Ha Mim. 4604
By the Book that makes things clear
We have made it a Qur'an in Arabic that ye may be able to understand (and learn wisdom). 4605
And verily it is in the Mother of the Book in Our Presence high (in dignity) full of wisdom. 4606
Shall We then take away the Message from you and repel (you) for that ye are a people transgressing beyond bounds? 4607
But how many were the prophets We sent amongst the peoples of old? 4608
And never came there a prophet to them but they mocked him.
So We destroyed (them) stronger in power than these and (thus) has passed on the Parable of the peoples of old. 4609
If thou wert to question them `Who created the heavens and the earth?' They would be sure to reply `They were created by (Him) the Exalted in Power Full of knowledge' 4610 4611
(Yea the same that) has made for you the earth (like a carpet) spread out and has made for you roads (and channels) therein in order that ye may find guidance (on the way); 4612 4613
That sends down (from time to time rain from the sky in due measure; and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead) 4614 4615
That has created pairs in all things and has made for you ships and cattle on which ye ride 4616 4617
In order that ye may sit firm and square on their backs and when so seated ye may celebrate the (kind) favor of your Lord and say "Glory to Him Who has subjected these to Our (use) for We could never have accomplished this (by ourselves). 4618
"And to Our Lord surely Must We turn back!" 4619
Yet they attribute to some of His servants a share with Him (in His godhead)! Truly is man a blasphemous ingrate avowed! 4620
What! Has He taken Daughters out of what He Himself creates and granted to you sons for choice? 4621
When news is brought to one of them of (the birth of) what he sets up as a likeness to (Allah) Most Gracious his face darkens and he is filled with inward grief! 4622
Is then one brought up among trinkets and unable to give a clear account in a dispute (to be associated with Allah)? 4623
And they make into females angels who themselves serve Allah. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded and they will be called to account! 4624
("Ah!") they say "If it had been the will of (Allah) Most Gracious We should not have worshipped such (deities)!" of that they have no knowledge! They Do nothing but lie! 4625 4626
What! have We given them a Book before this to which they are holding fast?
Nay! they say: "We found Our fathers following a certain religion and We do guide ourselves by their footsteps." 4627
Just in the same way whenever We sent a Warner before thee to any people the wealthy ones among them said: "We found Our fathers following a certain religion and We will certainly follow in their footsteps." 4628
He said: "What! even if I brought you better guidance than that which ye found your fathers following?" They said: "For us We deny that ye (prophets) are sent (on a mission at all)." 4629
So We exacted retribution from them: now see what was the end of those who rejected (Truth)!
Behold! Abraham said to his father and his people: "I do indeed clear myself of what ye worship: 4630
"(I worship) only Him Who made me and He will certainly guide me."
And he left it as a Word to endure among those who came after him that they may turn back (to Allah). 4631
Yea I have given the good things of this life to these (men) and their fathers until the Truth has come to them and an Apostle making things clear. 4632
But when the Truth came to them they said: "This is sorcery and We do reject it." 4633
Also they say: "Why is not this Qur'an sent down to some leading man in either of the two (Chief) cities?" 4634
Is it they who would portion out the Mercy of thy Lord? It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in the life of this world: and We raise some of them above others in ranks so that some may command work from others. But the Mercy of thy Lord is better than the (wealth) which they amass. 4635
And were it not that (all) men might become of one (evil) way of life We would provide for everyone that blasphemes against (Allah) Most Gracious silver roofs for their houses and (silver) stair-ways on which to go up. 4636
And (silver) doors to their houses and thrones (of silver) on which they could recline
And also adornments of gold. But all this were nothing but conveniences of the present life: the Hereafter in the sight of thy Lord is for the Righteous. 4637
If anyone withdraws himself from remembrance of (Allah) Most Gracious We appoint for him an evil one to be an intimate companion to him. 4638
Such (evil ones) really hinder them from the Path but they think that they are being guided aright! 4639
At length when (such a one) comes to Us he says (to his evil companion): "Would that between me and thee were the distance of East and West!" Ah! Evil is the companion (indeed)! 4640 4641
When ye have done wrong it will avail you nothing that day that ye shall be partners in punishment! 4642
Canst thou then make the deaf to hear or give direction to the blind or to such as (wander) in manifest error? 4643 4644
Even if We take thee away We shall be sure to exact retribution from them. 4645
Or We shall show thee that (accomplished) which We have promised them: for verily We shall prevail over them.
