O believers! Honour your obligations. All grazing livestock has been made lawful to you—except what is hereby announced to you and hunting while on pilgrimage. Indeed, Allah commands what He wills.
O believers! Do not violate Allah’s rituals ˹of pilgrimage˺, the sacred months, the sacrificial animals, the ˹offerings decorated with˺ garlands, nor those ˹pilgrims˺ on their way to the Sacred House seeking their Lord’s bounty and pleasure. When pilgrimage has ended, you are allowed to hunt. Do not let the hatred of a people who once barred you from the Sacred Mosque provoke you to transgress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not cooperate in sin and transgression. And be mindful of Allah. Surely Allah is severe in punishment.
Forbidden to you are carrion, blood, and swine; what is slaughtered in the name of any other than Allah; what is killed by strangling, beating, a fall, or by being gored to death; what is partly eaten by a predator unless you slaughter it; and what is sacrificed on altars. You are also forbidden to draw lots for decisions.1 This is all evil. Today the disbelievers have given up all hope of ˹undermining˺ your faith. So do not fear them; fear Me! Today I have perfected your faith for you, completed My favour upon you, and chosen Islam as your way. But whoever is compelled by extreme hunger—not intending to sin—then surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
They ask you, ˹O Prophet,˺ what is permissible for them ˹to eat˺. Say, “What is good and lawful. Also what is caught by your hunting animals and birds of prey which you have trained as instructed by Allah. So eat what they catch for you, but mention the Name of Allah over it ˹first˺.” And be mindful of Allah. Surely Allah is swift in reckoning.
Today all good, pure foods have been made lawful for you. Similarly, the food of the People of the Book1 is permissible for you and yours is permissible for them. And ˹permissible for you in marriage˺ are chaste believing women as well as chaste women of those given the Scripture before you—as long as you pay them their dowries in wedlock, neither fornicating nor taking them as mistresses. And whoever rejects the faith, all their good deeds will be void ˹in this life˺ and in the Hereafter they will be among the losers.
O believers! When you rise up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, wipe your heads, and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of ˹full˺ impurity,1 then take a full bath. But if you are ill, on a journey, or have relieved yourselves, or have been intimate with your wives and cannot find water, then purify yourselves with clean earth by wiping your faces and hands.2 It is not Allah’s Will to burden you, but to purify you and complete His favour upon you, so perhaps you will be grateful.
Remember Allah’s favour upon you and the covenant He made with you when you said, “We hear and obey.” And be mindful of Allah. Surely Allah knows best what is ˹hidden˺ in the heart.
O believers! Stand firm for Allah and bear true testimony. Do not let the hatred of a people lead you to injustice. Be just! That is closer to righteousness. And be mindful of Allah. Surely Allah is All-Aware of what you do.
Allah has promised those who believe and do good ˹His˺ forgiveness and a great reward.
As for those who disbelieve and deny Our signs, they are the residents of the Hellfire.
O believers! Remember Allah’s favour upon you: when a people sought to harm you, but He held their hands back from you. Be mindful of Allah. And in Allah let the believers put their trust.
Allah made a covenant with the Children of Israel and appointed twelve leaders from among them and ˹then˺ said, “I am truly with you. If you establish prayer, pay alms-tax, believe in My messengers, support them, and lend to Allah a good loan, I will certainly forgive your sins and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow. And whoever among you disbelieves afterwards has truly strayed from the Right Way.”
But for breaking their covenant We condemned them and hardened their hearts. They distorted the words of the Scripture and neglected a portion of what they had been commanded to uphold. You ˹O Prophet˺ will always find deceit on their part, except for a few. But pardon them and bear with them. Indeed, Allah loves the good-doers.
And from those who say, “We are Christians,” We took their covenant, but they neglected a portion of what they had been commanded to uphold. So We let hostility and enmity arise between them until the Day of Judgment, and soon Allah will inform them of all they have done.
O People of the Book! Now Our Messenger has come to you, revealing much of what you have hidden of the Scriptures and disregarding much. There certainly has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book
through which Allah guides those who seek His pleasure to the ways of peace, brings them out of darkness and into light by His Will, and guides them to the Straight Path.
Indeed, those who say, “Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary,” have fallen into disbelief. Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Who has the power to prevent Allah if He chose to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, his mother, and everyone in the world all together?” To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything in between. He creates whatever He wills. And Allah is Most Capable of everything.
