹Remember˺ when they came at you from east and west,1 when your eyes grew wild ˹in horror˺ and your hearts jumped into your throats, and you entertained ˹conflicting˺ thoughts about Allah.2
Then and there the believers were put to the test, and were violently shaken.
And ˹remember˺ when the hypocrites and those with sickness in their hearts said, “Allah and His Messenger have promised us nothing but delusion!”
And ˹remember˺ when a group of them said, “O people of Yathrib!1 There is no point in you staying ˹here˺, so retreat!” Another group of them asked the Prophet’s permission ˹to leave˺, saying, “Our homes are vulnerable,” while ˹in fact˺ they were not vulnerable. They only wished to flee.
Had their city been sacked from all sides and they had been asked to abandon faith, they would have done so with little hesitation.
They had already pledged to Allah earlier never to turn their backs ˹in retreat˺. And a pledge to Allah must be answered for.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Fleeing will not benefit you if you ˹try to˺ escape a natural or violent death. ˹If it is not your time,˺ you will only be allowed enjoyment for a little while.”1
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Who can put you out of Allah’s reach if He intends to harm you or show you mercy?” They can never find any protector or helper besides Allah.
Allah knows well those among you who discourage ˹others from fighting˺, saying ˹secretly˺ to their brothers, “Stay with us,” and who themselves hardly take part in fighting.
˹They are˺ totally unwilling to assist you. When danger comes, you see them staring at you with their eyes rolling like someone in the throes of death. But once the danger is over, they slash you with razor-sharp tongues, ravenous for ˹worldly˺ gains. Such people have not ˹truly˺ believed, so Allah has rendered their deeds void. And that is easy for Allah.
They ˹still˺ think that the enemy alliance has not ˹yet˺ withdrawn. And if the allies were to come ˹again˺, the hypocrites would wish to be away in the desert among nomadic Arabs, ˹only˺ asking for news about you ˹believers˺. And if the hypocrites were in your midst, they would hardly take part in the fight.
Indeed, in the Messenger of Allah you have an excellent example for whoever has hope in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah often.
When the believers saw the enemy alliance, they said, “This is what Allah and His Messenger had promised us. The promise of Allah and His Messenger has come true.” And this only increased them in faith and submission.
Among the believers are men who have proven true to what they pledged to Allah.1 Some of them have fulfilled their pledge ˹with their lives˺, others are waiting ˹their turn˺. They have never changed ˹their commitment˺ in the least.
˹It all happened˺ so Allah may reward the faithful for their faithfulness, and punish the hypocrites if He wills or turn to them ˹in mercy˺. Surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
And Allah drove back the disbelievers in their rage, totally empty-handed. And Allah spared the believers from fighting. For Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.
And He brought down those from the People of the Book1 who supported the enemy alliance from their own strongholds, and cast horror into their hearts. You ˹believers˺ killed some, and took others captive.
He has also caused you to take over their lands, homes, and wealth, as well as lands you have not yet set foot on. And Allah is Most Capable of everything.
O Prophet! Say to your wives, “If you desire the life of this world and its luxury, then come, I will give you a ˹suitable˺ compensation ˹for divorce˺ and let you go graciously.
But if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the ˹everlasting˺ Home of the Hereafter, then Surely Allah has prepared a great reward for those of you who do good.”
O wives of the Prophet! If any of you were to commit a blatant misconduct, the punishment would be doubled for her. And that is easy for Allah.
And whoever of you devoutly obeys Allah and His Messenger and does good, We will grant her double the reward, and We have prepared for her an honourable provision.
O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women: if you are mindful ˹of Allah˺, then do not be overly effeminate in speech ˹with men˺ or those with sickness in their hearts may be tempted, but speak in a moderate tone.
Settle in your homes, and do not display yourselves as women did in the days of ˹pre-Islamic˺ ignorance. Establish prayer, pay alms-tax, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only intends to keep ˹the causes of˺ evil away from you and purify you completely, O members of the ˹Prophet’s˺ family!