So hold thou fast to the Revelation sent down to thee: verily thou art on Straight Way. 4646
The (Qur'an) is indeed the Message for thee and for thy people; and soon shall ye (all) be brought to account. 4647
And question thou Our apostles whom We sent before thee; did We appoint any deities other than (Allah) Most Gracious to be worshipped? 4648
We did send Moses aforetime with Our Signs to Pharaoh and his Chiefs: he said "I am an apostle of the Lord of the Worlds." 4649
But when he came to them with Our Signs behold they ridiculed them. 4650
We showed them Sign after Sign each greater than its fellow and We seized them with Punishment in order that they might turn (to Us). 4651
And they said "O thou Sorcerer! invoke thy Lord for us according to His covenant with thee; for We shall truly accept guidance." 4652
But when We removed the Penalty from them behold they broke their word.
And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people saying: "O my people! does not the dominion of Egypt belong to me (witness) these streams flowing underneath my (palace)? What! see ye not then? 4653
"Am I not better than this (Moses) who is a contemptible wretch and can scarcely express himself clearly? 4654
"Then why are not gold bracelets bestowed on him or (why) come (not) with him angels accompanying him in procession?" 4655
Thus did he make fools of his people and they obeyed him: Truly were they a people rebellious (against Allah).
When at length they provoked Us We exacted retribution from them and We drowned them all 4656 4657
And We made them (a people) of the Past and an Example to later ages. 4658
When (Jesus) the son of Mary is held up as an example behold thy people raise a clamor there at (in ridicule)! 4659
And they say " Are Our gods best or He?" This they set forth to thee only by way of disputation: yea they are a contentious people.
He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favor to him and We made him an example to the Children of Israel. 4660
And if it were Our Will We could make angels from amongst you succeeding each other on the earth. 4661
And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour) but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way. 4662
Let not the Evil One hinder you: for he is to you an enemy avowed.
When Jesus came with Clear Signs he said: "Now have I come to you with Wisdom and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah and obey me. 4663
"For Allah; He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship ye Him: this is a Straight Way." 4664
But sects from among themselves fell into disagreement: then woe to the wrongdoers from the Penalty of a Grievous Day!
Do they only wait for the Hour that it should come on them all of a sudden while they perceive not? 4665
Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except the Righteous. 4666
My devotees! no fear shall be on you that Day nor shall ye grieve 4667
(Being) those who have believed in Our Signs and bowed (their wills to Ours) in Islam.
Enter ye the Garden ye and your wives in (beauty and) rejoicing. 4668
To them will be passed round dishes and goblets of gold: there will be there all that the souls could desire all that the eyes could delight in: and ye shall abide therein (for aye). 4669
Such will be the Garden of which ye are made heirs for your (good) deeds (in life). 4670
Ye shall have therein abundance of fruit from which ye shall have satisfaction. 4671 4672
The Sinners will be in the Punishment of Hell to dwell therein (for aye):
Nowise will the (punishment) be lightened for them and in despair will they be there overwhelmed.
Nowise shall We be unjust to them: but it is they who have been unjust themselves. 4673
They will cry: "O Malik! would that thy Lord put an end to us!" He will say "Nay but ye shall abide!" 4674 4675
Verily We have brought the truth to you: but most of you have a hatred for Truth. 4676
What! have they settled some Plan (among themselves)? But it is We Who settle things. 4677
Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsels? Indeed (We do) and Our Messengers are by them to record. 4678
Say: "If (Allah) Most Gracious had a son I would be the first to worship." 4679
Glory to the Lord of the heavens and the earth the Lord of the Throne (of Authority)! (He is free) from the things they attribute (to Him)! 4680
So leave them to babble and play (with vanities) until they meet that Day of theirs which they have been promised. 4681
It is He Who is Allah in heaven and Allah on earth; and He is full of Wisdom and Knowledge.