The Jews and the Christians each say, “We are the children of Allah and His most beloved!” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Why then does He punish you for your sins? No! You are only humans like others of His Own making. He forgives whoever He wills and punishes whoever He wills. To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything in between. And to Him is the final return.”
O People of the Book! Our Messenger has indeed come to you, making things clear to you after an interval between the messengers so you do not say, “There has never come to us a deliverer of good news or a warner.” Now there has come to you a deliverer of good news and a warner. And Allah is Most Capable of everything.
And ˹remember˺ when Moses said to his people, “O my people! Remember Allah’s favours upon you when He raised prophets from among you, made you sovereign,1 and gave you what He had never given anyone in the world.2
O my people! Enter the Holy Land which Allah has destined for you ˹to enter˺. And do not turn back or else you will become losers.”
They replied, “O Moses! There is an enormously powerful people there, so we will never ˹be able to˺ enter it until they leave. If they do, then we will enter!”
Two God-fearing men—who had been blessed by Allah—said, “Surprise them through the gate. If you do, you will certainly prevail. Put your trust in Allah if you are ˹truly˺ believers.”
˹Yet˺ they said, “O Moses! ˹Still˺ we will never enter as long as they remain there. So go—both you and your Lord—and fight; we are staying right here!”
Moses pleaded, “My Lord! I have no control over anyone except myself and my brother. So set us apart from the rebellious people.”
Allah replied, “Then this land is forbidden to them for forty years, during which they will wander through the land. So do not grieve for the rebellious people.”
Relate to them in truth ˹O Prophet˺ the story of Adam’s two sons—how each offered a sacrifice: Abel’s offering was accepted while Cain’s was not. So Cain threatened, “I will kill you!” His brother replied, “Allah only accepts ˹the offering˺ of the sincerely devout.
If you raise your hand to kill me, I will not raise mine to kill you, because I fear Allah—the Lord of all worlds.
I want to let you bear your sin against me along with your other sins, then you will be one of those destined to the Fire. And that is the reward of the wrongdoers.”
Yet Cain convinced himself to kill his brother, so he killed him—becoming a loser.
Then Allah sent a crow digging ˹a grave˺ in the ground ˹for a dead crow˺, in order to show him how to bury the corpse of his brother. He cried, “Alas! Have I ˹even˺ failed to be like this crow and bury the corpse of my brother?” So he became regretful.1
That is why We ordained for the Children of Israel that whoever takes a life—unless as a punishment for murder or mischief in the land—it will be as if they killed all of humanity; and whoever saves a life, it will be as if they saved all of humanity.1 ˹Although˺ Our messengers already came to them with clear proofs, many of them still transgressed afterwards through the land.
Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and spread mischief in the land is death, crucifixion, cutting off their hands and feet on opposite sides, or exile from the land. This ˹penalty˺ is a disgrace for them in this world, and they will suffer a tremendous punishment in the Hereafter.1
As for those who repent before you seize them, then know that Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
O believers! Be mindful of Allah and seek what brings you closer to Him and struggle in His Way, so you may be successful.
As for the disbelievers, even if they were to possess everything in the world twice over ˹and offer it all˺ to ransom themselves from the punishment of the Day of Judgment, it would never be accepted from them. And they will suffer a painful punishment.
They will be desperate to get out of the Fire but they will never be able to. And they will suffer an everlasting punishment.
As for male and female thieves, cut off their hands for what they have done—a deterrent from Allah. And Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.1
But whoever repents after their wrongdoing and mends their ways, Allah will surely turn to them in forgiveness. Indeed, Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Do you not know that the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah ˹alone˺? He punishes whoever He wills and forgives whoever He wills. And Allah is Most Capable of everything.
O Messenger! Do not grieve for those who race to disbelieve—those who say, “We believe” with their tongues, but their hearts are in disbelief. Nor those among the Jews who eagerly listen to lies, attentive to those who are too arrogant to come to you. They distort the Scripture, taking rulings out of context, then say, “If this is the ruling you get ˹from Muḥammad˺, accept it. If not, beware!” Whoever Allah allows to be deluded, you can never be of any help to them against Allah. It is not Allah’s Will to purify their hearts. For them is disgrace in this world, and they will suffer a tremendous punishment in the Hereafter.
They eagerly listen to falsehood and consume forbidden gain.1 So if they come to you ˹O Prophet˺, either judge between them or turn away from them. If you turn away from them, they cannot harm you whatsoever. But if you judge between them, then do so with justice. Surely Allah loves those who are just.
