All praise is for Allah Who created the heavens and the earth and made darkness and light.1 Yet the disbelievers set up equals to their Lord ˹in worship˺.
He is the One Who created you from clay,1 then appointed a term ˹for your death˺ and another known only to Him ˹for your resurrection˺—yet you continue to doubt!
He is the Only True God in the heavens and the earth. He knows whatever you conceal and whatever you reveal, and knows whatever you do.
Whenever a sign comes to them from their Lord, they turn away from it.
They have indeed rejected the truth when it came to them, so they will soon face the consequences of their ridicule.
Have they not seen how many ˹disbelieving˺ peoples We destroyed before them? We had made them more established in the land than you. We sent down abundant rain for them and made rivers flow at their feet. Then We destroyed them for their sins and replaced them with other peoples.
Had We sent down to you ˹O Prophet˺ a revelation in writing and they were to touch it with their own hands, the disbelievers would still have said, “This is nothing but pure magic!”
They say, “Why has no ˹visible˺ angel come with him?” Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have certainly been settled ˹at once˺,1 and they would have never been given more time ˹to repent˺.
And if We had sent an angel, We would have certainly made it ˹assume the form of˺ a man—leaving them more confused than they already are.
˹Other˺ messengers had already been ridiculed before you ˹O Prophet˺, but those who mocked them were overtaken by what they used to ridicule.
Say, “Travel throughout the land and see the fate of the deniers.”
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “To whom belongs everything in the heavens and the earth?” Say, “To Allah!” He has taken upon Himself to be Merciful. He will certainly gather ˹all of˺ you together for the Day of Judgment—about which there is no doubt. But those who have ruined themselves will never believe.
To Him belongs whatever exists in the day and night. And He is the All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Will I take any guardian other than Allah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth, Who provides for all and is not in need of provision?” Say, “I have been commanded to be the first to submit and not be one of the polytheists.”
Say, “I truly fear—if I were to disobey my Lord—the torment of a tremendous Day.”
Whoever is spared the torment of that Day will have certainly been shown Allah’s mercy. And that is the absolute triumph.
If Allah touches you with harm, none can undo it except Him. And if He touches you with a blessing, He is Most Capable of everything.
He reigns supreme over His creation. And He is the All-Wise, All-Aware.
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Who is the best witness?” Say, “Allah is! He is a Witness between me and you. And this Quran has been revealed to me so that, with it, I may warn you and whoever it reaches. Do you ˹pagans˺ testify that there are other gods besides Allah?” ˹Then˺ say, “I will never testify ˹to this˺!” ˹And˺ say, “There is only One God. And I totally reject whatever ˹idols˺ you associate with Him.”
Those to whom We gave the Scripture recognize him ˹to be a true prophet˺ as they recognize their own children. Those who have ruined themselves will never believe.
Who does more wrong than those who fabricate lies against Allah or deny His signs? Indeed, the wrongdoers will never succeed.
˹Consider˺ the Day We will gather them all together then ask those who associated others ˹with Allah in worship˺, “Where are those gods you used to claim?”
Their only argument will be: “By Allah, our Lord! We were never polytheists.”
See how they will lie about themselves and how those ˹gods˺ they fabricated will fail them!
There are some of them who ˹pretend to˺ listen to your recitation ˹of the Quran˺, but We have cast veils over their hearts—leaving them unable to comprehend it—and deafness in their ears. Even if they were to see every sign, they still would not believe in them. The disbelievers would ˹even˺ come to argue with you, saying, “This ˹Quran˺ is nothing but ancient fables!”
They turn others away from the Prophet and distance themselves as well. They ruin none but themselves, yet they fail to perceive it.
If only you could see when they will be detained before the Fire! They will cry, “Oh! If only we could be sent back, we would never deny the signs of our Lord and we would ˹surely˺ be of the believers.”
But no! ˹They only say this˺ because the truth they used to hide will become all too clear to them. Even if they were to be sent back, they would certainly revert to what they were forbidden. Indeed they are liars!