And blessed is He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all between them: with Him is the knowledge of the Hour (of Judgment): And to Him shall ye be brought back. 4682
And those whom they invoke besides Allah have no power of intercession; only he who bears witness to the Truth and they know (him). 4683
If thou ask them Who Created them they will certainly say Allah: how then are they deluded away (from the Truth)? 4684
(Allah has knowledge) of the (Prophet's) cry "O my Lord! truly these are a people who will not believe!" 4685 4686
But turn away from them and say "Peace!" but soon shall they know! 4687
Abbreviated Letters: see Introduction to S. xi.
Cf. xlii. 7, n. 4533.
Cf. iii. 7, n. 347: and xiii. 39, n. 1864. The Mother of the Book, the Foundation of Revelation, the Preserved Tablet (Lauh Mahfuz. lxxxv. 22), is the core or essence of revelation, the original principle or fountain-head of Allah's Eternal and Universal Law. From this fountain-head are derived all streams of knowledge and wisdom, that flow through Time and feed the intelligence of created minds. The Mother of the Book is in Allah's own Presence, and its dignity and wisdom are more than all we can think of.
In vouchsafing Revelation, what an inestimable Mercy has Allah conferred on mankind! Yet so many deluded souls are ungrateful, and ignore or oppose its teaching. If it were not for His attributes of Forgiveness and Forbearing He would be justified in withdrawing that Light, but He continues to shed it, that all who will may come and be blessed by it.
In spite of, or because of, man's obstinate and rebellious nature, Allah sent prophet after prophet to the peoples of old, but there was among them always a party that ridiculed them and treated Allah's Signs as naught.
The result of rebellion was destruction. And the pagan Makkan generation contemporary with the Prophet are reminded that the peoples of old who were destroyed were, many of them, more powerful than they, and that they, in disobeying Allah's Law, were inviting the same fate for themselves. The events of the past have become examples for the present and the future.
Cf. xxix. 61 and n. 3493; and xxxi. 25 and n. 3613. This class of men acknowledge Allah's Power and Allah's Knowledge or Wisdom, but do not realise Allah's infinite Mercy and care for His creatures.
Note the beautiful rhetorical figure of speech here. The reply of the inconsistent men who do not follow Allah's Law is turned against themselves. When they acknowledge Allah's Power and Knowledge, their speech is interrupted, and the concomitant qualities of Allah's Mercy and care of His creatures, with pointed reference to the inconsistent ones themselves, is set out in eloquent terms, as completing what they themselves had said, and the right course of conduct is pointed out to them (verses 10-14).
See last note.
Cf. xx. 53 and n. 2576. Mihad, a carpet or bed spread out, implies not only freedom of movement but rest also. The 'roads and channels' carry out the idea of communications and include land routes, sea routes, and airways.
In due measure: i.e., according to needs, as measured by local as well as universal considerations. This applies to normal rainfall: floods and droughts are abnormal conditions, and may be called unusual manifestations of His power, fulfilling some special purpose that we may or may not understand.
The clause 'And We raise...(from the dead)' is parenthetical. Cf. xxxv. 9, n. 3881. Note the transition from the third to the first person, to mark the Resurrection as a special act of Allah as distinguished from the ordinary processes of nature ordained by Allah.
Cf. n. 2578 to xx. 53. Also see xxxvi. 36, n. 3981.
By analogy all means of transport, including horses, camels, ships, steamers, railways, aeroplanes, airships, etc. The domestication of animals as well as the invention of mechanical means of transport require a skill and ingenuity in man, which are referred to Allah as His gifts or endowments to man.
See last note. People of understanding attribute all good to its true and original source viz.: Allah.
Men of understanding, every time they take a journey on earth, are reminded of that more momentous journey which they are taking on the back of Time to Eternity. Have they tamed Time to their lawful use, or do they allow Time to run away with them wildly to where they know not? Their goal is Allah, and their thoughts are ever with Allah.