But why do they come to you for judgment when they ˹already˺ have the Torah containing Allah’s judgment, then they turn away after all? They are not ˹true˺ believers.
Indeed, We revealed the Torah, containing guidance and light, by which the prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah, made judgments for Jews. So too did the rabbis and scholars judge according to Allah’s Book, with which they were entrusted and of which they were made keepers. So do not fear the people; fear Me! Nor trade my revelations for a fleeting gain. And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are ˹truly˺ the disbelievers.
We ordained for them in the Torah, “A life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth—and for wounds equal retaliation.” But whoever waives it charitably, it will be atonement for them. And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are ˹truly˺ the wrongdoers.
Then in the footsteps of the prophets, We sent Jesus, son of Mary, confirming the Torah revealed before him. And We gave him the Gospel containing guidance and light and confirming what was revealed in the Torah—a guide and a lesson to the God-fearing.
So let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed in it. And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are ˹truly˺ the rebellious.
We have revealed to you ˹O Prophet˺ this Book with the truth, as a confirmation of previous Scriptures and a supreme authority on them. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires over the truth that has come to you. To each of you We have ordained a code of law and a way of life. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one community, but His Will is to test you with what He has given ˹each of˺ you. So compete with one another in doing good. To Allah you will all return, then He will inform you ˹of the truth˺ regarding your differences.
And judge between them ˹O Prophet˺ by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires. And beware, so they do not lure you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. If they turn away ˹from Allah’s judgment˺, then know that it is Allah’s Will to repay them for some of their sins, and that many people are indeed rebellious.
Is it the judgment of ˹pre-Islamic˺ ignorance they seek? Who could be a better judge than Allah for people of sure faith?
O believers! Take neither Jews nor Christians as guardians—they are guardians of each other.1 Whoever does so will be counted as one of them. Surely Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.
You see those with sickness in their hearts racing for their guardianship, saying ˹in justification˺, “We fear a turn of fortune will strike us.” But perhaps Allah will bring about ˹your˺ victory or another favour by His command, and they will regret what they have hidden in their hearts.
˹Only then,˺ the believers will ask ˹one another˺, “Are these the ones who swore solemn oaths by Allah that they were with you?” Their deeds have been in vain, so they have become losers.
O believers! Whoever among you abandons their faith, Allah will replace them with others who love Him and are loved by Him. They will be humble with the believers but firm towards the disbelievers, struggling in the Way of Allah; fearing no blame from anyone. This is the favour of Allah. He grants it to whoever He wills. And Allah is All-Bountiful, All-Knowing.
Your only guardians are Allah, His Messenger, and fellow believers—who establish prayer and pay alms-tax with humility.
Whoever allies themselves with Allah, His Messenger, and fellow believers, then it is certainly Allah’s party that will prevail.
O believers! Do not seek the guardianship of those given the Scripture before you and the disbelievers who have made your faith a mockery and amusement. And be mindful of Allah if you are ˹truly˺ believers.
When you call to prayer, they mock it in amusement. This is because they are a people without understanding.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “O People of the Book! Do you resent us only because we believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what was revealed before—while most of you are rebellious?”
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Shall I inform you of those who deserve a worse punishment from Allah ˹than the rebellious˺? It is those who earned Allah’s condemnation and displeasure—some being reduced to apes and pigs1 and worshippers of false gods. These are far worse in rank and farther astray from the Right Way.”
When they come to you ˹believers˺ they say, “We believe.” But they are committed to disbelief when they enter and when they leave. And Allah knows what they hide.
You see many of them racing towards sin, transgression, and consumption of forbidden gain. Evil indeed are their actions!
Why do their rabbis and scholars not forbid them from saying what is sinful and consuming what is unlawful? Evil indeed is their inaction!
˹Some among˺ the Jews said, “Allah is tight-fisted.”1 May their fists be tied and they be condemned for what they said. Rather, He is open-handed, giving freely as He pleases. That which has been revealed to you ˹O Prophet˺ from your Lord will only cause many of them to increase in wickedness and disbelief. We have stirred among them hostility and hatred until the Day of Judgment. Whenever they kindle the fire of war, Allah puts it out. And they strive to spread corruption in the land. And Allah does not like corruptors.
Had the People of the Book only been faithful and mindful ˹of Allah˺, We would have certainly absolved them of their sins and admitted them into the Gardens of Bliss.