They insisted, “There is nothing beyond this worldly life and we will never be resurrected.”
But if only you could see when they will be detained before their Lord! He will ask ˹them˺, “Is this ˹Hereafter˺ not the truth?” They will cry, “Absolutely, by our Lord!” He will say, “Then taste the punishment for your disbelief.”
Losers indeed are those who deny the meeting with Allah until the Hour takes them by surprise, then they will cry, “Woe to us for having ignored this!” They will bear ˹the burden of˺ their sins on their backs. Evil indeed is their burden!
This worldly life is no more than play and amusement, but far better is the ˹eternal˺ Home of the Hereafter for those mindful ˹of Allah˺. Will you not then understand?
We certainly know that what they say grieves you ˹O Prophet˺. It is not your honesty they question—it is Allah’s signs that the wrongdoers deny.
Indeed, messengers before you were rejected but patiently endured rejection and persecution until Our help came to them. And Allah’s promise ˹to help˺ is never broken. And you have already received some of the narratives of these messengers.
If you find their denial unbearable, then build—if you can—a tunnel through the earth or stairs to the sky to bring them a ˹more compelling˺ sign. Had Allah so willed, He could have guided them all. So do not be one of those ignorant ˹of this fact˺.
Only the attentive will respond ˹to your call˺. As for the dead, Allah will raise them up, then to Him they will ˹all˺ be returned.
They ask, “Why has no ˹other˺ sign been sent down to him from his Lord?” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Allah certainly has the power to send down a sign”—though most of them do not know.
All living beings roaming the earth and winged birds soaring in the sky are communities like yourselves.1 We have left nothing out of the Record.2 Then to their Lord they will be gathered all together.
Those who deny Our signs are ˹wilfully˺ deaf and dumb—lost in darkness. Allah leaves whoever He wills to stray and guides whoever He wills to the Straight Way.
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Imagine if you were overwhelmed by Allah’s torment or the Hour—would you call upon any other than Allah ˹for help˺? ˹Answer me˺ if your claims are true!
No! He is the only One you would call. And if He willed, He could remove the affliction that made you invoke Him. Only then will you forget whatever you associate with Him ˹in worship˺.”
Indeed, We have sent messengers before you ˹O Prophet˺ to other people who We put through suffering and adversity ˹for their denial˺, so perhaps they would be humbled.
Why did they not humble themselves when We made them suffer? Instead, their hearts were hardened, and Satan made their misdeeds appealing to them.
When they became oblivious to warnings, We showered them with everything they desired. But just as they became prideful of what they were given, We seized them by surprise, then they instantly fell into despair!
So the wrongdoers were utterly uprooted. And all praise is for Allah—Lord of all worlds.
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Imagine if Allah were to take away your hearing or sight, or seal your hearts—who else other than Allah could restore it?” See ˹O Prophet˺ how We vary the signs, yet they still turn away.
Ask, “Imagine if Allah’s punishment were to overwhelm you with or without warning—who would be destroyed other than the wrongdoers?”
We have sent messengers only as deliverers of good news and as warners. Whoever believes and does good, there will be no fear for them, nor will they grieve.
But those who deny Our signs will be afflicted with punishment for their rebelliousness.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “I do not say to you that I possess Allah’s treasuries or know the unseen, nor do I claim to be an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” Say, “Are those blind ˹to the truth˺ equal to those who can see? Will you not then reflect?”
Warn with this ˹Quran˺ those who are awed by the prospect of being gathered before their Lord—when they will have no protector or intercessor besides Him—so perhaps they will be mindful ˹of Him˺.
˹O Prophet!˺ Do not dismiss those ˹poor believers˺ who invoke their Lord morning and evening, seeking His pleasure.1 You are not accountable for them whatsoever, nor are they accountable for you. So do not dismiss them, or you will be one of the wrongdoers.
In this way We have tested some by means of others, so those ˹disbelievers˺ may say, “Has Allah favoured these ˹poor believers˺ out of all of us?” Does Allah not best recognize the grateful?