As a contrast to the men of true understanding are the ungrateful blasphemous creatures, who offer a share to others besides Allah! They imagine sons and daughters to Allah, and forget the true lesson of the whole of Creation, which points to the Unity of Allah. This theme is further developed in the following Section.
To imagine goddesses (female gods) or mothers or daughters to Allah was particularly blasphemous in the mouths of people who held the female sex in contempt. Such were the pagan Arabs, and such (it is to be feared) are some of the moderns. They wince when a daughter is born to them and hanker after sons. With that mentality, how can they attribute daughters to Allah?
Cf. xvi. 57-59 and notes. With scathing irony it is pointed out that what they hate and are ashamed of for themselves they attribute to Allah!
The softer sex is usually brought up among trinkets and ornaments, and, on account of the retiring modesty which for the sex is a virtue, is unable to stand up boldly in a fight and give clear indications of the will to win. Is that sort of quality to be associated with Allah?
Angels for grace and purity may be compared to the most graceful and the purest forms we know. But it is wrong to attribute sex to them. They are servants and messengers of Allah and so far from being rivals seeking worship, are always engaged in devotion and service. If any persons invent blasphemies about Allah, such blasphemies will form a big blot in their Book of Deeds, and they will be called to account for them.
Worsted in argument they resort to a dishonest sarcasm. 'We worship these deities: if Allah does not wish us to do so, why does He not prevent us?' In throwing the responsibility on Allah, they ignore the limited free-will on which their whole life is based. They are really playing with truth. They are arguing against their own knowledge. They have no authority in any scripture, and indeed they are so slippery that they hold fast to no scripture at all.
Cf. vi. 116.
Then comes the argument about ancestral custom, which was repudiated by Abraham (see verses 26-28 below). Indeed a good reply to ancestral custom in the case of the Arabs was the example of Abraham, the True in Faith, for Abraham was the common ancestor of the Arabs and the Israelites.
It is some privileged position, and not ancestral custom, which is really at the bottom of much falsehood and hypocrisy in the world. This has been again and again in religious history.
The Warner or messenger pointed out the merits and the truth of his teaching, and how superior it was to what they called their ancestral customs. But they denied his mission itself or the validity of any such mission. In other words they did not believe in inspiration or revelation, and went on in their evil ways, with the inevitable result that they brought themselves to destruction.
The plea of ancestral ways is refuted by the example of Abraham, in two ways: (1) he gave up the ancestral cults followed by his father and people, and followed the true Way, even at some sacrifice to himself; and (2) he was an ancestor of the Arabs, and if the Arabs stood on ancestral ways, why should they not follow their good ancestor Abraham, rather than their bad ancestors who fell into evil? See n. 4627 above. The incident in Abraham's story referred to here will be found in xxi. 51-70.
A Word: i.e., the Gospel of Unity, viz.: "I worship only Him who originated me", as in verse 27. This was his teaching, and this was his legacy to those who followed him. He hoped that they would keep it sacred, and uphold the standard of Unity. Cf. xxxvii. 108-1 1 1.
Note the first person singular, as showing Allah's personal solicitude and care for the descendants of Abraham in both branches. The context here refers to the prosperity enjoyed by Makkah and the Makkans until they rejected the truth of Islam when it was preached in their midst by a messenger whose Message was as clear as the light of the sun.
When the pagan Makkans could not understand the wonderful power and authority with which the holy Prophet preached, they called his God given influence sorcery!
The world judges by its own low standards. From a worldly point of view, the holy Prophet was poor and an orphan. Why, they thought, should he be so richly endowed in spiritual knowledge and power? If such a gift had to come to a man among them, it was the right (they foolishly said) of one of the chiefs in either the sacred city of Makkah, or the fertile garden-city of Taif!