˹Always˺ remember what is recited in your homes of Allah’s revelations and ˹prophetic˺ wisdom.1 Surely Allah is Most Subtle, All-Aware.
Surely ˹for˺ Muslim men and women, believing men and women,1 devout men and women, truthful men and women, patient men and women, humble men and women, charitable men and women, fasting men and women, men and women who guard their chastity, and men and women who remember Allah often—for ˹all of˺ them Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward.
It is not for a believing man or woman—when Allah and His Messenger decree a matter—to have any other choice in that matter.1 Indeed, whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has clearly gone ˹far˺ astray.
And ˹remember, O Prophet,˺ when you said to the one1 for whom Allah has done a favour and you ˹too˺ have done a favour,2 “Keep your wife and fear Allah,” while concealing within yourself what Allah was going to reveal. And ˹so˺ you were considering the people, whereas Allah was more worthy of your consideration. So when Zaid totally lost interest in ˹keeping˺ his wife, We gave her to you in marriage, so that there would be no blame on the believers for marrying the ex-wives of their adopted sons after their divorce. And Allah’s command is totally binding.
There is no blame on the Prophet for doing what Allah has ordained for him. That has been the way of Allah with those ˹prophets˺ who had gone before. And Allah’s command has been firmly decreed.
˹That is His way with˺ those ˹prophets˺ who deliver the messages of Allah, and consider Him, and none but Allah. And sufficient is Allah as a ˹vigilant˺ Reckoner.
Muḥammad is not the father of any of your men,1 but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.
O believers! Always remember Allah often,
and glorify Him morning and evening.
He is the One Who showers His blessings upon you—and His angels pray for you—so that He may bring you out of darkness and into light. For He is ever Merciful to the believers.
Their greeting on the Day they meet Him will be, “Peace!” And He has prepared for them an honourable reward.
O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness, and a deliverer of good news, and a warner,
and a caller to ˹the Way of˺ Allah by His command, and a beacon of light.
Give good news to the believers that they will have a great bounty from Allah.
Do not yield to the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Overlook their annoyances, and put your trust in Allah. For Allah is sufficient as a Trustee of Affairs.
O believers! If you marry believing women and then divorce them before you touch them,1 they will have no waiting period for you to count,2 so give them a ˹suitable˺ compensation, and let them go graciously.
O Prophet! We have made lawful for you your wives to whom you have paid their ˹full˺ dowries as well as those ˹bondwomen˺ in your possession, whom Allah has granted you.1 And ˹you are allowed to marry˺ the daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, and the daughters of your maternal uncles and aunts, who have emigrated like you. Also ˹allowed for marriage is˺ a believing woman who offers herself to the Prophet ˹without dowry˺ if he is interested in marrying her—˹this is˺ exclusively for you, not for the rest of the believers.2 We know well what ˹rulings˺ We have ordained for the believers in relation to their wives and those ˹bondwomen˺ in their possession. As such, there would be no blame on you. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
It is up to you ˹O Prophet˺ to delay or receive whoever you please of your wives. There is no blame on you if you call back any of those you have set aside.1 That is more likely that they will be content, not grieved, and satisfied with what you offer them all. Allah ˹fully˺ knows what is in your hearts. And Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.
It is not lawful for you ˹O Prophet˺ to marry more women after this, nor can you replace any of your present wives with another, even if her beauty may attract you—except those ˹bondwomen˺ in your possession. And Allah is ever Watchful over all things.
O believers! Do not enter the homes of the Prophet without permission ˹and if invited˺ for a meal, do not ˹come too early and˺ linger until the meal is ready. But if you are invited, then enter ˹on time˺. Once you have eaten, then go on your way, and do not stay for casual talk. Such behaviour is truly annoying to the Prophet, yet he is too shy to ask you to leave. But Allah is never shy of the truth. And when you ˹believers˺ ask his wives for something, ask them from behind a barrier. This is purer for your hearts and theirs. And it is not right for you to annoy the Messenger of Allah, nor ever marry his wives after him. This would certainly be a major offence in the sight of Allah.