When the believers in Our revelations come to you, say, “Peace be upon you! Your Lord has taken upon Himself to be Merciful. Whoever among you commits evil ignorantly ˹or recklessly˺ then repents afterwards and mends their ways, then Allah is truly All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
This is how We make Our signs clear, so the way of the wicked may become distinct.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “I have been forbidden to worship those you invoke besides Allah.” Say, “I will not follow your desires, for I then would certainly be astray and not one of those ˹rightly˺ guided.”
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Indeed, I stand on a clear proof from my Lord—yet you have denied it. That ˹torment˺ you seek to hasten is not within my power. It is only Allah Who decides ˹its time˺. He declares the truth. And He is the Best of Judges.”
Say ˹also˺, “If what you seek to hasten were within my power, the matter between us would have already been settled. But Allah knows the wrongdoers best.”
With Him are the keys of the unseen—no one knows them except Him.1 And He knows what is in the land and sea. Not even a leaf falls without His knowledge, nor a grain in the darkness of the earth or anything—green or dry—but is ˹written˺ in a perfect Record.2
He is the One Who calls back your souls by night and knows what you do by day, then revives you daily to complete your appointed term. To Him is your ˹ultimate˺ return, then He will inform you of what you used to do.
He reigns supreme over all of His creation, and sends recording-angels, watching over you. When death comes to any of you, Our angels take their soul, never neglecting this duty.
Then they are ˹all˺ returned to Allah—their True Master. Judgment is His ˹alone˺. And He is the Swiftest Reckoner.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Who rescues you from the darkest times on land and at sea? He ˹alone˺ you call upon with humility, openly and secretly: “If You rescue us from this, we will be ever grateful.”
Say, “˹Only˺ Allah rescues you from this and any other distress, yet you associate others with Him ˹in worship˺.”
Say, “He ˹alone˺ has the power to unleash upon you a torment from above or below you or split you into ˹conflicting˺ factions and make you taste the violence of one another.” See how We vary the signs, so perhaps they will comprehend.
Still your people ˹O Prophet˺ have rejected this ˹Quran˺, although it is the truth. Say, “I am not a keeper over you.”
Every ˹destined˺ matter has a ˹set˺ time to transpire. And you will soon come to know.
And when you come across those who ridicule Our revelations, do not sit with them unless they engage in a different topic. Should Satan make you forget, then once you remember, do not ˹continue to˺ sit with the wrongdoing people.
Those mindful ˹of Allah˺ will not be accountable for those ˹who ridicule it˺ whatsoever—their duty is to advise, so perhaps the ridiculers will abstain.
And leave those who take this1 faith ˹of Islam˺ as mere play and amusement and are deluded by ˹their˺ worldly life. Yet remind them by this ˹Quran˺, so no one should be ruined for their misdeeds. They will have no protector or intercessor other than Allah. Even if they were to offer every ˹possible˺ ransom, none will be accepted from them. Those are the ones who will be ruined for their misdeeds. They will have a boiling drink and painful punishment for their disbelief.
Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Should we invoke, other than Allah, those ˹idols˺ which cannot benefit or harm us, and turn back to disbelief after Allah has guided us? ˹If we do so, we will be˺ like those disoriented by devils in the wilderness, while their companions call them to guidance, ˹saying˺, ‘Come to us!’ Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Allah’s guidance is the ˹only˺ true guidance. And we are commanded to submit to the Lord of all worlds,
establish prayer, and be mindful of Him. To Him you will all be gathered together.
He is the One Who created the heavens and the earth in truth. On the Day ˹of Judgment˺ He will say, ‘Be!’ And there will be! His command is truth. All authority is His ˹alone˺1 on the Day the Trumpet will be blown.2 He is the Knower of all—seen or unseen. And He is the All-Wise, All-Aware.”
And ˹remember˺ when Abraham said to his father, Ȃzar, “Do you take idols as gods? It is clear to me that you and your people are entirely misguided.”
