O humanity! Be mindful of your Lord Who created you from a single soul, and from it He created its mate,1 and through both He spread countless men and women. And be mindful of Allah—in Whose Name you appeal to one another—and ˹honour˺ family ties. Surely Allah is ever Watchful over you.
Give orphans their wealth ˹when they reach maturity˺, and do not exchange your worthless possessions for their valuables, nor cheat them by mixing their wealth with your own. For this would indeed be a great sin.
If you fear you might fail to give orphan women their ˹due˺ rights ˹if you were to marry them˺, then marry other women of your choice—two, three, or four. But if you are afraid you will fail to maintain justice, then ˹content yourselves with˺ one1 or those ˹bondwomen˺ in your possession.2 This way you are less likely to commit injustice.
Give women ˹you wed˺ their due dowries graciously. But if they waive some of it willingly, then you may enjoy it freely with a clear conscience.
Do not entrust the incapable ˹among your dependants˺ with your wealth which Allah has made a means of support for you—but feed and clothe them from it, and speak to them kindly.
Test ˹the competence of˺ the orphans until they reach a marriageable age. Then if you feel they are capable of sound judgment, return their wealth to them. And do not consume it wastefully and hastily before they grow up ˹to demand it˺. If the guardian is well-off, they should not take compensation; but if the guardian is poor, let them take a reasonable provision. When you give orphans back their property, call in witnesses. And sufficient is Allah as a ˹vigilant˺ Reckoner.
For men there is a share in what their parents and close relatives leave, and for women there is a share in what their parents and close relatives leave—whether it is little or much. ˹These are˺ obligatory shares.
If ˹non-inheriting˺ relatives, orphans,1 or the needy are present at the time of distribution, offer them a ˹small˺ provision from it and speak to them kindly.
Let the guardians be as concerned ˹for the orphans˺ as they would if they were to ˹die and˺ leave ˹their own˺ helpless children behind. So let them be mindful of Allah and speak equitably.
Indeed, those who unjustly consume orphans’ wealth ˹in fact˺ consume nothing but fire into their bellies. And they will be burned in a blazing Hell!
Allah commands you regarding your children: the share of the male will be twice that of the female.1 If you leave only two ˹or more˺ females, their share is two-thirds of the estate. But if there is only one female, her share will be one-half. Each parent is entitled to one-sixth if you leave offspring.2 But if you are childless and your parents are the only heirs, then your mother will receive one-third.3 But if you leave siblings, then your mother will receive one-sixth4—after the fulfilment of bequests and debts.5 ˹Be fair to˺ your parents and children, as you do not ˹fully˺ know who is more beneficial to you.6 ˹This is˺ an obligation from Allah. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
You will inherit half of what your wives leave if they are childless. But if they have children, then ˹your share is˺ one-fourth of the estate—after the fulfilment of bequests and debts. And your wives will inherit one-fourth of what you leave if you are childless. But if you have children, then your wives will receive one-eighth of your estate—after the fulfilment of bequests and debts. And if a man or a woman leaves neither parents nor children but only a brother or a sister ˹from their mother’s side˺, they will each inherit one-sixth, but if they are more than one, they ˹all˺ will share one-third of the estate1—after the fulfilment of bequests and debts without harm ˹to the heirs˺.2 ˹This is˺ a commandment from Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.
These ˹entitlements˺ are the limits set by Allah. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted into Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there forever. That is the ultimate triumph!
But whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and exceeds their limits will be cast into Hell, to stay there forever. And they will suffer a humiliating punishment.
˹As for˺ those of your women who commit illegal intercourse—call four witnesses from among yourselves. If they testify, confine the offenders to their homes until they die or Allah ordains a ˹different˺ way for them.
And the two among you who commit this sin—discipline them. If they repent and mend their ways, relieve them. Surely Allah is ever Accepting of Repentance, Most Merciful.
Allah only accepts the repentance of those who commit evil ignorantly ˹or recklessly˺ then repent soon after1—Allah will pardon them. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
However, repentance is not accepted from those who knowingly persist in sin until they start dying, and then cry, “Now I repent!” nor those who die as disbelievers. For them We have prepared a painful punishment.
O believers! It is not permissible for you to inherit women against their will1 or mistreat them to make them return some of the dowry ˹as a ransom for divorce˺—unless they are found guilty of adultery.2 Treat them fairly. If you happen to dislike them, you may hate something which Allah turns into a great blessing.
If you desire to replace a wife with another and you have given the former ˹even˺ a stack of gold ˹as a dowry˺, do not take any of it back. Would you ˹still˺ take it unjustly and very sinfully?
And how could you take it back after having enjoyed each other intimately and she has taken from you a firm commitment?1
Do not marry former wives of your fathers—except what was done previously. It was indeed a shameful, despicable, and evil practice.
