Allah commands you regarding your children: the share of the male will be twice that of the female.1
If you leave only two ˹or more˺ females, their share is two-thirds of the estate. But if there is only one female, her share will be one-half. Each parent is entitled to one-sixth if you leave offspring.2
But if you are childless and your parents are the only heirs, then your mother will receive one-third.3
But if you leave siblings, then your mother will receive one-sixth4
—after the fulfilment of bequests and debts.5
˹Be fair to˺ your parents and children, as you do not ˹fully˺ know who is more beneficial to you.6
˹This is˺ an obligation from Allah. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
According to Islamic law of inheritance, a female—whether she is a mother, a wife, a sister, a daughter, etc.—gets one of three shares, depending on her closeness to the deceased: Less than a male’s share. If she is a daughter, she will get half of the share of her brother, since he—unlike his sister—has to provide for the family and pay a dowry at the time of his marriage. More than a male’s share. For example, if a man leaves $24 000 and six sons, two brothers, a wife, and a mother. The wife will get one-eighth ($3000), the mother one-sixth ($4000), each of the sons will receive about $2 833 and the two brothers will not get anything. An equal share. This is in the case of siblings from the mother’s side (mentioned in verse 12 of this sûrah).
"Offspring” here means any number of children—male or female.
And the father will take the rest of the estate.
Although the existence of siblings reduces the mother’s share from one-third to one-sixth, siblings themselves do not receive a share of inheritance and the rest of the estate goes to the father.
Debts as well as any other financial obligations (such as funeral expenses, unfulfilled vows, or unpaid dowry) have to be repaid before the fulfilment of bequests, then the estate can be distributed among the heirs. A person can bequest up to one-third of their estate for charities as well as individuals who are not entitled to a share in inheritance.
You do not know who will benefit you by looking after you during your life or doing good deeds on your behalf after your death.