We also showed Abraham the wonders of the heavens and the earth, so he would be sure in faith.
When the night grew dark upon him, he saw a star and said, “This is my Lord!” But when it set, he said, “I do not love things that set.”
Then when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This one is my Lord!” But when it disappeared, he said, “If my Lord does not guide me, I will certainly be one of the misguided people.”
Then when he saw the sun shining, he said, “This must be my Lord—it is the greatest!” But again when it set, he declared, “O my people! I totally reject whatever you associate ˹with Allah in worship˺.
I have turned my face towards the One Who has originated the heavens and the earth—being upright—and I am not one of the polytheists.”
And his people argued with him. He responded, “Are you arguing with me about Allah, while He has guided me? I am not afraid of whatever ˹idols˺ you associate with Him—˹none can harm me,˺ unless my Lord so wills. My Lord encompasses everything in ˹His˺ knowledge. Will you not be mindful?
And how should I fear your associate-gods, while you have no fear in associating ˹others˺ with Allah—a practice He has never authorized? Which side has more right to security? ˹Tell me˺ if you really know!”
It is ˹only˺ those who are faithful and do not tarnish their faith with falsehood1 who are guaranteed security and are ˹rightly˺ guided.
This was the argument We gave Abraham against his people. We elevate in rank whoever We please. Surely your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.
And We blessed him with Isaac and Jacob. We guided them all as We previously guided Noah and those among his descendants: David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron. This is how We reward the good-doers.
Likewise, ˹We guided˺ Zachariah, John, Jesus, and Elias, who were all of the righteous.
˹We also guided˺ Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah, and Lot, favouring each over other people ˹of their time˺.
And ˹We favoured˺ some of their forefathers, their descendants, and their brothers. We chose them and guided them to the Straight Path.
This is Allah’s guidance with which He guides whoever He wills of His servants. Had they associated others with Him ˹in worship˺, their ˹good˺ deeds would have been wasted.
Those were the ones to whom We gave the Scripture, wisdom, and prophethood. But if these ˹pagans˺ disbelieve in this ˹message˺, then We have already entrusted it to a people who will never disbelieve in it.1
These ˹prophets˺ were ˹rightly˺ guided by Allah, so follow their guidance. Say, “I ask no reward of you for this ˹Quran˺—it is a reminder to the whole world.”
And they1 have not shown Allah His proper reverence when they said, “Allah has revealed nothing to any human being.” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Who then revealed the Book brought forth by Moses as a light and guidance for people, which you split into separate sheets—revealing some and hiding much? You have been taught ˹through this Quran˺ what neither you nor your forefathers knew.” Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Allah ˹revealed it˺!” Then leave them to amuse themselves with falsehood.
This is a blessed Book which We have revealed—confirming what came before it—so you may warn the Mother of Cities1 and everyone around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter ˹truly˺ believe in it and guard their prayers.
Who does more wrong than the one who fabricates lies against Allah or claims, “I have received revelations!”—although nothing was revealed to them—or the one who says, “I can reveal the like of Allah’s revelations!”? If you ˹O Prophet˺ could only see the wrongdoers in the throes of death while the angels are stretching out their hands ˹saying˺, “Give up your souls! Today you will be rewarded with the torment of disgrace for telling lies about Allah and for being arrogant towards His revelations!”
˹Today˺ you have come back to Us all alone as We created you the first time—leaving behind everything We have provided you with. We do not see your intercessors with you—those you claimed were Allah’s partners ˹in worship˺. All your ties have been broken and all your claims have let you down.”
Indeed, Allah is the One Who causes seeds and fruit stones to sprout. He brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living. That is Allah! How can you then be deluded ˹from the truth˺?
He causes the dawn to break, and has made the night for rest and ˹made˺ the sun and the moon ˹to travel˺ with precision. That is the design of the Almighty, All-Knowing.
And He is the One Who has made the stars as your guide through the darkness of land and sea. We have already made the signs clear for people who know.