˹Also˺ forbidden to you for marriage are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal and maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster-mothers, your foster-sisters, your mothers-in-law, your stepdaughters under your guardianship if you have consummated marriage with their mothers—but if you have not, then you can marry them—nor the wives of your own sons, nor two sisters together at the same time—except what was done previously. Surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Also ˹forbidden are˺ married women—except ˹female˺ captives in your possession.1 This is Allah’s commandment to you. Lawful to you are all beyond these—as long as you seek them with your wealth in a legal marriage, not in fornication. Give those you have consummated marriage with their due dowries. It is permissible to be mutually gracious regarding the set dowry. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
But if any of you cannot afford to marry a free believing woman, then ˹let him marry˺ a believing bondwoman possessed by one of you. Allah knows best ˹the state of˺ your faith ˹and theirs˺. You are from one another.1 So marry them with the permission of their owners,2 giving them their dowry in fairness, if they are chaste, neither promiscuous nor having secret affairs. If they commit indecency after marriage, they receive half the punishment of free women.3 This is for those of you who fear falling into sin. But if you are patient, it is better for you. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
It is Allah’s Will to make things clear to you, guide you to the ˹noble˺ ways of those before you, and turn to you in mercy. For Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
And it is Allah’s Will to turn to you in grace, but those who follow their desires wish to see you deviate entirely ˹from Allah’s Way˺.
And it is Allah’s Will to lighten your burdens, for humankind was created weak.
O believers! Do not devour one another’s wealth illegally, but rather trade by mutual consent. And do not kill ˹each other or˺ yourselves. Surely Allah is ever Merciful to you.
And whoever does this sinfully and unjustly, We will burn them in the Fire. That is easy for Allah.
If you avoid the major sins forbidden to you, We will absolve you of your ˹lesser˺ misdeeds and admit you into a place of honour.1
And do not crave what Allah has given some of you over others. Men will be rewarded according to their deeds and women ˹equally˺ according to theirs. Rather, ask Allah for His bounties. Surely Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.
And We have appointed heirs to what has been left by parents and next of kin. As for those you have made a pledge to, give them their share.1 Surely Allah is a Witness over all things.
Men are the caretakers of women, as men have been provisioned by Allah over women and tasked with supporting them financially. And righteous women are devoutly obedient and, when alone, protective of what Allah has entrusted them with.1 And if you sense ill-conduct from your women, advise them ˹first˺, ˹if they persist,˺ do not share their beds, ˹but if they still persist,˺ then discipline them ˹gently˺.2 But if they change their ways, do not be unjust to them. Surely Allah is Most High, All-Great.
If you anticipate a split between them, appoint a mediator from his family and another from hers. If they desire reconciliation, Allah will restore harmony between them. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.
Worship Allah ˹alone˺ and associate none with Him. And be kind to parents, relatives, orphans, the poor, near and distant neighbours, close friends, ˹needy˺ travellers, and those ˹bondspeople˺ in your possession. Surely Allah does not like whoever is arrogant, boastful—
those who are stingy, promote stinginess among people, and withhold Allah’s bounties. We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
Likewise for those who spend their wealth to show off and do not believe in Allah or the Last Day. And whoever takes Satan as an associate—what an evil associate they have!
What harm could have come to them if they had believed in Allah and the Last Day and donated from what Allah has provided for them? And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of them.
Indeed, Allah never wrongs ˹anyone˺—even by an atom’s weight.1 And if it is a good deed, He will multiply it many times over and will give a great reward out of His grace.
So how will it be when We bring a witness from every faith-community and bring you ˹O Prophet˺ as a witness against yours?
On that Day, those who denied ˹Allah˺ and disobeyed the Messenger will wish they were reduced to dust. And they will never be able to hide anything from Allah.1
O believers! Do not approach prayer while intoxicated1 until you are aware of what you say, nor in a state of ˹full˺ impurity2—unless you merely pass through ˹the mosque˺—until you have bathed. But if you are ill, on a journey, or have relieved yourselves, or been intimate with your wives and cannot find water, then purify yourselves with clean earth, wiping your faces and hands.3 And Allah is Ever-Pardoning, All-Forgiving.
Have you ˹O Prophet˺ not seen those who were given a portion of the Scriptures yet trade it for misguidance and wish to see you deviate from the ˹Right˺ Path?
Allah knows best who your enemies are! And Allah is sufficient as a Guardian, and He is sufficient as a Helper.
Some Jews take words out of context and say, “We listen and we disobey,” “Hear! May you never hear,” and “Râ’ina!”—playing with words and discrediting the faith. Had they said ˹courteously˺, “We hear and obey,” “Listen to us,” and “Unẓurna,” it would have been better for them and more proper. Allah has condemned them for their disbelief, so they do not believe except for a few.
O you who were given the Book! Believe in what We have revealed—confirming your own Scriptures—before We wipe out ˹your˺ faces, turning them backwards, or We condemn the defiant as We did to the Sabbath-breakers.1 And Allah’s command is always executed!
Indeed, Allah does not forgive associating others with Him ˹in worship˺,1 but forgives anything else of whoever He wills. And whoever associates others with Allah has indeed committed a grave sin.
