67. It is not (fitting) for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he has fought (his enemies thoroughly) in the land. You desire the goods of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. 68. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took. 69. So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and have Taqwa of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "The Prophet asked the people for their opinion about the prisoners of war of Badr, saying,
(Allah has made you prevail above them.) `Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks,' but the Prophet turned away from him. The Messenger of Allah again asked,
(O people! Allah has made you prevail over them, and only yesterday, they were your brothers.) `Umar again stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks.' The Prophet ignored him and asked the same question again and he repeated the same answer. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! I think you should pardon them and set them free in return for ransom.' Thereupon the grief on the face of Allah's Messenger vanished. He pardoned them and accepted ransom for their release. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, revealed this verse,
(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took).''
`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,
(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah...),
"In the Preserved Book, that war spoils and prisoners of war will be made allowed for you,
(would have touched you for what you took), because of the captives.
(a severe torment.) Allah, the Exalted said next,
(So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good).'' eAl-`Awfi also reported this statement from Ibn `Abbas. A similar statement was collected from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Mas`ud, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata', Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah and Al-A`mash. They all stated that,
(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah. .) refers to allowing the spoils of war for this Ummah.
Supporting this view is what the Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I have been given five things which were not given to any Prophet before me. (They are:) Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. The earth has been made a place for praying and a purifyer for me. The booty has been made lawful for me, yet it = was not lawful for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). Every Prophet used to be sent to his people only, but I have been sent to all mankind.)
Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Salih said that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(War booty was never allowed for any among mankind except us.) ﴿Abu Hurayrah said;﴾ This is why Allah the Most High said,
(So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good.)
The Muslims then took the ransom for their captives. In his Sunan, Imam Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah fixed four hundred (Dirhams) in ransom from the people of Jahiliyyah in the aftermath of Badr. The majority of the scholars say that the matter of prisoners of war is up to the Imam. If he decides, he can have them killed, such as in the case of Bani Qurayzah. If he decides, he can accept a ransom for them, as in the case of the prisoners of Badr, or exchange them for Muslim prisoners. The Messenger exchanged a woman and her daughter who were captured by Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, for exchange of some Muslims who were captured by the idolators, or if he decides he can take the prisoner as a captives.