Whether you reveal something or conceal it, surely Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.
There is no blame on the Prophet’s wives ˹if they appear unveiled˺ before their fathers,1 their sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their fellow ˹Muslim˺ women, and those ˹bondspeople˺ in their possession. And be mindful of Allah ˹O wives of the Prophet!˺ Surely Allah is a Witness over all things.
Indeed, Allah showers His blessings upon the Prophet, and His angels pray for him. O believers! Invoke Allah’s blessings upon him, and salute him with worthy greetings of peace.
Surely those who offend Allah1 and His Messenger2 are condemned by Allah in this world and the Hereafter. And He has prepared for them a humiliating punishment.
As for those who abuse believing men and women1 unjustifiably, they will definitely bear the guilt of slander and blatant sin.
O Prophet! Ask your wives, daughters, and believing women to draw their cloaks over their bodies. In this way it is more likely that they will be recognized ˹as virtuous˺ and not be harassed. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.1
If the hypocrites, and those with sickness in their hearts, and rumour-mongers in Medina do not desist, We will certainly incite you ˹O Prophet˺ against them, and then they will not be your neighbours there any longer.
˹They deserve to be˺ condemned. ˹If they were to persist,˺ they would get themselves seized and killed relentlessly wherever they are found!1
That was Allah’s way with those ˹hypocrites˺ who have gone before. And you will find no change in Allah’s way.
People ask you ˹O Prophet˺ about the Hour. Say, “That knowledge is only with Allah. You never know, perhaps the Hour is near.”
Surely Allah condemns the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a blazing Fire,
to stay there for ever and ever—never will they find any protector or helper.
On the Day their faces are ˹constantly˺ flipped in the Fire, they will cry, “Oh! If only we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger!”
And they will say, “Our Lord! We obeyed our leaders and elite, but they led us astray from the ˹Right˺ Way.
Our Lord! Give them double ˹our˺ punishment, and condemn them tremendously.”
O believers! Do not be like those who slandered Moses, but Allah cleared him of what they said. And he was honourable in the sight of Allah.1
O believers! Be mindful of Allah, and say what is right.
He will bless your deeds for you, and forgive your sins. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, has truly achieved a great triumph.
Indeed, We offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they ˹all˺ declined to bear it, being fearful of it. But humanity assumed it, ˹for˺ they are truly wrongful ˹to themselves˺ and ignorant ˹of the consequences˺,
so that Allah will punish hypocrite men and women and polytheistic men and women, and Allah will turn in mercy to believing men and women. For Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.1
This divorce (called ẓihâr) was commonly practiced in Arabia before the Prophet (ﷺ). If a man declared his wife as unlawful for him as the ẓahr (back) of his mother, his wife would be divorced. Islam abolished this type of divorce (see 58:3-4).
The following distinction should be made: Sponsorship (which is permissible): a person can sponsor a child or host them in their home and care for them as they care for their own children, except for legal matters. For example, adopted children keep their last names, are allowed to marry the children of their adopted parent, adopted and biological children of the opposite sex should dress modestly in front of each other, and do not have a share in the estate of their adopted parents, but can get a share of inheritance (up to one-third of the estate) through bequest (waṣiyah). Adoption: a person is not allowed to take an orphan and give them his/her last name, give them a share of inheritance similar to their own children, etc.
This verse confirms a ruling mentioned in 8:75 which ended a previous ruling that allowed inheritance between Muslims from Mecca (Al-Muhâjirûn, the Emigrants) and Muslims from Medina (Al-Anṣâr, the Helpers). Now, only relatives can inherit from one another, whereas non-heirs can receive a share through bequest, up to one third of the estate. See 4:7, 11-13, 32-33, and 176.
See footnote for 27:75.