Have you ˹O Prophet˺ not seen those who ˹falsely˺ elevate themselves? It is Allah who elevates whoever He wills. And none will be wronged ˹even by the width of˺ the thread of a date stone.
See how they fabricate lies against Allah—this alone is a blatant sin.
Have you ˹O Prophet˺ not seen those who were given a portion of the Scriptures yet believe in idols and false gods and reassure the disbelievers1 that they are better guided than the believers?
It is they who have been condemned by Allah. And whoever is condemned by Allah will have no helper.
Do they have control over shares of the kingdom? If so, they would not have given anyone so much as the speck on a date stone.
Or do they envy the people for Allah’s bounties? Indeed, We have given the descendants of Abraham the Book and wisdom, along with great authority.
Yet some believed in him while others turned away from him.1 Hell is sufficient as a torment!
Surely those who reject Our signs, We will cast them into the Fire. Whenever their skin is burnt completely, We will replace it so they will ˹constantly˺ taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.
As for those who believe and do good, We will admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever. There they will have pure spouses,1 and We will place them under a vast shade.
Indeed, Allah commands you to return trusts to their rightful owners;1 and when you judge between people, judge with fairness. What a noble commandment from Allah to you! Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Should you disagree on anything, then refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you ˹truly˺ believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is the best and fairest resolution.
Have you ˹O Prophet˺ not seen those who claim they believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you? They seek the judgment of false judges, which they were commanded to reject. And Satan ˹only˺ desires to lead them farther away.
When it is said to them, “Come to Allah’s revelations and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turn away from you stubbornly.
How ˹horrible˺ will it be if a disaster strikes them because of what their hands have done, then they come to you swearing by Allah, “We intended nothing but goodwill and reconciliation.”
˹Only˺ Allah knows what is in their hearts. So turn away from them, caution them, and give them advice that will shake their very souls.
We only sent messengers to be obeyed by Allah’s Will. If only those ˹hypocrites˺ came to you ˹O Prophet˺—after wronging themselves—seeking Allah’s forgiveness and the Messenger prayed for their forgiveness, they would have certainly found Allah ever Accepting of Repentance, Most Merciful.
But no! By your Lord, they will never be ˹true˺ believers until they accept you ˹O Prophet˺ as the judge in their disputes, and find no resistance within themselves against your decision and submit wholeheartedly.
If We had commanded them to sacrifice themselves or abandon their homes, none would have obeyed except for a few. Had they done what they were advised to do,1 it would have certainly been far better for them and more reassuring,
and We would have granted them a great reward by Our grace
and guided them to the Straight Path.
And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger will be in the company of those blessed by Allah: the prophets, the people of truth, the martyrs, and the righteous—what honourable company!
This is Allah’s favour, and Allah fully knows ˹who deserves it˺.
O believers! Take your precautions and go forth either in groups or together.
There will be some among you who will lag behind so that if you face a disaster, they will say, “Allah has blessed us for not being there among them.”
But if you return with Allah’s bounties, they will say—as if there had been no bond between you—“We wish we had been there with them to share the great gain!”
Let those who would sacrifice this life for the Hereafter fight in the cause of Allah. And whoever fights in Allah’s cause—whether they achieve martyrdom or victory—We will honour them with a great reward.
And what is it with you? You do not fight in the cause of Allah and for oppressed men, women, and children who cry out, “Our Lord! Deliver us from this land of oppressors! Appoint for us a saviour; appoint for us a helper—all by Your grace.”
Believers fight for the cause of Allah, whereas disbelievers fight for the cause of the Devil. So fight against Satan’s ˹evil˺ forces. Indeed, Satan’s schemes are ever weak.
Have you ˹O Prophet˺ not seen those who had been told, “Do not fight! Rather, establish prayer and pay alms-tax.”? Then once the order came to fight, a group of them feared those ˹hostile˺ people as Allah should be feared—or even more. They said, “Our Lord! Why have You ordered us to fight? If only You had delayed ˹the order for˺ us for a little while!” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “The enjoyment of this world is so little, whereas the Hereafter is far better for those mindful ˹of Allah˺. And none of you will be wronged ˹even by the width of˺ the thread of a date stone.
Wherever you may be, death will overcome you—even if you were in fortified towers.” When something good befalls them, they say, “This is from Allah,” but when something evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Both have been destined by Allah.” So what is the matter with these people? They can hardly comprehend anything!
Whatever good befalls you is from Allah and whatever evil befalls you is from yourself.1 We have sent you ˹O Prophet˺ as a messenger to ˹all˺ people. And Allah is sufficient as a Witness.
Whoever obeys the Messenger has truly obeyed Allah. But whoever turns away, then ˹know that˺ We have not sent you ˹O Prophet˺ as a keeper over them.
And they say, “We obey,” but when they leave you, a group of them would spend the night contradicting what they said. Allah records all their schemes. So turn away from them, and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is sufficient as a Trustee of Affairs.
Do they not then reflect on the Quran? Had it been from anyone other than Allah, they would have certainly found in it many inconsistencies.