That is, spiritual gifts, those connected with Revelation. What audacity or folly in them to claim to divide or distribute them among themselves? They may think they are distributing the good things of this world among themselves. In a sense that may be true, even here, their own power and initiative are very limited. Even here it is Allah's Will on which all depends. In His wisdom Allah allows some to grow in power or riches, and command work from others, and various relative gradations are established. Men scramble for these good things of this world, but they are of no value compared to the spiritual gifts.
So little value is attached in the spiritual world to silver or gold, or worldly ranks or adornments, that they would freely be at the disposal of everyone who denied or blasphemed Allah, were it not that in that case there would be too great temptation placed in the way of men, for they might all scramble to sell their spiritual life for wealth! They might have silver roofs and stair-ways, silver doors and thrones, and all kinds of adornments of gold. But Allah does not allow too great a temptation to be placed in the path of men. He distributes these things differently, some to unjust men, and some to just men, in various degrees, so that the possession of these is no test either of an unjust or a just life. His wisdom searches out motives far more subtle and delicate than any we are even aware of.
Adornments of gold: the keyword to this Sura. All false glitter and adornments of this world are as naught. They more often hinder than help.
If men deliberately put away the remembrance of Allah from their minds, the natural consequence, under Allah's decree, is that they join on with evil. Like consorts with like. We can generalise evil in the abstract, but it takes concrete shape in our life-companions.
The downward course in evil is rapid. But the most tragic consequence is that evil persuades its victims to believe that they are pursuing good. They think evil to be their good. They go deeper and deeper into the mire, and become more and more callous. "Them" and "they" represent the generic plural of anyone who "withdraws himself from...Allah" (see last verse).
If ever the presence of Allah is felt, or at the time of Judgment, a glimmering of truth comes to the deceived soul, and it cries to its evil companion in its agony, "Would that I had never come across thee! Would that we were separated poles apart!" But it cannot shake off evil. By deliberate choice it had put itself in its snare.
Distance of East and West: literally, 'distance of the two Easts'. Most Commentators understand in this sense, but some construe the phrase as meaning the distance of the extreme points of the rising of the sun, between the summer solstice and the winter solstice. Cf. n. 4034 to xxxvii. 5. A good equivalent idiom in English would be "poles apart", for they could never meet.
All partners in evil will certainly share in the punishment, but that is no consolation to any individual soul. Evil desires the evil of others, but that does not diminish its own torment, or get rid of the personal responsibility of each individual soul.
Cf. xxx. 52-53. The evil go headlong into sin, and sink deeper and deeper until their spiritual faculties are deadened, and no outside help can bring them back. Allah's grace they have rejected.
There is hope for a person who wanders in quest of truth, and even for one who wanders through mistake or by weakness of will. But there is none for one who, by deliberate choice, plunges into "manifest error", i.e., error which any one can see.
Cf. viii. 30: "how the Unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home)". They were always plotting against the holy Prophet in his Makkan period. But even if their plots had succeeded against human beings, they could not defeat Allah's Plan, nor escape the just punishment of their deeds. Cf. also x. 46, and n. 1438.
Let the wicked rage, say what they like, or do their worst: the prophet of Allah is encouraged to go forward steadfastly in the Light given him, for he is on a Path that leads straight to Allah.
Zikrun: Message, Remembrance, Cause of remembrance, Memorial. Title for remembrance to posterity. Thus two meanings emerge, not necessarily mutually exclusive. (1) The Qur-an brings a Message of Truth and Guidance to the Prophet, and his people; (2) the revelation of the Qur-an raises the rank of the Prophet, and the people among whom, and in whose language, it was promulgated, making them worthy of remembrance in the world's history for all time. But the honour also carried its responsibilities. All who hear it must give an account of how far they profit by it spiritually.
That is, by examining their Message, and asking the learned among their real followers. It will be found that no Religion really teaches the worship of other than Allah.
For the story of Moses in detail, see vii. 103-137, but especially vii. 104, 130- 136.
For the mockery of Moses and his Signs see xvii. 101; also below, xliii. 49, 52-53.