And had they observed the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have been overwhelmed with provisions from above and below. Some among them are upright, yet many do nothing but evil.
O Messenger! Convey everything revealed to you from your Lord. If you do not, then you have not delivered His message. Allah will ˹certainly˺ protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the people who disbelieve.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “O People of the Book! You have nothing to stand on unless you observe the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” And your Lord’s revelation to you ˹O Prophet˺ will only cause many of them to increase in wickedness and disbelief. So do not grieve for the people who disbelieve.
Indeed, the believers, Jews, Sabians1 and Christians—whoever ˹truly˺ believes in Allah and the Last Day and does good, there will be no fear for them, nor will they grieve.
Indeed, We took a covenant from the Children of Israel and sent them messengers. Whenever a messenger came to them with what they did not desire, they denied some and killed others.
They thought there would be no consequences, so they turned a blind eye and a deaf ear. Yet Allah turned to them in forgiveness ˹after their repentance˺, but again many became blind and deaf. And Allah is All-Seeing of what they do.
Those who say, “Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary,” have certainly fallen into disbelief. The Messiah ˹himself˺ said, “O Children of Israel! Worship Allah—my Lord and your Lord.” Whoever associates others with Allah ˹in worship˺ will surely be forbidden Paradise by Allah. Their home will be the Fire. And the wrongdoers will have no helpers.
Those who say, “Allah is one in a Trinity,” have certainly fallen into disbelief. There is only One God. If they do not stop saying this, those who disbelieve among them will be afflicted with a painful punishment.
Will they not turn to Allah in repentance and seek His forgiveness? And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Messiah, son of Mary, was no more than a messenger. ˹Many˺ messengers had ˹come and˺ gone before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They both ate food.1 See how We make the signs clear to them, yet see how they are deluded ˹from the truth˺!
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “How can you worship besides Allah those who can neither harm nor benefit you? And Allah ˹alone˺ is the All-Hearing, All-Knowing.”
Say, “O People of the Book! Do not go to extremes in your faith beyond the truth, nor follow the vain desires of those who went astray before ˹you˺. They misled many and strayed from the Right Way.”
The disbelievers among the Children of Israel were condemned in the revelations of David and Jesus, son of Mary. That was for their disobedience and violations.
They did not forbid one another from doing evil. Evil indeed was what they did!
You see many of them taking the disbelievers1 as allies. Truly wicked are their misdeeds, which have earned them Allah’s wrath. And they will be in everlasting torment.
Had they believed in Allah, the Prophet, and what has been revealed to him, they would have never taken those ˹pagans˺ as allies. But most of them are rebellious.
You will surely find the most bitter towards the believers to be the Jews and polytheists and the most gracious to be those who call themselves Christian. That is because there are priests and monks among them and because they are not arrogant.
When they listen to what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears for recognizing the truth. They say, “Our Lord! We believe, so count us among the witnesses.
Why should we not believe in Allah and the truth that has come to us? And we long for our Lord to include us in the company of the righteous.”
So Allah will reward them for what they said with Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there forever. And that is the reward of the good-doers.
As for those who disbelieve and reject Our signs, they will be the residents of the Hellfire.
O believers! Do not forbid the good things which Allah has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.
Eat of the good, lawful things provided to you by Allah. And be mindful of Allah in Whom you believe.
Allah will not call you to account for your thoughtless oaths, but He will hold you accountable for deliberate oaths. The penalty for a broken oath is to feed ten poor people from what you normally feed your own family, or to clothe them, or to free a bondsperson. But if none of this is affordable, then you must fast three days. This is the penalty for breaking your oaths. So be mindful of your oaths. This is how Allah makes things clear to you, so perhaps you will be grateful.
O believers! Intoxicants, gambling, idols, and drawing lots for decisions1 are all evil of Satan’s handiwork. So shun them so you may be successful.
Satan’s plan is to stir up hostility and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling and to prevent you from remembering Allah and praying. Will you not then abstain?
Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and beware! But if you turn away, then know that Our Messenger’s duty is only to deliver ˹the message˺ clearly.
There is no blame on those who believe and do good for what they had consumed before ˹the prohibition˺, as long as they fear Allah, have faith, and do what is good; then they believe and act virtuously, then become fully mindful ˹of Allah˺ and do righteous deeds. For Allah loves the good-doers.
O believers! Allah will surely test you with game within the reach of your hands and spears to distinguish those who fear Him in secret. Whoever transgresses from now on will suffer a painful punishment.