And when they hear news of security or fear,1 they publicize it. Had they referred it to the Messenger or their authorities, those with sound judgment among them would have validated it. Had it not been for Allah’s grace and mercy, you would have followed Satan—except for a few.
So fight in the cause of Allah ˹O Prophet˺. You are accountable for none but yourself. And motivate the believers ˹to fight˺, so perhaps Allah will curb the disbelievers’ might. And Allah is far superior in might and in punishment.
Whoever intercedes for a good cause will have a share in the reward, and whoever intercedes for an evil cause will have a share in the burden. And Allah is Watchful over all things.
And when you are greeted, respond with a better greeting or at least similarly. Surely Allah is a ˹vigilant˺ Reckoner of all things.
Allah, there is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him. He will certainly gather ˹all of˺ you together on the Day of Judgment—about which there is no doubt. And whose word is more truthful than Allah’s?
Why are you ˹believers˺ divided into two groups regarding the hypocrites while Allah allowed them to regress ˹to disbelief˺ because of their misdeeds? Do you wish to guide those left by Allah to stray? And whoever Allah leaves to stray, you will never find for them a way.
They wish you would disbelieve as they have disbelieved, so you may all be alike. So do not take them as allies unless they emigrate in the cause of Allah. But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and do not take any of them as allies or helpers,1
except those who are allies of a people you are bound with in a treaty or those wholeheartedly opposed to fighting either you or their own people. If Allah had willed, He would have empowered them to fight you. So if they refrain from fighting you and offer you peace, then Allah does not permit you to harm them.
You will find others who wish to be safe from you and their own people. Yet they cannot resist the temptation ˹of disbelief or hostility˺. If they do not keep away, offer you peace, or refrain from attacking you, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them. We have given you full permission over such people.
It is not lawful for a believer to kill another except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer unintentionally must free a believing slave and pay blood-money to the victim’s family—unless they waive it charitably. But if the victim is a believer from a hostile people, then a believing slave must be freed. And if the victim is from a people bound with you in a treaty, then blood-money must be paid to the family along with freeing a believing slave. Those who are unable, let them fast two consecutive months—as a means of repentance to Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
And whoever kills a believer intentionally, their reward will be Hell—where they will stay indefinitely.1 Allah will be displeased with them, condemn them, and will prepare for them a tremendous punishment.
O believers! When you struggle in the cause of Allah, be sure of who you fight. And do not say to those who offer you ˹greetings of˺ peace, “You are no believer!”—seeking a fleeting worldly gain.1 Instead, Allah has infinite bounties ˹in store˺. You were initially like them then Allah blessed you ˹with Islam˺. So be sure! Indeed, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.
Those who stay at home—except those with valid excuses1—are not equal to those who strive in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has elevated in rank those who strive with their wealth and their lives above those who stay behind ˹with valid excuses˺. Allah has promised each a fine reward, but those who strive will receive a far better reward than others—
far superior ranks, forgiveness, and mercy from Him. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
When the angels seize the souls of those who have wronged themselves1—scolding them, “What do you think you were doing?” they will reply, “We were oppressed in the land.” The angels will respond, “Was Allah’s earth not spacious enough for you to emigrate?” It is they who will have Hell as their home—what an evil destination!
Except helpless men, women, and children who cannot afford a way out—
it is right to hope that Allah will pardon them. For Allah is Ever-Pardoning, All-Forgiving.
Whoever emigrates in the cause of Allah will find many safe havens and bountiful resources throughout the earth. Those who leave their homes and die while emigrating to Allah and His Messenger—their reward has already been secured with Allah. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
When you travel through the land, it is permissible for you to shorten the prayer1—˹especially˺ if you fear an attack by the disbelievers. Indeed, the disbelievers are your sworn enemies.
When you ˹O Prophet˺ are ˹campaigning˺ with them and you lead them in prayer, let one group of them pray with you—while armed. When they prostrate themselves, let the other group stand guard behind them. Then the group that has not yet prayed will then join you in prayer—and let them be vigilant and armed.1 The disbelievers would wish to see you neglect your weapons and belongings, so they could launch a sweeping assault on you. But there is no blame if you lay aside your weapons when overcome by heavy rain or illness—but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.
When the prayers are over, remember Allah—whether you are standing, sitting, or lying down. But when you are secure, establish regular prayers. Indeed, performing prayers is a duty on the believers at the appointed times.
Do not falter in pursuit of the enemy—if you are suffering, they too are suffering. But you can hope to receive from Allah what they can never hope for. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Indeed, We have sent down the Book to you ˹O Prophet˺ in truth to judge between people by means of what Allah has shown you. So do not be an advocate for the deceitful.
And seek Allah’s forgiveness—indeed, Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Do not advocate for those who wrong themselves.1 Surely Allah does not like those who are deceitful, sinful.
They try to hide ˹their deception˺ from people, but they can never hide it from Allah—in Whose presence they plot by night what is displeasing to Him. And Allah is Fully Aware of what they do.
Here you are! You ˹believers˺ are advocating for them in this life, but who will ˹dare to˺ advocate for them before Allah on the Day of Judgment? Or who will come to their defence?