And He is the One Who originated you all from a single soul,1 then assigned you a place to live and another to ˹be laid to˺ rest. We have already made the signs clear for people who comprehend.
And He is the One Who sends down rain from the sky—causing all kinds of plants to grow—producing green stalks from which We bring forth clustered grain. And from palm trees come clusters of dates hanging within reach. ˹There are˺ also gardens of grapevines, olives, and pomegranates, similar ˹in shape˺ but dissimilar ˹in taste˺. Look at their fruit as it yields and ripens! Indeed, in these are signs for people who believe.
Yet they associate the jinn1 with Allah ˹in worship˺, even though He created them, and they falsely attribute to Him sons2 and daughters3 out of ignorance. Glorified and Exalted is He above what they claim!
˹He is˺ the Originator of the heavens and earth. How could He have children when He has no mate? He created all things and has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of everything.
That is Allah—your Lord! There is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him. ˹He is˺ the Creator of all things, so worship Him ˹alone˺. And He is the Maintainer of everything.
No vision can encompass Him, but He encompasses all vision. For He is the Most Subtle, All-Aware.1
Indeed, there have come to you insights from your Lord. So whoever chooses to see, it is for their own good. But whoever chooses to be blind, it is to their own loss. And I am not a keeper over you.
And so We vary our signs to the extent that they will say, “You have studied ˹previous scriptures˺,”1 and We make this ˹Quran˺ clear for people who know.
˹O Prophet!˺ Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord—there is no god ˹worthy of worship˺ except Him—and turn away from the polytheists.
Had Allah willed, they would not have been polytheists. We have not appointed you as their keeper, nor are you their maintainer.
˹O believers!˺ Do not insult what they invoke besides Allah or they will insult Allah spitefully out of ignorance. This is how We have made each people’s deeds appealing to them. Then to their Lord is their return, and He will inform them of what they used to do.
They swear by Allah their most solemn oaths that if a sign were to come to them, they would certainly believe in it. Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Signs are only with Allah.” What will make you ˹believers˺ realize that even if a sign were to come to them, they still would not believe?
We turn their hearts and eyes away ˹from the truth˺ as they refused to believe at first, leaving them to wander blindly in their defiance.
Even if We had sent them the angels, made the dead speak to them, and assembled before their own eyes every sign ˹they demanded˺, they still would not have believed—unless Allah so willed. But most of them are ignorant ˹of this˺.
And so We have made for every prophet enemies—devilish humans and jinn—whispering to one another with elegant words of deception. Had it been your Lord’s Will, they would not have done such a thing. So leave them and their deceit,
so that the hearts of those who disbelieve in the Hereafter may be receptive to it, be pleased with it, and be persistent in their evil pursuits.
˹Say, O Prophet,˺ “Should I seek a judge other than Allah while He is the One Who has revealed for you the Book ˹with the truth˺ perfectly explained?” Those who were given the Scripture know that it has been revealed ˹to you˺ from your Lord in truth. So do not be one of those who doubt.
The Word of your Lord has been perfected in truth and justice. None can change His Words. And He is the All-Hearing, All- Knowing.
˹O Prophet!˺ If you were to obey most of those on earth, they would lead you away from Allah’s Way. They follow nothing but assumptions and do nothing but lie.
Indeed, your Lord knows best who has strayed from His Way and who is ˹rightly˺ guided.
So eat only of what is slaughtered in Allah’s Name if you truly believe in His revelations.
Why should you not eat of what is slaughtered in Allah’s Name when He has already explained to you what He has forbidden to you—except when compelled by necessity? Many ˹deviants˺ certainly mislead others by their whims out of ignorance. Surely your Lord knows the transgressors best.
Shun all sin—open and secret. Indeed, those who commit sin will be punished for what they earn.
Do not eat of what is not slaughtered in Allah’s Name. For that would certainly be ˹an act of˺ disobedience. Surely the devils whisper to their ˹human˺ associates to argue with you.1 If you were to obey them, then you ˹too˺ would be polytheists.