O believers! Do not kill game while on pilgrimage. Whoever kills game intentionally must compensate by offering its equivalence—as judged by two just men among you—to be offered at the Sacred House, or by feeding the needy, or by fasting so that they may taste the consequences of their violations. Allah has forgiven what has been done. But those who persist will be punished by Allah. And Allah is Almighty, capable of punishment.
It is lawful for you to hunt and eat seafood, as a provision for you and for travellers. But hunting on land is forbidden to you while on pilgrimage. Be mindful of Allah to Whom you all will be gathered.
Allah has made the Ka’bah—the Sacred House—a sanctuary of well-being for all people, along with the sacred months, the sacrificial animals, and the ˹offerings decorated with˺ garlands. All this so you may know that Allah knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, and that He has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of everything.
Know that Allah is severe in punishment and that He is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Messenger’s duty is only to deliver ˹the message˺. And Allah ˹fully˺ knows what you reveal and what you conceal.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Good and evil are not equal, though you may be dazzled by the abundance of evil. So be mindful of Allah, O people of reason, so you may be successful.”
O believers! Do not ask about any matter which, if made clear to you, may disturb you. But if you inquire about what is being revealed in the Quran, it will be made clear to you. Allah has forgiven what was done ˹in the past˺.1 And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.
Some people before you asked such questions then denied their answers.
Allah has never ordained the ˹so-called˺ baḥîrah, sâ'ibah, waṣîlah, and ḥâm camels.1 But the disbelievers2 just fabricate lies about Allah, and most of them lack understanding.
When it is said to them, “Come to Allah’s revelations and to the Messenger,” they reply, “What we found our forefathers practicing is good enough for us.” ˹Would they still do so,˺ even if their forefathers had absolutely no knowledge or guidance?
O believers! You are accountable only for yourselves.1 It will not harm you if someone chooses to deviate—as long as you are ˹rightly˺ guided. To Allah you will all return, and He will inform you of what you used to do.
O believers! When death approaches any of you, call upon two just Muslim men to witness as you make a bequest; otherwise, two non-Muslims if you are afflicted with death while on a journey.1 If you doubt ˹their testimony˺, keep them after prayer and let them testify under oath ˹saying˺, “By Allah! We would never sell our testimony for any price, even in favour of a close relative, nor withhold the testimony of Allah. Otherwise, we would surely be sinful.”
If they are found guilty ˹of false testimony˺, let the deceased’s two closest heirs affected by the bequest replace the witnesses and testify under oath ˹saying˺, “By Allah! Our testimony is truer than theirs. We have not transgressed. Otherwise, we would surely be wrongdoers.”
In this way it is more likely that witnesses will give true testimony or else fear that their oaths could be refuted by those of the heirs. Be mindful of Allah and obey. For Allah does not guide the rebellious people.
˹Consider˺ the Day Allah will gather the messengers and say, “What response did you receive?” They will reply, “We have no knowledge ˹compared to You˺! You ˹alone˺ are indeed the Knower of all unseen.”
And ˹on Judgment Day˺ Allah will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favour upon you and your mother: how I supported you with the holy spirit1 so you spoke to people in ˹your˺ infancy and adulthood. How I taught you writing, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel. How you moulded a bird from clay—by My Will—and breathed into it and it became a ˹real˺ bird—by My Will. How you healed the blind and the lepers—by My Will. How you brought the dead to life—by My Will. How I prevented the Children of Israel from harming you when you came to them with clear proofs and the disbelievers among them said, “This is nothing but pure magic.”
And how I inspired the disciples, “Believe in Me and My messenger!” They declared, “We believe and bear witness that we fully submit ˹to Allah˺.”1
˹Remember˺ when the disciples asked, “O Jesus, son of Mary! Will your Lord be willing to send down to us a table spread with food from heaven?” Jesus answered, “Fear Allah if you are ˹truly˺ believers.”
They said, “We ˹only˺ wish to eat from it to reassure our hearts, to verify you are indeed truthful to us, and to become its witnesses.”
Jesus, son of Mary, prayed, “O Allah, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread with food as a feast for us—the first and last of us—and as a sign from You. Provide for us! You are indeed the Best Provider.”
Allah answered, “I am sending it down to you. But whoever among you denies afterwards will be subjected to a torment I have never inflicted on anyone of My creation.”