Whoever commits evil or wrongs themselves then seeks Allah’s forgiveness will certainly find Allah All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
And whoever commits a sin—it is only to their own loss. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
And whoever commits an evil or sinful deed then blames it on an innocent person, they will definitely bear the guilt of slander and blatant sin.
Had it not been for Allah’s grace and mercy, a group of them would have sought to deceive you ˹O Prophet˺. Yet they would deceive none but themselves, nor can they harm you in the least. Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom and taught you what you never knew. Great ˹indeed˺ is Allah’s favour upon you!
There is no good in most of their secret talks—except those encouraging charity, kindness, or reconciliation between people. And whoever does this seeking Allah’s pleasure, We will grant them a great reward.
And whoever defies the Messenger after guidance has become clear to them and follows a path other than that of the believers, We will let them pursue what they have chosen, then burn them in Hell—what an evil end!
Surely Allah does not forgive associating ˹others˺ with Him ˹in worship˺,1 but forgives anything else of whoever He wills. Indeed, whoever associates ˹others˺ with Allah has clearly gone far astray.
Instead of Allah, they only invoke female gods1 and they ˹actually˺ invoke none but a rebellious Satan—
cursed by Allah—who said, “I will surely take hold of a certain number of Your servants.
I will certainly mislead them and delude them with empty hopes. Also, I will order them and they will slit the ears of cattle1 and alter Allah’s creation.” And whoever takes Satan as a guardian instead of Allah has certainly suffered a tremendous loss.
Satan only makes them ˹false˺ promises and deludes them with ˹empty˺ hopes. Truly Satan promises them nothing but delusion.
It is they who will have Hell as their home, and they will find no escape from it!
And those who believe and do good, We will soon admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever. Allah’s promise is ˹always˺ true. And whose word is more truthful than Allah’s?
˹Divine grace is˺ neither by your wishes nor those of the People of the Book! Whoever commits evil will be rewarded accordingly, and they will find no protector or helper besides Allah.
But those who do good—whether male or female—and have faith will enter Paradise and will never be wronged ˹even as much as˺ the speck on a date stone.
And who is better in faith than those who ˹fully˺ submit themselves to Allah, do good, and follow the Way of Abraham, the upright? Allah chose Abraham as a close friend.
To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah is Fully Aware of everything.
They ask you ˹O Prophet˺ regarding women. Say, “It is Allah Who instructs you regarding them. Instruction has ˹already˺ been revealed in the Book1 concerning the orphan women you deprive of their due rights2 but still wish to marry, also helpless children, as well as standing up for orphans’ rights. And whatever good you do is certainly well known to Allah.”
If a woman fears indifference or neglect from her husband, there is no blame on either of them if they seek ˹fair˺ settlement, which is best. Humans are ever inclined to selfishness.1 But if you are gracious and mindful ˹of Allah˺, surely Allah is All-Aware of what you do.
You will never be able to maintain ˹emotional˺ justice between your wives—no matter how keen you are. So do not totally incline towards one leaving the other in suspense.1 And if you do what is right and are mindful ˹of Allah˺, surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
But if they choose to separate, Allah will enrich both of them from His bounties. And Allah is Ever-Bountiful, All-Wise.
To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Indeed, We have commanded those given the Scripture before you, as well as you, to be mindful of Allah. But if you disobey, then ˹know that˺ to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Self-Sufficient, Praiseworthy.
To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah is sufficient as a Trustee of Affairs.
If it is His Will, He can remove you altogether, O humanity, and replace you with others. And Allah is Most Capable to do so.
Whoever desires the reward of this world, then ˹let them know that˺ with Allah are the rewards of this world and the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
O believers! Stand firm for justice as witnesses for Allah even if it is against yourselves, your parents, or close relatives. Be they rich or poor, Allah is best to ensure their interests. So do not let your desires cause you to deviate ˹from justice˺. If you distort the testimony or refuse to give it, then ˹know that˺ Allah is certainly All-Aware of what you do.
O believers! Have faith in Allah, His Messenger, the Book He has revealed to His Messenger, and the Scriptures He revealed before. Indeed, whoever denies Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day has clearly gone far astray.
Indeed, those who believed then disbelieved, then believed and again disbelieved—˹only˺ increasing in disbelief—Allah will neither forgive them nor guide them to the ˹Right˺ Way.
Give good news of a painful punishment to hypocrites,
who choose disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do they seek honour and power through that company? Surely all honour and power belongs to Allah.
He has already revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah’s revelations being denied or ridiculed, then do not sit in that company unless they engage in a different topic, or else you will be like them.1 Surely Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.
˹The hypocrites are˺ those who wait to see what happens to you. So if Allah grants you victory, they say ˹to you˺, “Were we not on your side?” But if the disbelievers have a share ˹of victory˺, they say ˹to them˺, “Did we not have the advantage over you, yet we protected you from the believers?” Allah will judge between ˹all of˺ you on the Day of Judgment. And Allah will never grant the disbelievers a way over the believers.
