About the end of the seventh year of the hijrah, the Quraish and their allies, the Bani Bakr, violated the terms of the peace concluded at Hudaibiya by attacking the Bani Khuzaah, who were in alliance with the Muslims. The Bani Khuzaah appealed to the Prophet for help and protection. The Prophet determined to make a stop to the reign of injustice and oppression which had lasted so long at Mecca. He immediately gathered ten thousand men to march against the idolaters and set out on our 1 January, 630.
After eight days the Muslim army halted and alighted at Marr Az-Zahran, a day's journey from Mecca. On the night of their arrival, Abu Sufyan, who was delegated by the Quraish to ask the Prophet to abandon his project, presented himself and besought an interview. In the morning it was granted. "Has the time not come, 0 Abu Sufyan," said the Prophet, "for you to acknowledge that there is no deity save Allah and that I am His Messenger?" Abu Sufyan, after hesitating for a while, pronounced the prescribed formula of belief and adopted Islam. He was then sent back to prepare the city for the Prophet's approach.
With the exception of a slight resistance by certain clans headed by Ikrima and Safwan, in which many Muslims were killed, the Prophet entered Mecca almost unopposed. The city which had treated him so cruelly, driven him and his faithful band for refuge among strangers, the city which had sworn his life and the lives of his devoted adherents, now lay at his mercy. His old persecutors were now completely at his feet. The Prophet entered Mecca on his favorite camel Al Kaswa, having Usama Ibn Zaid sitting behind him. On his way he recited Surah Al-Fat-h (Victory), the first verses of which may be interpreted thus: Verily We have given you (0 Muhammad) a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and future, and complete His Favor on you, and guide you on the Straight Path; and that Allah may help you with strong help. Surah 48: 1-3
The Muslim army entered the city unpretentiously and peacefully. No house was robbed, no man or woman was insulted. The Prophet granted a general amnesty to the entire population of Mecca. Only four criminals, whom justice condemned, were proscribed. He did however, order the destruction of all idols and pagan images of worship, upon which three hundred and fifty idols which were in the Sacred House of Kaba were thrown down. The Prophet himself destroyed a wooden pigeon hung from the roof and regarded as one of the deities of the Quraish. During the downfall of the images and idols he was heard to cry aloud: "Allah is great. Truth has come and falsehood has vanished; verily falsehood is fleeting." The old idolaters observed thoughtfully the destruction of their gods which were utterly powerless.
After the Prophet had abolished these pagan idols and every pagan rite, he delivered a sermon to the assembled people. He dwelt upon the natural brotherhood of man in the words of the Qur'an: 0 Mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily the most honorable of you in the Sight of Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa i.e. one of hte Muttaqun i.e. pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sns and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained). Verily Allah is All-Knowing, AllAware. Surah 49: 13
Narrated Hisham's father: When Allah's Messenger set out (towards Mecca) during the year of the Conquest (of Mecca) and this news reached (the infidels of Quraish), Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Warqa came out to gather information about Allah's Messenger. They proceeded on their way till they reached a place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Mecca). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat. Abu Sufyan said: "What is this? It looks like the fires of Arafat." Budail Ibn Warqa' said: "Banu Amr are less in number than that." Some of the guards of Allah's Messenger saw them and took them over, caught them, and brought them to Allah's Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam.
When the Prophet proceeded, he said to Al-Abbas: "Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims. So Al-Abbas kept him standing (at that place) and the tribes with the Prophet started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches. A batch passed and Abu Sufyan said: "0 'Abbas who are these?" 'Abbas said, 'They are (Banu) Ghifar." Abu Sufyan said: "I have got nothing to do with Ghifar." Then (a batch of the tribe of) Juhaina passed by and he said similarly as above. Then (a batch of the tribe of) Sad Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then (Banu) Sulaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said: "Who are these?" Abbas said: 'They are the Ansar headed by Sad Ibn 'Ubada, the one holding the flag." Sad Ibn 'Ubada said: "0 Abu Sufyan! Today is the day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Kaba will be permissible." Abu Sufyan said. "0 Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is!" Then came another batch (of warriors) which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there were Allah's Messenger and his companions, and the flag of the Prophet was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam. When Allah's Messenger passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said (to the Prophet): "Do you know what Sad Ibn 'Ubada said?" The Prophet said: "What did he say?" Abu Sufyan said: "He said so-and-so." The Prophet said: "Sad told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Kaba and today the Kaba will be covered with a (cloth) covering." Allah's Messenger ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun.
Narrated Urwa: Nafi Ibn Jubair Ibn Mutim said: "I heard Al-Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam, '0 Abu Abdullah! Did Allah's Messenger order you to fix the flag here?' "Allah's Messenger ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Mecca from its upper part from Kadaa while the Prophet himself entered from Kudaa. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid named Hubaish Ibn AlAshar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on that day.
Now great multitudes came to adopt Islam and take the oath of allegiance to the Prophet. For this purpose an assembly was held at As-Safa Mountain. Umar, acting as the Prophet's deputy administered the oath, whereby the people bound themselves not to adore any deity but Allah to obey the Prophet to abstain from theft, adultery, infanticide, lying and backbiting. Thus was fulfilled the prophecy embodied in the Surah Al-Fat-h in the Qur'an.
During his stay at Mecca, the Prophet dispatched his principal disciples in every direction to preach Islam among the wild tribes of the desert and call them to the true religion of Allah. He sent small detachments of his troops into the suburbs who destroyed the temples of Al 'Uzza, Suwaa and Manat, the three famous idols in the temples of the neighboring tribes. The Prophet gave strict orders that these expeditions should be carried out in a peaceable manner. These injunctions were obeyed in all cases, with one exception. The troops under Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, the fierce newly-converted warrior, killed a few of the Bani Jazima. When the news of this wanton bloodshed reached the Prophet, he was deeply grieved and exclaimed: "Oh, my Lord, I am innocent of what Khalid has done." He dispatched a large sum of money for the widows and orphans of the slain and severely rebuked Khalid.