Can those who had been dead, to whom We gave life and a light with which they can walk among people, be compared to those in complete darkness from which they can never emerge?1 That is how the misdeeds of the disbelievers have been made appealing to them.
And so We have placed in every society the most wicked to conspire in it. Yet they plot only against themselves, but they fail to perceive it.
Whenever a sign comes to them, they say, “We will never believe until we receive what Allah’s messengers received.” Allah knows best where to place His message. The wicked will soon be overwhelmed by humiliation from Allah and a severe punishment for their evil plots.
Whoever Allah wills to guide, He opens their heart to Islam.1 But whoever He wills to leave astray, He makes their chest tight and constricted as if they were climbing up into the sky. This is how Allah dooms those who disbelieve.
That is your Lord’s Path—perfectly straight. We have already made the signs clear to those who are mindful.
They will have the Home of Peace with their Lord, Who will be their Guardian because of what they used to do.
˹Consider˺ the Day He will gather them ˹all˺ together and say, “O assembly of jinn! You misled humans in great numbers.” And their human associates will say, “Our Lord! We benefited from each other’s company,1 but now we have reached the term which You appointed for us.” ˹Then˺ He will say, “The Fire is your home, yours to stay in forever, except whoever Allah wills to spare.”2 Surely your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.
This is how We make the wrongdoers ˹destructive˺ allies of one another because of their misdeeds.
˹Allah will ask,˺ “O assembly of jinn and humans! Did messengers not come from among you, proclaiming My revelations and warning you of the coming of this Day of yours?” They will say, “We confess against ourselves!” For they have been deluded by ˹their˺ worldly life. And they will testify against themselves that they were disbelievers.
This ˹sending of the messengers˺ is because your Lord would never destroy a society for their wrongdoing while its people are unaware ˹of the truth˺.
They will each be assigned ranks according to their deeds. And your Lord is not unaware of what they do.
Your Lord is the Self-Sufficient, Full of Mercy. If He wills, He can do away with you and replace you with whoever He wills, just as He produced you from the offspring of other people.
Indeed, what you have been promised will certainly come to pass. And you will have no escape.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “O my people! Persist in your ways, for I ˹too˺ will persist in mine. You will soon know who will fare best in the end. Indeed, the wrongdoers will never succeed.”
The pagans set aside for Allah a share of the crops and cattle He created, saying, “This ˹portion˺ is for Allah,” so they claim, “and this ˹one˺ for our associate-gods.” Yet the portion of their associate-gods is not shared with Allah while Allah’s portion is shared with their associate-gods. What unfair judgment!
Likewise, the pagans’ evil associates have made it appealing to them to kill their own children—only leading to their destruction as well as confusion in their faith. Had it been Allah’s Will, they would not have done such a thing. So leave them and their falsehood.
They say, “These cattle and crops are reserved—none may eat them except those we permit,” so they claim. Some other cattle are exempted from labour and others are not slaughtered in Allah’s Name—falsely attributing lies to Him. He will repay them for their lies.
They ˹also˺ say, “The offspring of this cattle is reserved for our males and forbidden to our females; but if it is stillborn, they may all share it.” He will repay them for their falsehood. Surely He is All-Wise, All-Knowing.
Lost indeed are those who have murdered their own children foolishly out of ignorance and have forbidden what Allah has provided for them—falsely attributing lies to Allah. They have certainly strayed and are not ˹rightly˺ guided.
He is the One Who produces gardens—both cultivated and wild1—and palm trees, crops of different flavours, olives, and pomegranates—similar ˹in shape˺, but dissimilar ˹in taste˺. Eat of the fruit they bear and pay the dues at harvest, but do not waste. Surely He does not like the wasteful.
Some cattle are fit for labour, others are too small.1 Eat of what Allah has provided for you and do not follow Satan’s footsteps. Certainly, he is your sworn enemy.