Surely the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but He outwits them. When they stand up for prayer, they do it half-heartedly only to be seen by people—hardly remembering Allah at all.
Torn between belief and disbelief—belonging neither to these ˹believers˺ nor those ˹disbelievers˺. And whoever Allah leaves to stray, you will never find for them a way.
O believers! Do not take disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Would you like to give Allah solid proof against yourselves?
Surely the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire—and you will never find for them any helper—
except those who repent, mend their ways, hold fast to Allah, and are sincere in their devotion to Allah; they will be with the believers. And Allah will grant the believers a great reward.
Why should Allah punish you if you are grateful and faithful? Allah is ever Appreciative, All-Knowing.
Allah does not like negative thoughts to be voiced—except by those who have been wronged.1 Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
Whether you reveal or conceal a good or pardon an evil—surely Allah is Ever-Pardoning, Most Capable.
Surely those who deny Allah and His messengers and wish to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers,1 saying, “We believe in some and disbelieve in others,” desiring to forge a compromise,
they are indeed the true disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
As for those who believe in Allah and His messengers—accepting all; rejecting none—He will surely give them their rewards. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The People of the Book demand that you ˹O Prophet˺ bring down for them a revelation in writing from heaven.1 They demanded what is even greater than this from Moses, saying, “Make Allah visible to us!” So a thunderbolt struck them for their wrongdoing. Then they took the calf for worship after receiving clear signs. Still We forgave them for that ˹after their repentance˺ and gave Moses compelling proof.
We raised the Mount over them ˹as a warning˺ for ˹breaking˺ their covenant and said, “Enter the gate ˹of Jerusalem˺ with humility.” We also warned them, “Do not break the Sabbath,” and took from them a firm covenant.
˹They were condemned˺ for breaking their covenant, rejecting Allah’s signs, killing the prophets unjustly, and for saying, “Our hearts are unreceptive!”1—it is Allah Who has sealed their hearts for their disbelief, so they do not believe except for a few—
and for their denial and outrageous accusation against Mary,1
and for boasting, “We killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.” But they neither killed nor crucified him—it was only made to appear so.1 Even those who argue for this ˹crucifixion˺ are in doubt. They have no knowledge whatsoever—only making assumptions. They certainly did not kill him.
Rather, Allah raised him up to Himself. And Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.
Every one of the People of the Book will definitely believe in him before his death.1 And on the Day of Judgment Jesus will be a witness against them.
We forbade the Jews certain foods that had been lawful to them for their wrongdoing, and for hindering many from the Way of Allah,
taking interest despite its prohibition, and consuming people’s wealth unjustly. We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.
But those of them well-grounded in knowledge, the faithful ˹who˺ believe in what has been revealed to you ˹O Prophet˺ and what was revealed before you—˹especially˺ those who establish prayer—and those who pay alms-tax and believe in Allah and the Last Day, to these ˹people˺ We will grant a great reward.
Indeed, We have sent revelation to you ˹O Prophet˺ as We sent revelation to Noah and the prophets after him. We also sent revelation to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his descendants, ˹as well as˺ Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon. And to David We gave the Psalms.
There are messengers whose stories We have told you already and others We have not. And to Moses Allah spoke directly.
˹All were˺ messengers delivering good news and warnings so humanity should have no excuse before Allah after ˹the coming of˺ the messengers. And Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.
Yet ˹if you are denied, O Prophet,˺ Allah bears witness to what He has sent down to you—He has sent it with His knowledge. The angels too bear witness. And Allah ˹alone˺ is sufficient as a Witness.
Those who disbelieve and hinder ˹others˺ from the Way of Allah have certainly strayed far away.
Those who disbelieve and wrong themselves—surely Allah will neither forgive them nor guide them to any path
except that of Hell, to stay there for ever and ever. And that is easy for Allah.
O humanity! The Messenger has certainly come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe for your own good. But if you disbelieve, then ˹know that˺ to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
O People of the Book! Do not go to extremes regarding your faith; say nothing about Allah except the truth.1 The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was no more than a messenger of Allah and the fulfilment of His Word through Mary and a spirit ˹created by a command˺ from Him.2 So believe in Allah and His messengers and do not say, “Trinity.” Stop!—for your own good. Allah is only One God. Glory be to Him! He is far above having a son! To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah is sufficient as a Trustee of Affairs.
The Messiah would never be too proud to be a servant of Allah, nor would the angels nearest to Allah. Those who are too proud and arrogant to worship Him will be brought before Him all together.
As for those who believe and do good, He will reward them in full and increase them out of His grace. But those who are too proud and arrogant, He will subject them to a painful punishment. And besides Allah they will find no protector or helper.
O humanity! There has come to you conclusive evidence from your Lord. And We have sent down to you a brilliant light.
As for those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him, He will admit them into His mercy and grace and guide them to Himself through the Straight Path.