In 5 A.H./627 C.E., the Meccan pagans along with some Arab and Jewish tribes (totalling around 10 000 soldiers) laid a siege around Medina, where the Prophet (ﷺ) was positioned with 3000 soldiers. The Prophet (ﷺ) had anticipated the offence and, upon an advice from one of his companions, dug a trench around the city to protect it from invaders. After several unsuccessful attempts to cross the trench, the allied enemies quickly lost morale, and were forced to end the siege due to severe weather conditions. This encounter is commonly known as the Battle of the Trench or the Enemy Alliance.
lit., from above and below you.
The believers were reassured while the doubts of the hypocrites grew more fierce.
Yathrib was the name of Medina before the arrival of the Prophet (ﷺ) and Muslim emigrants.
Until the end of your short life on earth.
See footnote for 7:46.
The Jews of Banu Quraiẓah who had violated their treaty with the Muslims and sided with the enemy alliance. The Prophet (ﷺ) asked how they wished to be judged, and they chose to be judged by their book, the Torah—in which the penalty for treason is death.
Allah’s revelations refers to verses of the Quran whereas prophetic wisdom refers to the sayings and teachings of the Prophet (ﷺ), known collectively as ḥadîth.
Though Islam and Îmân are sometimes used interchangeably in the Quran, Îmân is a higher state of Islam. A Muslim is someone who observes the five pillars of Islam, but a believer is someone with strong faith, who does everything purely for the sake of Allah, and is mindful of Allah in everything they say or do. Every Mu'min (believer/faithful) is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a Mu'min. See 49:14.
Meaning, if Allah makes a ruling in the Quran or the Prophet (ﷺ) makes a ruling, then a Muslim is not allowed to seek judgment from anyone else, nor follow their own desires.
This refers to Zaid ibn Ḥârithah, the Prophet’s adopted son before adoption was made unlawful. His wife, Zainab bint Jaḥsh was from a prestigious family. Because Zaid and Zainab came from two different social classes, the marriage was not successful. Eventually, Zaid insisted on divorcing his wife, despite several appeals from the Prophet (ﷺ). Since one’s adopted son was no longer considered to be one’s own son, the Prophet (ﷺ) was later allowed to marry Zainab.
Allah’s favour to Zaid was to guide him to Islam, and the Prophet’s favour was to free him from slavery.
He (ﷺ) is not the father of Zaid (mentioned in 33:37) or any other man. The Prophet (ﷺ) had three biological sons, who all died in childhood.
Before the marriage is consummated.
If divorce is pronounced after the consummation of marriage, a waiting period of three months is observed to give the couple a chance to get back together and to see if the wife is pregnant (see 65:4). But if the divorce happens before the marriage is consummated, then there is no waiting period.
See footnote for 4:3.
This ruling was exclusively for the Prophet (which he never took advantage of), but Muslims have to pay a dowry to their wives. Some women did offer themselves to the Prophet (ﷺ) in marriage, but he declined.
The Prophet’s married life can be classified as follows: Until the age of 25: he was single. Age 25 – 50: he was married only to Khadîjah. Age 50 – 52: he was single after Khadîjah’s death. Age 53 – his death at the age of 63: he had a total of ten wives. Many of these marriages were to widows (who had been left with their children without a provider) and in some cases to foster stronger ties with some of his companions and neighbouring tribes. Of all the women he married, ’Ȃishah was the only virgin.
Paternal and maternal uncles are similar to the fathers.
By attributing children to Him or associating gods with Him in worship.
By calling him a liar or speaking ill of him and his family.
By harming them physically or accusing them falsely.
He has forgiven what Muslim women did in the past because they were not obligated to cover up.
This verse is intended to deter the hypocrites. The Prophet (ﷺ) never killed any hypocrite as long as they did not join the enemy to attack and kill Muslims.
The Quran does not specify how Moses was slandered by some of his people. Some narrations suggest that he was either falsely accused of adultery (see footnote for 28:76), killing his brother Aaron (who died a natural death), or having a skin disease since he, unlike others, used to bathe with his clothes on.
This is a guarantee from Allah that if the hypocrites and polytheists ever turn to Him in repentance, He is always willing to forgive them.