˹Allah has created˺ four pairs: a pair of sheep and a pair of goats—ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Has He forbidden ˹to you˺ the two males or the two females or what is in the wombs of the two females? Tell me with knowledge, if what you say is true.”—
and a pair of camels and a pair of oxen. Ask ˹them˺, “Has He forbidden ˹to you˺ the two males or the two females or what is in the wombs of the two females? Or were you present when Allah gave you this commandment?” Who does more wrong than those who fabricate lies against Allah to mislead others without ˹any˺ knowledge? Surely Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “I do not find in what has been revealed to me anything forbidden to eat except carrion, running blood, swine—which is impure—or a sinful offering in the name of any other than Allah. But if someone is compelled by necessity—neither driven by desire nor exceeding immediate need—then surely your Lord is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
For those who are Jewish, We forbade every animal with undivided hoofs and the fat of oxen and sheep except what is joined to their backs or intestines or mixed with bone. In this way We rewarded them for their violations. And We are certainly truthful.
But if they deny you ˹O Prophet˺, say, “Your Lord is infinite in mercy, yet His punishment will not be averted from the wicked people.”
The polytheists will argue, “Had it been Allah’s Will, neither we nor our forefathers would have associated others with Him ˹in worship˺ or made anything unlawful.” Likewise, those before them rejected the truth until they tasted Our punishment. Ask ˹them, O Prophet˺, “Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us? Surely you follow nothing but ˹false˺ assumptions and you do nothing but lie.”
Say, “Allah has the most conclusive argument. Had it been His Will, He would have easily imposed guidance upon all of you.”
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Bring your witnesses who can testify that Allah has forbidden this.” If they ˹falsely˺ testify, do not testify with them. And do not follow the desires of those who deny Our proofs, disbelieve in the Hereafter, and set up equals with their Lord.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Come! Let me recite to you what your Lord has forbidden to you: do not associate others with Him ˹in worship˺. ˹Do not fail to˺ honour your parents. Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We provide for you and for them. Do not come near indecencies, openly or secretly. Do not take a ˹human˺ life—made sacred by Allah—except with ˹legal˺ right.1 This is what He has commanded you, so perhaps you will understand.
And do not come near the wealth of the orphan—unless intending to enhance it—until they attain maturity. Give full measure and weigh with justice. We never require of any soul more than what it can afford. Whenever you speak,1 maintain justice—even regarding a close relative. And fulfil your covenant with Allah. This is what He has commanded you, so perhaps you will be mindful.
Indeed, that is My Path—perfectly straight. So follow it and do not follow other ways, for they will lead you away from His Way. This is what He has commanded you, so perhaps you will be conscious ˹of Allah˺.”
Additionally, We gave Moses the Scripture, completing the favour upon those who do good, detailing everything, and as a guide and a mercy, so perhaps they would be certain of the meeting with their Lord.
This is a blessed Book We have revealed. So follow it and be mindful ˹of Allah˺, so you may be shown mercy.
You ˹pagans˺ can no longer say, “Scriptures were only revealed to two groups before us and we were unaware of their teachings.”
Nor can you say, “If only the Scriptures had been revealed to us, we would have been better guided than they.” Now there has come to you from your Lord a clear proof1—a guide and mercy. Who then does more wrong than those who deny Allah’s revelations and turn away from them? We will reward those who turn away from Our revelations with a dreadful punishment for turning away.
Are they awaiting the coming of the angels, or your Lord ˹Himself˺, or some of your Lord’s ˹major˺ signs? On the Day your Lord’s signs arrive, belief will not benefit those who did not believe earlier or those who did no good through their faith.1 Say, “Keep waiting! We too are waiting.”
Indeed, you ˹O Prophet˺ are not responsible whatsoever for those who have divided their faith and split into sects. Their judgment rests only with Allah. And He will inform them of what they used to do.
Whoever comes with a good deed will be rewarded tenfold. But whoever comes with a bad deed will be punished for only one. None will be wronged.
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Surely my Lord has guided me to the Straight Path, a perfect way, the faith of Abraham, the upright, who was not one of the polytheists.”
Say, “Surely my prayer, my worship, my life, and my death are all for Allah—Lord of all worlds.