They ask you ˹for a ruling, O Prophet˺. Say, “Allah gives you a ruling regarding those who die without children or parents.” If a man dies childless and leaves behind a sister, she will inherit one-half of his estate, whereas her brother will inherit all of her estate if she dies childless. If this person leaves behind two sisters, they together will inherit two-thirds of the estate. But if the deceased leaves male and female siblings, a male’s share will be equal to that of two females. Allah makes ˹this˺ clear to you so you do not go astray. And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.1
i.e., Adam and Eve.
The Quran is the only scripture that says marry only one. Unlike any previous faith, Islam puts a limit on the number of wives a man can have. Under certain circumstances, a Muslim man may marry up to four wives as long as he is able to provide for them and maintain justice among them—otherwise it is unlawful. With the exception of Jesus Christ and John the Baptist (neither of whom were married), almost all religious figures in the Bible had more than one wife. According to the Bible, Solomon (ﷺ) had 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3) and his father, David (ﷺ), had many wives and concubines (2 Samuel 5:13).
A bondwoman is a female slave that a man owned either through purchase or taking her captive in war—a common ancient practice in many parts of the world. Islam opened the door for ending slavery by making it an act of charity to free slaves. Many sins (such as breaking one’s oath, unintentional killing, and intercourse with one’s wife during the day of fasting in Ramaḍân) can be atoned by freeing a slave. According to Islamic teachings, no free person can be enslaved. Islam also improved the condition of slaves. It was unlawful to separate a mother from her child. Children born to a slave-master were deemed free, and their mother would gain her freedom upon the death of her master. With regards to slaves, Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) says, “Feed them from what you eat, clothe them from what you wear, and do not overwhelm them with work unless you assist them.” He (ﷺ) also says, “Whoever kills his slave will be killed and whoever injures his slave will be injured.” In recent times, slavery has been outlawed in all countries—including the Muslim world.
For example, in the case of orphaned children whose grandfather then dies, leaving behind other children, some scholars rule that an obligatory bequest should be made to them despite not having a share in inheritance.
According to Islamic law of inheritance, a female—whether she is a mother, a wife, a sister, a daughter, etc.—gets one of three shares, depending on her closeness to the deceased: Less than a male’s share. If she is a daughter, she will get half of the share of her brother, since he—unlike his sister—has to provide for the family and pay a dowry at the time of his marriage. More than a male’s share. For example, if a man leaves $24 000 and six sons, two brothers, a wife, and a mother. The wife will get one-eighth ($3000), the mother one-sixth ($4000), each of the sons will receive about $2 833 and the two brothers will not get anything. An equal share. This is in the case of siblings from the mother’s side (mentioned in verse 12 of this sûrah).
"Offspring” here means any number of children—male or female.
And the father will take the rest of the estate.
Although the existence of siblings reduces the mother’s share from one-third to one-sixth, siblings themselves do not receive a share of inheritance and the rest of the estate goes to the father.
Debts as well as any other financial obligations (such as funeral expenses, unfulfilled vows, or unpaid dowry) have to be repaid before the fulfilment of bequests, then the estate can be distributed among the heirs. A person can bequest up to one-third of their estate for charities as well as individuals who are not entitled to a share in inheritance.
You do not know who will benefit you by looking after you during your life or doing good deeds on your behalf after your death.
If there are two or more brothers and sisters from the mother’s side, they share one-third equally—the female will receive the same share of the male.
Harming the heirs includes giving away more than one-third of the estate as a bequest.
A person’s repentance will be accepted as long as they repent any time before their death. But one should not procrastinate because they do not know when they will die.
For example, a man would prevent a female relative (such as his sister or mother) from getting married so he can secure her estate for himself.
lit., blatant misconduct. If someone’s wife has been found guilty of adultery, he has the right to ask for his dowry back.
i.e., the promise to live with her in kindness or divorce her with dignity.
A man was not allowed to have a relationship with a bondwoman who he had taken captive in war unless he made sure she was not pregnant. This was verified by her having at least one monthly cycle. See footnote for 4:3.
Do not be ashamed to marry a bondwoman since you are all part of the same human family and Allah knows you are doing so to avoid illegal relationships.
A married slave-woman is forbidden from having a relationship with her master.
i.e., fifty lashes.
This pledge was a common practice before Islam between friends and allies—taking oaths to inherit each other. This practice came to an end with the revelation of verse 8:75 of the Quran. Although friends and allies do not have a share in inheritance anymore, they still can get some of the estate through bequest.
i.e., their husbands’ honour and wealth.
Disciplining one’s wife gently is the final resort. The earliest commentators understood that this was to be light enough not to leave a mark, should be done with nothing bigger than a tooth stick, and should not be on the face. Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) said to his companions “Do not beat the female servants of Allah.” He said that honourable husbands do not beat their wives, and he himself never hit a woman or a servant. If a woman feels her husband is ill-behaved, then she can get help from her guardian or seek divorce.
lit., the smallest particle of dust (ⱬarrah).
Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) asked one of his companions, ’Abdullah ibn Mas’ûd, to recite some verses of the Quran for him because he loved to hear it from someone other than himself. ’Abdullah recited from the beginning of this sûrah until he reached verse 42. When he was told he may stop, ’Abdullah said he looked at the face of Prophet (ﷺ) and saw tears rolling down his cheeks.
Intoxicants were prohibited in the Quran in three stages: 2:219, 4:43, and finally 5:90-91.
i.e., after sexual intercourse or a wet dream.
This ruling is called tayammum or ‘dry ablution.’ If someone cannot find water or is unable to use it because of illness or cold weather, then they are allowed to touch clean earth, sand, etc. with the palms of their hands once then blow in their hands and wipe over their face and hands.
A person will never be forgiven if they die as a disbeliever. But if they repent before their death and mend their ways, then their repentance will be accepted (see 25:68-70).
i.e., the polytheists.
i.e., Abraham (ﷺ) or Muḥammad (ﷺ).
See footnote for 2:25.
This verse was revealed right after Mecca had peacefully surrendered to the Muslims. ’Ali ibn Abi Ṭâlib, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, took the Ka’bah’s key by force from Othmân ibn Ṭalḥa, the non-Muslim keeper of the Ka’bah. The verse was revealed to the Prophet (ﷺ) inside the Ka’bah with the order to give the key back to its rightful owner. He (ﷺ) ordered Ali to return the key to the keeper immediately along with an apology. Othmân was also promised that his family would keep the key forever. The keeper was so touched by the Quranic sense of justice that he decided to accept Islam.
i.e., obeying Allah and His Messenger.
Both good and evil are destined by Allah. The good comes as Allah’s reward for good deeds, whereas the bad comes as Allah’s punishment for evil deeds. In some cases, bad things happen to good people to test their faith, or as an atonement for their sins, or as part of a process of replacing something with what is better (e.g., a job or a spouse).
i.e., when they get the news of victory or a threat.
The verse discusses a group of people who nominally became Muslims and secretly supported the enemies of Muslims. For those hypocrites to prove their loyalty, they were commanded to emigrate and join the ranks of the believers, or they would be considered enemies.
If a Muslim commits a major sin (such as intentional killing or adultery) and dies without repenting, they will be punished in Hell according to the severity or magnitude of the sin, then eventually be taken out of Hell. No Muslim will stay in Hell forever.
i.e., spoils of war.
This includes women, the elderly, the sick, etc.
This verse refers to some of those who had accepted Islam secretly in Mecca but refused to emigrate to Medina along with the rest of the believers. Some of them were killed in the Battle of Badr when they were rallied by the Meccans to fight against the Muslims. The verse also applies to any Muslim who accepts abuse and refuses to move to another place where they can live with dignity and practice their faith freely.
Generally, it is permissible for Muslims who are travelling a distance of 85 km or more to shorten their prayers. A four-unit prayer is reduced to two.
When the first group prays, the second group stands guard behind them, then the first group withdraws to the back when they finish their prayers and stand guard when the second group moves up to pray.
lit., deceive themselves.
This applies to those who die in a state of disbelief in Allah. But those who repent before their death and mend their ways, their repentance will be accepted (see 25:68-70).
The pagans of Arabia used to shape their idols as females and give them feminine names such as Al-Lât, Al-’Uzza, and Manât.
Slitting the ears of cattle dedicated to idols was a superstitious practice before Islam.
This refers to verses 2-11 of this sûrah.
i.e., their inheritance and dowries.
This implies that many husbands and wives are unwilling to give the other their rights.
Do not leave one hanging—not fully enjoying the rights of a married woman and not fully divorced.
This refers to 6:68.
i.e., Allah does not like talking about people behind their backs—except when someone who has been wronged seeks counselling or assistance from authorities.
By their claim that they believe in Allah but still reject some of His messengers.
i.e., they demanded the Quran to be revealed all at once in writing similar to the Tablets of Moses. This demand is refuted in 25:32.
Their hearts are unreceptive because they claim they have enough knowledge already.
i.e., they slandered Mary by claiming that she conceived Jesus through an illegal relationship.
The popular belief among Muslims is that a conspiracy was made to kill Jesus, Allah made the main culprit who betrayed Jesus look exactly like Jesus, then he was crucified in Jesus’ place. Jesus was raised safe and sound to the heavens. Muslims also believe in the second coming of Jesus (ﷺ).
Scholars disagree whether Jews and Christians will come to realize that Jesus is a prophet of Allah at the time of their death or before the death of Jesus after his second coming.
The Jews are warned against denying Jesus as the Messiah, while Christians are warned against calling Jesus Allah.
i.e., Jesus was created by Allah’s Word “Be!” and he was, and life was breathed into Jesus by the holy spirit (the angel Gabriel) at the command of Allah.
This verse is placed at the end of the sûrah and not with similar verses at the beginning to connect the end of this sûrah with the next one or, according to Al-Fakhr Ar-Râzi, either to tie the end of the sûrah with its beginning for emphasis, as found in 20:2 and 124 as well as 23:1 and 117, or to emphasize Allah’s knowledge, just like the first verse emphasizes His power.