Moses showed them nine Clear Signs: see n. 1091 to vii. 133; also xvii. 101. Each one of them in its own setting and circumstances was greater than any of its "Sister" Signs. The object was if possible to reclaim as many Egyptians as possible from their defiance of Allah.
This speech is half a mockery, and half a ruse. In spite of their unbelief, they had fear in their minds, and in order to stop the plagues, one after another, they promised to obey Allah, and when the particular plague was removed, they again became obdurate. See vii. 133-135.
The waw here in Arabic is the Waw haliya: the abundant streams from the Nile flowing beneath his palace being evidence of his power, prosperity, and sovereignty. The Nile made (and makes) Egypt, and the myth of the god Osiris was a compound of the myths of the Nile and the sun. The Pharaoh, therefore, as commanding the Nile, commanded the gods who personified Egypt. He boasted of water, and he perished in water,-a fitting punishment!
Being a despised Israelite in any case, and having further an impediment in his speech. See xx. 27, and notes 2552-53.
Gold bracelets and gold chains were possibly among the insignia of royalty. In any case they betokened wealth, and the materialists judge a man's worth by his wealth and his following and equipage. So Pharaoh wanted to see Moses, if he had any position in the spiritual kingdom, invested with gold bracelets, and followed by a great train of angels as his Knight-companions! The same kind of proofs were demanded by the materialist Quraish of our holy Prophet. These were puerilities, but such puerilities go down with the crowd. Barring a few Egyptians who believed in Allah and in the Message of Moses, the rest of Pharaoh's entourage followed Pharaoh in his pursuit of revenge, and were drowned in the Red Sea.
Allah is patient, and gives many and many opportunities to the most hardened sinners for repentance. But at length comes a time when His justice is provoked, and the inevitable punishment follows.
Cf. vii. 136.
Pharaoh and his hosts were blotted out, and became as a tale of the past. Their story is an instructive warning and example to future generations.
Jesus was a man, and a prophet to the Children of Israel, "though his own received him not." Some of the churches that were founded after him worshipped him as "God" and as "the son of God", as do the Trinitarian churches to the present day. The orthodox churches did so in the time of the holy Prophet. When the doctrine of Unity was renewed, and the false worship of others besides Allah was strictly prohibited, all false gods were condemned, e.g., at xxi. 98. The pagan Arabs looked upon Jesus as being in the same category as their false gods, and could not see why a foreign cult, or a foreign god, as they viewed him, should be considered better than their own gods or idols. There was no substance in this, but mere mockery, and verbal quibbling. Jesus was one of the greater prophets: he was not a god, nor was he responsible for the quibbling subtleties of the Athanasian Creed.
A reference to the limited mission of the prophet Jesus, whose Gospel to the Jews only survives in uncertain fragmentary forms.
If it were said that the birth of Jesus without a father sets him above other prophets, the creation of angels without either father or mother would set them still higher, especially as angels do not eat and drink and are not subject to physical laws. But angels are not higher.
This is understood to refer to the second coming of Jesus in the Last Days before the Resurrection, when he will destroy the false doctrines that pass under his name, and prepare the way for the universal acceptance of Islam, the Gospel of Unity and Peace, the Straight Way of the Qur-an.
True wisdom consists in understanding the unity of the Divine purpose and the Unity of the Divine Personality. The man Jesus came to reconcile the jarring sects in Israel, and his true teaching was just the same as that which was expounded in a wider form by Islam. He did not claim to be God: why should not the Christians follow the doctrine of Unity rather than what has become their ancestral and traditional custom?
In verses 26-28 an appeal is made to the pagan Arabs, that Islam is their own religion, the religion of Abraham their ancestor; in verses 46-54, an appeal is made to the Jews that Islam is the same religion as was taught by Moses, and that they should not allow their leaders to make fools of them; in verses 57-65 an appeal is made to the Christians that Islam is the same religion as was taught by Jesus, and that they should give up their sectarian attitude and follow the universal religion, which shows the Straight Way.
Cf. xii. 107. What is there to wait for? The Hour of Judgment may come at any moment. It will come all of a sudden before they realise that it is on them. They should make up their minds to give up misleading disputations and come to the Straight Path.