And ˹on Judgment Day˺ Allah will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you ever ask the people to worship you and your mother as gods besides Allah?” He will answer, “Glory be to You! How could I ever say what I had no right to say? If I had said such a thing, you would have certainly known it. You know what is ˹hidden˺ within me, but I do not know what is within You. Indeed, You ˹alone˺ are the Knower of all unseen.
I never told them anything except what You ordered me to say: “Worship Allah—my Lord and your Lord!” And I was witness over them as long as I remained among them. But when You took me,1 You were the Witness over them—and You are a Witness over all things.
If You punish them, they belong to You after all.1 But if You forgive them, You are surely the Almighty, All-Wise.”
Allah will declare, “This is the Day when ˹only˺ the faithful will benefit from their faithfulness. Theirs are Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever. Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. That is the ultimate triumph.”
To Allah ˹alone˺ belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything within. And He is Most Capable of everything.
To make a decision in pre-Islamic Arabia, a person would draw one of three straws: one saying “Do it,” the other “Do not do it,” and the third was left blank, whereas in Islam there is a special prayer (called istikhârah) for guidance when making a decision.
“The food of the People of the Book” here means the meat of the animals slaughtered by the Jews and Christians.
For example, following sexual intercourse or a wet dream.
This ruling is called tayammum or ‘dry ablution.’ See footnote for 4:43.
He rescued you from Egypt where the Pharaoh treated you like slaves and blessed you with freedom so you can manage your own affairs.
i.e., the miracles of splitting the sea, water coming out of the rock, manna and quails, and clouds shading them.
In Islam, regret for doing something wrong is essential for repentance. But in the case of Cain, his regret was not for killing his brother, but for failing to bury his corpse to hide the evidence of his crime. Therefore, his regret was not intended as a step towards repentance.
Although this is addressed to the Children of Israel, it is applicable to everyone at all times.
This ruling (called ḥirâbah) applies to crimes committed by armed individuals or groups against civilians—Muslim or non-Muslim. Different punishments apply depending on the severity of the crime: In the case of murder or rape, offenders are to be executed. In the case of armed robbery, offenders’ right hands and left feet are to be cut off. In the case of terrorizing innocent people, offenders are to be jailed in exile. Penalties for lesser offences are left for the judge to decide.
In Islam, strict conditions must be met for punishments to be carried out. For example, for someone to be punished for theft, the thief must be a sane adult who knows that theft is forbidden, the crime has to be proven either by confession or the testimony of two reliable eyewitnesses, the stolen item has to be of value and taken secretly from a safe place, and the owner has to claim it. Otherwise, the punishment is not applied. Islamic punishments apply neither in non-Muslim countries nor in Muslim countries where Sharî’ah is not fully applied. Moreover, the punishment is only applicable in a society where the needs of the poor are adequately met (i.e., they receive alms-tax, charity, or welfare) and where theft is more out of desire than necessity. It is worth mentioning that ’Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭâb, Islam’s 2 nd Caliph, suspended this punishment for one year due to widespread famine.
i.e., bribes and interest.
Wali means guardian, caretaker, protector, provider, ally, etc. The Prophet (ﷺ) for example says, “A woman should not get married without a wali.”—that is a guardian such as her father to represent her in the marriage and make sure she receives her full rights. The verse forbids Muslims from allying with the Jews and Christians (or anyone else) conspiring to persecute Muslims. On the other hand, as long as non-Muslims are not at war with Muslims or persecuting them, the Quran (60:8) commands Muslims to be kind and gracious to them.
Literally or metaphorically. See footnote for 2:65.
lit., Allah’s Hand is tied up ˹with greed˺.
See footnote for 2:62.
i.e., they were in need of food for nourishment. According to some scholars, this implies that Jesus and his mother had to relieve themselves after the food had been digested. Almighty Allah is far above depending on food or having to go to the restroom.
i.e., the pagans.
See footnote for 5:3.
This implies that either these minor details have been overlooked by Allah out of His mercy or that Allah has forgiven them for these unnecessary questions.
These camels were allowed by pagan Arabs to pasture freely and were not to be used for labour or transportation after fathering or giving birth to a certain number of male or female camels.
i.e., the pagans.
After fulfilling their obligation of delivering the truth, enjoining what is good, and forbidding what is evil.
If no Muslim witnesses can be found.
i.e., the angel Gabriel.
This refers to the ascension of Jesus Christ. See footnote for 3:54.
i.e., as your creation, they cannot escape the punishment.