He has no partner. So I am commanded, and so I am the first to submit.”
Say, ˹O Prophet,˺ “Should I seek a lord other than Allah while He is the Lord of everything?” No one will reap except what they sow. No soul burdened with sin will bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you of your differences.
He is the One Who has placed you as successors on earth and elevated some of you in rank over others, so He may test you with what He has given you. Surely your Lord is swift in punishment, but He is certainly All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
“Light” is always used in the Quran in the singular (nûr), whereas “darkness” is used in the plural (ẓulumât). Nûr is usually used in a metaphorical sense to refer to true guidance, whereas ẓulumât refers to different forms of misguidance.
i.e., created your father, Adam, from clay. Some scholars suggest that if we examine all the minerals found in the earth (potassium, nitrogen, and carbon), we find that these are the same minerals that make up our body. Furthermore when we die, our bodies are absorbed back into the ground. And when we are resurrected, we will be resurrected from the ground (see 20:55).
i.e., they would have been destroyed immediately upon denying the angel.
Allah has created living beings (like animals, birds, and fish) just like He created human beings. He provides for all and is merciful to all. They all belong to communities and have their own systems of living.
The Record refers to the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawḥ Al-Maḥfûẓ) in which Allah has written the destiny of His entire creation.
lit., seeking His Face.
The five keys of the unseen are mentioned in 31:34.
See footnote for 6:38.
lit., their faith (which they are supposed to follow).
Allah grants authority to some of His servants in this world, but none will have authority on Judgment Day except Him. See 3:26.
On the Day of Judgment, the Trumpet will be blown by an angel—causing all to die. When it is blown a second time, everyone will be raised from the dead for judgment (see 39:68).
i.e., associating false gods in worship with the Almighty.
i.e., the companions of the Prophet (ﷺ).
“The Mother of Cities” is an honorary title given to the city of Mecca because of its great religious significance as the home of Allah’s first house of worship ever built on earth, and perhaps because of its central location as well.
i.e., Adam (ﷺ).
Jinn are another creation of Allah, made of “smokeless fire,” and inhabit a realm parallel to our own. Like us, they have free will and can choose guidance or disobedience.
i.e., “Jesus” in Christian belief.
i.e., “the angels” in pre-Islamic Arab tradition.
No one is able to see Allah in this world, but there is extensive evidence in the Quran and the teachings of the Prophet (ﷺ) that the believers will be able to see their Lord on the Day of Judgment.
Allegations have always been made that the Prophet (ﷺ) copied the Quran from the Bible, mostly because of similar narratives in both Scriptures (such as the stories of Adam, Joseph, Moses, and others). Historically, the Bible was not translated into Arabic until centuries after the Prophet (ﷺ). Even if an Arabic translation of the Bible existed at his time, he (ﷺ) could not have copied it because he could not read or write. From an Islamic point of view, similarities stem from the fact that both scriptures came originally from the same source—divine revelation. For more details, see the Introduction.
Because Muslims are allowed to eat the meat of animals slaughtered properly and not carrion, the pagans of Mecca used to argue, “Why are you only allowed to eat what you yourselves kill but not what Allah causes to die?”
The Quran often compares disbelief to death and blindness whereas belief is compared to life and the ability to see.
Islam literally means ‘submission to the Will of Allah.’
For example, the jinn helped humans with magic, while the jinn had a feeling of importance when they had a human following.
i.e., disobedient Muslims. They will be punished according to the severity of their sins, but eventually no Muslim will stay in Hell forever.
Or trellised and untrellised.
Strong cattle like camels and oxen can be used for labour, whereas smaller ones like goats and sheep are not suitable for labour but are good for their meat, milk, hide, etc.
For example, in retaliation for intentional killing through legal channels.
i.e., when you testify or judge.
i.e., the Quran.
This refers to disobedient believers who neither did any good nor repented before the time of their death or the arrival of the Day of Judgment. This is supported by authentic narrations from the Prophet (ﷺ).