The hatred and spite, which are associated with evil, will be felt with peculiar intensity in that period of agony. That itself would be a punishment, from which the righteous will be free. The righteous will have passed all perils of falling into wrong frames of mind.
The devotion and service to Allah result in the soul being made free from all fear and sorrow, as regards the past, present, and future, if we may take an anology from Time for a timeless state. Such devotion and service are shown by (1) believing in Allah's Signs, which means understanding and accepting His Will, and (2) by merging our will completely in His universal Will, which means being in tune with the Infinite, and acting in all things to further His Kingdom.
The Garden is the type of all that is beautiful to eye, mind, and soul, all that is restful and in tune, a complete state of bliss, such as we can scarcely conceive of in this troubled world. Several metaphors indicate how we can try to picture that bliss to ourselves in "this muddy vesture of decay."
We shall have all our near and dear ones ("wives") with us: perfected Love will not be content with Self, but like a note of music will find its melody in communion with the others. The richest and most beautiful vessels will minister to our purified desires, and give complete and eternal satisfaction to our souls in every way.
We shall be there, not as strangers, or temporary guests, but as heirs,-made heirs in eternity because of the good lives we had led on earth.
The "fruit" here links on with the last words in the last verse (72), "ye are made heirs for your (good) deeds (in life)".
"Shall eat". But the word akala is used in many places in the comprehensive sense of "enjoy", "have satisfaction". For example, see n. 776 to v. 69. Cf. also vii. 19 and n. 1004.
The wrong-doers suffer not because Allah is unjust or cruel, nor as a deterrent to others, for the probationary period will then have passed, but because their evil deeds must bear their inevitable fruit. Allah's Grace was ever ready to offer opportunities for Repentance and Forgiveness. But they rejected them. They were unjust to themselves. This is complementary to the doctrine of works and their fruits, as explained in n. 4671 above.
Malik: The name of the Angel in charge of Hell.
Cf. xx. 74. Annihilation is better than agony. But wrong-doers cannot destroy the "fruits" of their actions, by asking for annihilation.
We come back now to the Present,-primarily to the time when Islam was being preached in Makkah, but by analogy the present time or any time. Truth is often bitter to the taste of those who live on Falsehoods, and Shams and profit by them. They hate the Truth, and plot against it. But will they succeed? See next verse and note.
Men cannot settle the high affairs of the universe. If they plot against the Truth, the Truth will destroy them, just as, if they accept the Truth, the Truth will make them free. It is Allah Who disposes of affairs.
However secretly men may plot, everything is known to Allah. His Recording Angels are by, at all times and in all places, to prepare a Record of their Deeds for their own conviction when the time comes for Judgment.
The prophet of Allah does not object to true worship in any form. But it must be true: it must not superstitiously attribute derogatory things to Allah, or foster false ideas.
Cf. vii. 54 and n. 1032. All Power, Authority, Knowledge, and Truth are with Allah. He neither begets nor is begotten. Glory to Him!
That Day of theirs: they had their Day on earth; they will have a different sort of Day in the Hereafter, according to the promise of Allah about the Resurrection and Judgment, or perhaps about Retribution in this very life! So leave them to play about with their fancies and vanities. Truth must eventually prevail!
We glorify Allah, and we call His name blessed, because He has not only supreme power and authority, but because we shall return to Him and see "the Light of His Countenance" (xxx. 38).
While idols and false gods have no power of intercession, persons like Jesus, who is falsely worshipped by his misguided followers, but who himself preached the Gospel of Unity with full understanding will have the power of intercession.
Cf. xxxi. 25, and n. 3613-1 and xxxix. 38, and n. 4299.
Commentators are divided in opinion as to the construction. The best opinion is that which I have adopted, referring back qilihi as a genitive governed by 'ilm in verse 85.
The Prophet was much troubled in mind by the Unfaith of the Quraish: xviii. 6. He is here told to leave them alone for a time, for the Truth must soon prevail.
Cf. xxv. 63, and n. 3123.